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Every learner matters: Unpacking the learning crisis for children with disabilities

McCLAIN-NHLAPO, Charlotte
et al
June 2019

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This paper was developed by the World Bank in partnership with Leonard Cheshire and Inclusion International. It is an attempt to add knowledge to the current understanding of the importance of learning achievements, with a focus on children with disabilities. While the premise is that inclusive education refers to the inclusion of all children, the focus of this paper is on children with disabilities.

The aim of the paper is to:

  • Provide an evidence-based review of educational participation of children with disabilities.
  • Establish a case for focusing on learning achievements for students with disabilities.
  • Take stock of current mechanisms of measurement of learning outcomes and review their inclusivity.
  • Explore evidence of practice and systems which promote disability-inclusive learning for all. 

Four case studies are provided - from Pakistan, South Africa, Canada and UK.

Realisation of sustainable development goals by, for and with persons with disabilities: UN flagship report on disability and development 2018

UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS (UNDESA)
December 2018

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This report represents the first UN systemwide effort to examine disability and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development at the global level. The report reviews data, policies and programmes and identifies good practices; and uses the evidence it reviewed to outline recommended actions to promote the realization of the SDGs for persons with disabilities. Over 200 experts from UN agencies and International Financial Institutions, Member States and civil society, including research institutions and organizations of persons with disabilities, contributed to this report. The report covers new areas for which no global research was previously available, for example, the role of access to energy to enable persons with disabilities to use assistive technology. It also contains the first global compilation and analysis of internationally comparable data using the Washington Group on Disability Statistics short set of questions. Reviews of legislation from 193 UN Member States were conducted and analysed for this report to highlight good practices and to assess the current status of discriminatory laws on voting, election for office, right to marry and others

Shaping health systems to include people with disabilities. K4D emerging issues report

DEAN, Laura
et al
November 2018

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People with disabilities are at a heightened risk of communicable and non-communicable diseases and these diseases can cause debility and disability. Health needs of these people often extend beyond requiring continual longterm medical support to addressing broader social inequities. Key areas that are likely to be critical in re-orientating health systems from a biomedical approach towards inclusive health systems that are more responsive to the needs of people with debility and disability in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are offered in this report and cover the following:

 

  • 1. Nothing about us without us: prioritising person-centred health systems
  • 2. Responding to issues of access in mainstreaming disability within health systems
  • 3. Ensuring the provision of specialised services
  • 4. Community based rehabilitation 
  • 5. Improving the collection and use of disability related data against modified legal and policy frameworks
  • 6. Partnerships are paramount
  • 7. Financing and social protection 

Case studies are provided from Sudan, India, Liberia, Uganda and Nigeria

At risk of exclusion from CRPD and SDGs implementation: Inequality and persons with deafblindness. Initial global report on situation and rights of persons with deafblindness

JENSEN, Rune
et al
September 2018

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Representing between 0.2% to 2% of the population, persons with deafblindness are a very diverse yet hidden group and are, overall, more likely to be poor and unemployed, and with lower educational outcomes. Because deafblindness is less well-known and often misunderstood, people struggle to obtain the right support, and are often excluded from both development and disability programmes. This initial global report on the situation of persons with deafblindness seeks to start a dialogue between international disability rights and development stakeholders, and is based on research undertaken by the World Federation of the Deafblind (WFDB) combining the largest population-based analysis of persons with deafblindness conducted to date (disaggregation of 22 population-based surveys from low, middle and high-income countries), an academic literature review, two surveys conducted among members and partners of WFDB and Sense International. Women and men with deafblindness from across the world took part in the Helen Keller World Conference in June 2018, and were consulted to confirm the findings and elaborate on the recommendations for this report.

 

Data and discussion are presented on people with deafblindess and: inequality; poverty; work; education; health; participation on political and public life; and social life. Datasets are included. 

 

Disability-inclusive social protection research in Nepal: A national overview with a case study from Tanahun district

BANKS, Lena M
et al
2018

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Social protection programmes are increasingly being adopted in low- and middle-income countries as a set of strategies for poverty reduction, improving livelihoods and decreasing inequality. Due to high levels of poverty and social exclusion, people with disabilities – who comprise upwards of 15% of the global population – have been identified as a key target group for inclusion in social protection, in both international guidelines and in national strategies. However, there is currently a lack of evidence on whether these programmes are adequately reaching and meeting the needs of people with disabilities.

