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Learning from experience: Guidelines for locally sourced and cost-effective strategies to modify existing household toilets and water access

WORLD VISION
CBM Australia
2018

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This learning resource is the result of a partnership between World Vision Australia and CBM Australia that aims to improve inclusion of people with disabilities in World Vision’s Water, Hygiene and Sanitation (WASH) initiatives, including in Sri Lanka. The guidelines are based on experiences and observations from World Vision’s implementation of the Rural Integrated WASH 3 (RIWASH 3) project in Jaffna District, Northern Province, funded by the Australian Government’s Civil Society WASH Fund 2. The four year project commenced in 2014. It aimed to improve the ability of WASH actors to sustain services, increase adoption of improved hygiene practices, and increase equitable use of water and sanitation facilities of target communities within 11 Grama Niladari Divisions (GNDs) in Jaffna District.

To support disability inclusion within the project, World Vision partnered with CBM Australia. CBM Australia has focused on building capacities of partners for disability
inclusion, fostering connections with local Disabled People’s Organisations, and providing technical guidance on disability inclusion within planned activities. World Vision also partnered with the Northern Province Consortium of the Organizations for the Differently Abled (NPCODA) for disability assessment, technical support and capacity building on inclusion of people with disabilities in the project.

HOME MODIFICATIONS FOR WASH ACCESS
This document is one of two developed in the Jaffna District and describes the strategies which were used to assist people with disabilities to access toilet and water facilities at their own home. The strategies were designed to be low cost and were developed using locally available materials and skills in the Jaffna District of Sri Lanka. Houses and toilet structures in the region were made of brick and concrete. No new toilets were built and modifications involved only minor work to existing household structures, water points and toilets.

NOTE:
The development of this learning resource was funded by the Australian Government's Civil Society WASH Fund 2.

Strengthening mental health system governance in six low- and middle-income countries in Africa and South Asia: challenges, needs and potential strategies

PETERSEN, Inge
et al
February 2017

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The aim of this study was to identify key governance issues that need to be addressed to facilitate the integration of mental health services into general health care in the six participating "Emerald" countries (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda).  The study adopted a descriptive qualitative approach, using framework analysis. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a range of key informants, to ensure views were elicited on all the governance issues within the expanded framework. Key informants across the six countries included policy makers at the national level in the Department/Ministry of Health; provincial coordinators and planners in primary health care and mental health; and district-level managers of primary and mental health care services. A total of 141 key informants were interviewed across the six countries. Data were transcribed (and where necessary, translated into English) and analysed thematically using framework analysis, first at the country level, then synthesised at a cross-country level.

The Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in Primary Care: Findings of Exploratory Implementation Throughout Life

PRINZIE, Peter
LEBEER, Jo
et al
2016

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"This study suggests that a creative implementation of the ICF during life course to everyone who uses universally accessible healthcare may strengthen the integrative functions of Primary Care, and may be at the heart of the information system of this essential part of the healthcare system. Further research on the complementary use of ICF and ICD-10 is suggested in order to support community-based multisectoral intervention which may be coordinated by Primary Care." 

Surviving polio in a post-polio world

GROCE, Nora
BANKS, Lena Morgan
STEIN, Michael Ashley
April 2014

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This paper reviews what is currently known about disabled survivors of polio and highlights areas of need in public health research, policy and programming. Based on a literature review, discussion and field observations, the authors identify continuing challenges posed by polio and argue that the attention, funding and commitment now being directed towards eradication be shifted to provide for the rehabilitative, medical, educational and social needs of those for whom the disabling sequelae of polio will remain a daily challenge for decades to come

Social Science & Medicine, Vol 107

Child health’s missing children|Including disabled children in child health through understanding access to primary health care : experiences from Kenya

ORSANDER, Martina
CHALLENGER, Eleanor
July 2012

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This study explores "the barriers to primary health service access experienced by the families of children with disabilities in areas where World Vision Kenya is currently working. This paper presents findings from research undertaken in Kisumu, western Kenya, exploring inclusion and access to primary healthcare for children with disabilities under the age of 5 years and offers recommendations for future research, policy and programming"
RR - CH - 02

Medicines use in primary care in developing and transitional countries : fact book summarizing results from studies reported between 1990 and 2006

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
May 2009

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Irrational use of medicines is one of the most serious global public health problems we face today. Improving use requires regular monitoring and application of effective interventions, both of which are often not done, particularly in many lower income countries. To address this issue, WHO created a database of medicines use in in primary care settings in developing and transitional countries. Quantitative information has been extracted from 679 studies conducted in 97 countries and on 386 interventions (from 313 studies). The medicines use database has allowed the first systematic quantitative review of studies measuring medicines use in developing and transitional countries and the results are now presented

Child health : generating the will

WORLD VISION
2009

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This edition of Global Future explores the nature of political will and what is required to reduce rates of under-five mortality and realise Millennium Development Goals (MDG) four (to reduce under-five mortality) and five (to improve maternal health). Authors from around the world lay out the "why, who, what and how" of the actions needed to realise these MDGs and get more countries on track quickly. At the time of publication only 16 of the 68 countries with the highest rates of child death were on track to reach MDG four

