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Coronavirus (COVID-19) - Cochrane resources and news

2020

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Cochrane provides high-quality, relevant, and up-to-date synthesized research evidence to inform health decisions. This page highlights content relating to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the various related activities that Cochrane is undertaking in response.

We will be continually adding updates and additions to this page. Sections include information and resources for:

 

  • Public, patients, and carers
  • Healthcare workers
  • Researchers
  • Policy and guideline developers
  • The Cochrane Community

“They Stay until They Die” A lifetime of isolation and neglect in institutions for people with disabilities in Brazil

RIOS-ESPINOSA, Carlos
et al
May 2018

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This report documents a range of abuses against children and adults with disabilities in residential institutions in Brazil. The research is based on direct observations during visits to 19 institutions (known in Brazil as shelters and care homes), including 8 for children, as well as 5 inclusive residences for people with disabilities. In addition, Human Rights Watch researchers interviewed 171 people, including children with disabilities and their families, adults with disabilities in institutions, disability rights advocates, representatives of non–governmental organizations, including disabled persons organizations, staff in institutions, and government officials.

 

Research was carried out between November 2016 and March 2018 in the states of São Paulo (including São Paulo and Campinas), Rio de Janeiro (including Rio de Janeiro, Duque de Caxias, Niteroi and Nova Friburgo), Bahia (Salvador) and Distrito Federal (including Brasilia and Ceilândia).

Global education monitoring report, 2019: migration, displacement and education: building bridges, not walls

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
et al
2018

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“The 2019 GEM Report continues its assessment of progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4) on education and its ten targets, as well as other related education targets in the SDG agenda.


Its main focus is on the theme of migration and displacement. It presents evidence on the implications of different types of migration and displacement for education systems but also the impact that reforming education curricula and approaches to pedagogy and teacher preparation can have on addressing the challenges and opportunities posed by migration and displacement. It gives voice to experiences in host and home communities.


With the help of case studies, it illustrates approaches which work and could be scaled up. In this way, it aims to be a tool for practitioners. It will make the case for investing in education of good quality in rural areas suffering from depopulation and in slum areas suffering from large population inflows; in countries with high rates of emigration and those with high rates of immigration; in short-term refugee emergencies and in protracted crises. Its analysis, conclusions and recommendations advance the aims of SDG 4 and its call to leave no one behind.”

Nairobi declaration : inclusive post-2015 development agenda for persons with disabilities in Africa

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY ALLIANCE (IDA)
et al
March 2014

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The Nairobi declaration calls for a more inclusive post-2015 agenda with a specific demand that development agenda targets and indicators explicitly include persons with disabilities. This document succinctly summarises the issues faced by persons with disabilities in Africa and their specific demands to enable greater inclusion in the post-2015 development agenda. It was adopted by persons with disabilities from Africa, representatives of national, sub-regional and Pan-African disabled people’s organisations, on the 8th of March during the Nairobi conference “Inclusive post 2015 development agenda and UN CRPD in Africa”, organised by the International Disability Alliance in partnership with the International Disability and Development Consortium, UNICEF and the UN Partnership to promote the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

“Inclusive post 2015 development agenda and UN CRPD in Africa”

8 March 2014

Nairobi, Kenya

Count me in - Include people with disabilities in development projects | A practical guide for organisations in the North and South

BRUIJN, Paulien
et al
November 2012

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"People with disabilities are often amongst the poorest in the developing world. Yet they are usually left out of development projects. This is not because of ill-will. Development organisations simply do not know how to include them. This book offers suggestions based on the experience of organisations that participated in a two-year learning programme. It is full of useful tips on how to launch inclusive programmes and projects, how to prepare your staff for working with people with disabilities and how to adapt your organisational processes and systems"

Available in Braille, high resolution, low resolution and word formats.
Available in Portuguese: "Inclusão de pessoas com deficiência nos projectos de desenvolvimento: Um guia prático para organizações do Norte e do Sul".
Available in French: "Tiens compte de moi - L'inclusion de personnes en situation de handicap dans les projets de développement"
Available in Spanish: "Cuenta conmigo - Incluir a las personas con discapacidad en los proyectos de desarrollo"