The aim of this research was to assess the extent to which social protection systems in Nepal and Vietnam address the needs of people with disabilities. This research uses a mixed methods approach, combining a national policy analysis with district-level qualitative and quantitative studies in each country

Disability-inclusive social protection in Vietnam: A national overview with a case study from Cam Le district

BANKS, Lena M
et al
2018

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Social protection programmes are increasingly being adopted in low- and middle-income countries as a set of strategies for poverty reduction, improving livelihoods and decreasing inequality. Due to high levels of poverty and social exclusion, people with disabilities – who comprise upwards of 15% of the global population – have been identified as a key target group for inclusion in social protection, in both international guidelines and in national strategies. However, there is currently a lack of evidence on whether these programmes are adequately reaching and meeting the needs of people with disabilities.

The aim of this research was to assess the extent to which social protection systems in Nepal and Vietnam address the needs of people with disabilities. This research uses a mixed methods approach, combining a national policy analysis with district-level qualitative and quantitative studies in each country.

Exploring the links between poverty and disability in rural Bangladesh

DAVIS, Peter
May 2017

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This paper explores the links between poverty and disability drawing from 60 qualitative life-history interviews conducted in rural Bangladesh, in 48 households, in three districts, in March 2016. The paper provides insights into the relationship between poverty and disability with the aim of informing policy and practice concerned with both reducing poverty and improving the life chances of people with disabilities. All of the households had a person with a disability as a member, and in three households, two household members had a disability. Mechanisms by which poverty caused or exacerbated disabilities, and also how people with disabilities fell into poverty, were prevented from escaping poverty, and, in some cases, succeeded in escaping poverty are explored. 
 

Being disabled in Britain: a journey less equal

EQUALITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
April 2017

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"Being disabled in Britain is a review into disability inequality in Great Britain. It builds on the Equality and Human Rights Commission’s statutory five-yearly report on equality and human rights progress in England, Scotland and Wales, Is Britain Fairer?.

We want this report to be used by UK and devolved governments to make improvements to law and policies, by local government to ensure services meet the needs of disabled people, and by disability groups to strengthen their case for change.

The report includes chapters on six areas of life, including education, work, health, justice and participation in politics, looking at where there has been progress and where there are still serious issues to be tackled. It also looks the experiences of those with different impairments and how these impact on people’s life chances"

Guatemala National Disability Study ENDIS 2016 Report

DONICIO Carlos
GRECH Shaun
Islay MACTAGGART
Jonathan NABER
Dr Ana Rafaela SALAZAR DE BARRIOS
Gonna ROTA,
Sarah POLLACK
April 2017

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The Guatemala National Disability Study (ENDIS 2016) was undertaken to address a need for up to date reliable data on disability in Guatemala.

Through a population based survey:

* To estimate the national disability prevalence among adults and children in Guatemala, and to provide regional estimates for 5 broad regions

* To disaggregate the prevalence of disability in Guatemala by age, sex, type of functional limitation and socio-economic status

* To explore the impact of disability on: poverty, quality of life, participation, health and opportunities to go to school and to work amongst children and adults respectively

Through a qualitative study:

* To explore cultural, ideological, and social interpretations and responses to disability; provide insight into the disability and poverty relationship; and examine social, political, and economic dimensions operating within this relationship.

Disability and climate resilience research project summary

SMITH, Fred
SIMARD, Mathieu
TWIGG, John
KETT, Maria
COLE, Ellie
April 2017

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"This literature review covers a comprehensive body of literature targeting data from 2007 onwards in low and middle-income countries. It presents evidence from a literature review that retrieved and screened 1,011 articles and 546 grey literature sources. A total of 107 relevant sources were selected from the published and grey literature in accordance with the study design, of which 53 were included in the final review. The paper explains the literature review methodology, discusses concepts and definitions of resilience and introduces key global frameworks relating to climate change, disaster risk reduction and development"

Evaluating the impact of a community–based parent training programme for children with cerebral palsy in Ghana