Gender & eye health : equal access to care

VISION 2020
2009

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The long-term goal is to achieve global gender equity in the use of eye care services and service outcomes. There is good evidence that in most developing countries, women are less likely to receive eye care services than men, particularly services that will prevent or treat blinding conditions. Added to the fact that women comprise more than half of the elderly population, and that the natural incidence of some blinding diseases (cataract and trachoma) is higher among women than men, this results in a situation where women account for 60-65 per cent of blind people worldwide. While there have been some successful programmes to improve gender equity in eye care, a more systematic approach needs to be adopted

Pharmacological treatment of mental disorders in primary health care

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2009

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This manual provides "evidence-based information to health care professionals in primary health care, especially in low- and middle-income countries, to be able to provide pharmacological treatment to persons with mental disorders. The manual contains basic principles of prescribing followed by chapters on medicines used in psychotic disorders; depressive disorders; bipolar disorders; generalised anxiety and sleep disorders; obsessive-compulsive disorders and panic attacks; and alcohol and opioid dependence"

Closing the gap in a generation : health equity through action on the social determinants of health|Final report of the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2008

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This is the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (2005-2008). The report gives three main recommendations: 1 improve daily living conditions 2. Tackle the inequitable distribution of power, money, and resources 3. Measure and understand the problem and assess the impact of action. The Commission was created to provide evidence on policies that improve health by addressing the social conditions in which people live and work. The report is addressed to WHO, national governments, civil society, and other global organizations

Community mental health policy

RADTKE, B
et al
2008

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This resource presents CBM’s community mental health (CMH) policy which "is human rights based, seeks to empower service users and facilitate their active participation in service provision, is culture, poverty and gender sensitive and based upon collaboration and networking with other organizations and the public sector." There are two main delivery models: integration of CMH into existing community-based rehabilitation (CBR) programmes, and implementation of CMH services into primary health care services provided by the government with sharing of resources or the implementation of stand-alone CMH services. This resource is useful for people interested in community mental health policy

State of the world’s children 2008 : child survival

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
2008

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This publication provides a wide-ranging assessment of the current state of child survival and primary health care for mothers, newborns and children. It examines lessons learned in child health during the past few decades and outlines the most important emerging precepts and strategies for reducing deaths among children under age five and for providing a continuum of care for mothers, newborns and children

The state of Africa's children 2008 : child survival

ROGERS, Kate
GEBRE-EGZIABHER, Hirut
2008

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This report complements UNICEF’s ‘State of the World’s Children 2008’. It considers progress towards the related Millennium Development Goals in the region and the main causes of child deaths. It considers health-care systems and community-based approaches to providing maternal and child health care and outlines priorities required to accelerate progress

Integrating mental health into primary care : a global perspective

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
WORLD ORGANIZATION OF FAMILY DOCTORS (WONCA)
2008

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This report provides the rationale and know-how on integrating mental health into primary health care. It outlines primary care for mental health in context and then presents primary care for mental health in practice, highlighting 12 case studies and key lessons learnt from specific countries. A detailed annex on the core functions of primary care workers is provided, as well as 10 core principles of mental health integration. This resource is useful to anyone interested in integrating mental health into primary care

Age-friendly primary health care centres toolkit

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2008

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This toolkit aims to improve the primary health care response for older persons. The information presented assists health care workers in the diagnosis and management of chronic diseases and the four main issues of memory loss, urinary incontinence, depression and falls/immobility that often impact people as they age. The toolkit contains a number of instruments that can be used by primary health care workers to assess and address older persons' health, such as evaluation forms, slides, figures, graphs, diagrams, scale tables, country guidelines, exam sheets, screening tools, cards, and checklists
Note: The link provided also contains Annex 1: Trainers guide for normal ageing and communication, a Normal Ageing power point presentation and Communication with older people power point presentation

Infant and young child feeding in emergencies : operational guidance for emergency relief staff and programme managers

IFE Core Group
February 2007

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This document aims to provide concise, practical (but non-technical) guidance on how to ensure appropriate infant and young child feeding in emergencies. A number of elements are also applicable in non-emergency settings. It is intended for emergency relief staff, programme managers, national governments, United Nations agencies, NGOs and donors, and it applies to all countries. It includes six sections of practical steps, references, key contacts and definitions. Members of the IFE Core Group are: UNICEF, WHO, UNHCR, WFP, IFBAN-GIFA, CARE USA, Fondation Terre des hommes and Emergency Nutrition Network. It is also available in Arabic, Bahasa Indonesian, French, Portuguese and Spanish

Tonga national disability identification survey 2006

TAYLOR, Dimity
March 2006

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This survey identifies the prevalence of disability among the population of Tonga; the main causes of disability; the extent to which people with disabilities are able to participate in the community, education and employment sectors and the needs of people with disabilities. A list of recommendations for creating a more inclusive society focuses on government policy and direction, legislation, various government departments and ministries, women's development, the police, national organisations and NGOs, churches, sport and the media. It was conducted on behalf of DACTION - the Tonga Disability Action Committee, and the Tonga Red Cross Society. Executive summary also available in Tongan

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