ZUURMOND, Maria
et al
January 2017

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"Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in children worldwide, and yet in most low resource settings there are few services available to support children with cerebral palsy or their families. Research is required to understand the effectiveness of community and/or home based programmes to address this gap. This 2-year study aimed to evaluate a participatory caregiver training programme called ‘Getting to know cerebral palsy’ in Ghana. The training programme consisted of a monthly half-day support group with training, and a home visit, delivered across eight sites in Ghana over 10 months. A total of 76 families and children were included at baseline and 64 families followed up one year later at endline. Children were aged between 18months and 12 years with a mean of 3.8 years and a range of severity of cerebral palsy. Nearly all (97%) the caregivers were female and the father was absent in 51% of families. The study was a pre-post intervention design using mixed methods to evaluate the impact. A baseline and endline quantitative survey was conducted to assess caregiver quality of life (QoL) and knowledge about cerebral palsy and child feeding, health, and nutrition outcomes. Qualitative data was collected to explore the impact and experiences of the training programme in more depth".

Issue brief: Making the SDGs count for women and girls with disabilities

UN WOMEN
2017

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The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development provides global opportunity and obligation to work towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for all women and girls, and address the rights and demands of women with disabilities as a matter of priority. This brief underlines the need to mainstream disability into all efforts to achieve gender equality and women’s empowerment (SDG 5); highlights key issues for ending poverty (SDG 1) and ensuring healthy lives (SDG 3) for women and girls with disabilities; and calls for closing data gaps on gender and disability.

The brief provides the following at a glance facts about women and girls with disabilities:

  • One in five women live with a disability globally
  • An estimated one in four households has a person with disabilities
  • Women are more likely than men to become disabled throughout the course of their lives
  • Women comprise up to three-quarters of persons with disabilities in low and middle-income countries
  • Prevalence of disability is higher among marginalised populations and people in rural areas.

Inclusive disaster risk reduction

LAFRENIERE, Annie
WALBAUM, Veronique
2017

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This policy paper defines the themes of inclusive disaster risk reduction and explains how these activities fit into the HI mandate. It also identifies the target population and defines modalities of intervention–standard expected outcomes, standard activities–as well as monitoring and evaluation indicators.

Global report on the participation of organisations of persons with disabilities (DPOs) in VNR (voluntary national review) processes

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY ALLIANCE (IDA)
STAKEHOLDER GROUP OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
2017

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"This global report raises awareness for DPOs and how to engage with their governments in the national consultation processes on SDG implementation. This case study features the volunteering countries of Argentina, Bangladesh, Denmark, El Salvador, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, Nigeria, Peru, Sweden and Togo.

The information summarised in the country chapters was derived from DPOs and partners working at the national level on SDG implementation and information may be subjective. The country chapters are structured to include; status of persons with disabilities, engagement in the voluntary national review process, thematic issues--poverty alleviation, healthcare, women with disabilities and accessibility—and analysis of the submitted VNR report

The wellbeing of children with developmental delay in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan and Vietnam: An analysis of data from UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys

EMERSON, Eric
SAVAGE, Amber
LLEWELLYN, Gwynnyth
December 2016

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This report, produced by the University of Sydney’s Centre for Disability Research and Policy (CDRP),
uses data collected in rounds four and five of UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys programme (MICS) to describe the wellbeing of young children with and without developmental delay in six Asian countries. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) were used as a framework for identifying indicators of child wellbeing.

The report, authored by CDRP Disability and Inequity Stream Leader Professor Eric Emerson with Dr Amber Savage of the Family and Disability Studies Initiative, University of Alberta, Canada and CDRP Director Professor Gwynnyth Llewellyn, found that children with Developmental Delay in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan and Vietnam are more likely than their peers to:
• Be living in poverty (SDG1). In five out the six countries children with developmental delay were more likely to be living in poverty than their peers
• Experience hunger (SDG2). In all six countries children with developmental delay were more likely to have experienced persistent severe hunger than their peers
• Suffer poor health (SDG3). On three indicators (poor peer relationships, diarrhoea and fever) children with developmental delay were more likely to have poor health than their peers. On three indicators (obesity, aggression and acute respiratory infections) there was no systematic difference between children with and without developmental delay.
• Experience barriers to quality education (SDG4). On all four indicators (attendance at early childhood education centre, family support for learning, access to learning materials in the home, maternal level of education) children with developmental delay were more disadvantaged than their peers.
• Experience barriers to clean water and sanitation (SDG6). On two indicators (improved sanitation, place to wash hands) children with developmental delay were more disadvantaged than their peers. On one indicator (improved drinking water) there was no systematic difference between children with and without developmental delay.

The authors noted that “Since the development of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1998, increased attention has been paid to monitoring the well-being of children. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and UNCRC both contain explicit provisions regarding the rights of children with disabilities. These impose obligations on governments to act to ensure that children with disabilities enjoy the same rights and opportunities as other children. In order to promote the visibility of children with disabilities, enable better policy, and monitor progress, disaggregation of data related to children’s well-being on the basis of disability is needed."

Society at a Glance 2016 : OECD Social Indicators

OECD
November 2016

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Society at a Glance 2016 aims to address the growing demand for quantitative evidence on the social situation, its trends, and its possible drivers across OECD countries. One objective is to assess and compare social outcomes that are currently the focus of policy debates. Another is to provide an overview of societal responses, and how effective policy actions have been in furthering social development. This edition of Society at a Glance discusses policy actions in response to the situation of youth Neither in Employment, Education, nor Training (NEET). Indicators on youth are therefore a particular focus

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264261488-en

World social science report, 2016 : Challenging inequalities; pathways to a just world

INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE COUNCIL
UNIVERSITY OF SUSSEX
INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
September 2016

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This report focuses on the critical issues of inequalities and social justice and warns that unchecked inequalities could jeopardize the sustainability of economies, societies and communities, undermining efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. It highlights significant gaps in social science data about inequalities in different parts of the world and, to support progress towards more inclusive societies, calls for more robust research into the links between economic inequalities and disparities in areas such as gender, education and health. A short case study entitled "Consequences of inequality for persons with disabilities – experience of ADD International" is included.

Who is being left behind in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America? 3 reports from ODI

LYNCH, Alainna
BERLINER, Tom
MAROTTI, Chiara
BHAKTAL Tanvi
RODRIGUEZ TAKEUCHI Laura
et al
February 2016

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The commitment to ‘leave no one behind’ has been a key feature of all the discussions on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Here are three papers setting out the first step to implementing this agenda - the step of identifying marginalised communities. The focus is on two case study countries for each of the three regions, sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the papers identify gaps in achieving a number of outcomes relating to key SDGs targets for marginalised groups. The paper on Asia highlights people with disabilities in Bangladesh.

CHILD AT RISK. The world’s most vulnerable children: who they are, where they live, and what puts them at risk

SOS CHILDREN'S VILLAGES INTERNATIONAL
2016

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An overview of the life situations and locations of the world’s most vulnerable children based on results from the SOS Children’s Villages Programme Monitoring Database is presented. Risk factors are outlined and the percentages of each factors are reported. The Child Vulnerability Index (CVI) is given for a large number of countries

Hear my voice: old age and disability are not a curse. A community-based participatory study gathering the lived experiences of persons with disabilities and older people in Tanzania

MRISHO, Mwifadhi
FAKIH, Bakar
GREENWOOD, Margo
STEFF, Marion
2016

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Community based participatory research (CBPR) was used to provide evidence on the specific nature and experiences of persons with disabilities and older people from their own perspectives in Tanzania, through the lens of social, political, economic and cultural inclusion. The aim was to strengthen efforts to provide services for and improve the lives of people living in the rural and urban settings of Nachingwea and Kibaha Urban Municipal Council. Twenty-nine peer researchers (nine persons with disabilities, 10 older people and 10 Tanzanian Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) members working in these communities) were involved in the study. A total of 106 stories were collected. Eight priority areas emerged and were chosen by peer researchers for further discussion in groups: access to education and quality learning; access to health services; issues fed back from NGOs; poverty relating to income and dependence; attitudes towards witchcraft and albinism; relationship difficulties and marriage breakdowns; sexual violence and gender issues; poor treatment from family
 

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