The world development report 2012 : jobs

THE WORLD BANK
2012

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This report "takes the centrality of jobs in the development process as its starting point and challenges and re-frames how we think about work. Adopting a cross-sectorial and multi-disciplinary approach, the Report looks at why some jobs do more for development than others. The Report finds that the jobs with the greatest development payoffs are those that make cities function better, connect the economy to global markets, protect the environment, foster trust and civic engagement, or reduce poverty. Critically, these jobs are not only found in the formal sector; depending on the country context, informal jobs can also be transformational"...The Report advances a three-stage approach to help governments meet these objectives. First, policy fundamentals "including macroeconomic stability, an enabling business environment, investments in human capital, and the rule of law" are essential for both growth and job creation. Second, well-designed labour policies can help ensure that growth translates into employment opportunities, but they need to be complemented by a broader approach to job creation that looks beyond the labor market. Third, governments should strategically identify which jobs would do the most for development given their specific country context, and remove or offset the obstacles that prevent the private sector from creating more of those jobs
Note: Links are provided to full document and separate files containing the messages, overview, each chapter and statistical annex

Of course we can : report on the rights of persons with disabilities in Timor-Leste

UNITED NATIONS INTEGRATED MISSION IN TIMOR-LESTE (UNMIT)
OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (OHCHR)
September 2011

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From 2010 to 2011, UNMIT’s Human Rights and Transitional Justice Section (HRTJS) conducted research on the rights of persons with disabilities. This report presents an overview of the research and highlights that, even though progress has been made in Timor-Leste to protect the rights of persons with disabilities, further steps are still needed. The report gives priority recommendations for the government, donors and the United Nations for these steps to be implemented

100 voices : southern perspectives on what should after the millennium development goals

POLLARD, Amy
et al
March 2011

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"This joint research from the Catholic aid agency CAFOD and the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) seeks to broaden the conversation, and to ensure that the voices of those directly involved in fighting poverty in the South are heard. (The) research describes the perspectives of 104 representatives from civil society organisations, in 27 developing countries from across the world"

Accessible ICTs and personalized learning for students with disabilities : a dialogue among educators, industry, government and civil society

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
2011

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"The use of technology in education plays a particularly vital role by enabling flexible curriculum development and assisting students with disabilities to participate as equals in the learning experience. The recommendations contained in this report target teachers, policy makers and administrators. The main recommendations centre on a number of core themes that include maximising the use of the myriad of accessibility features in mainstream ICTs such as personal computers, tablet PCs, mobile phones etc. already in use in classrooms; empowering students to learn their own preferences and settings when using technology for learning and removing attitudinal barriers to the use of technology for inclusive education, in particular those of teachers who may struggle with modern ICTs"
Collaborative Expert Meeting Report
UNESCO Headquarters, Paris
17 -18 November 2011

Standards for child protection : tool 1

KEEPING CHILDREN SAFE COALITION
2011

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"These standards can ensure that agencies develop practices that keep children safe from harm. They offer practical guidance to agencies on what they need to put in place to meet their responsibilities to protect children. They also provide a basis for determining local standards and how these will be met and measured. At the end of this document there is a useful tool for assessing and monitoring performance against the standards. These standards are Tool 1 of the Keeping Children Safe: Toolkit for Child Protection. The other supporting tools include a training pack, a guide on how to implement the standards and a DVD"

INEE minimum standards for education : preparedness, response, recovery

INEE COORDINATION FOR MINIMUM STANDARDS
2010

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This resource presents "the minimum level of educational quality and access in emergencies through to recovery. The aim of the handbook is to enhance the quality of educational preparedness, response and recovery; to increase access to safe and relevant learning opportunities for all learners, regardless of their age, gender or abilities; and to ensure accountability and strong coordination in the provision of education in emergencies through to recovery...The INEE Minimum Standards are organised in five domains: Foundation standards; Access and learning environment; Teaching and learning; Teachers and other education; personnel; Education policy"

Disability and ability

US DEPARTMENT OF STATE
May 2007

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Disability and ability are the focus of this issue of e-Journal USA. The collection of articles begins with the President's commitment to the Americans with Disabilities Act. Articles that follow explore implementation of this legislation in the education, health and law enforcement sectors. There is also a case study of American Indians with disabilities in Montana. This resource would be useful for anyone with an interest in government policy, legislation, and disability and development

Drinking and driving : a road safety manual for decision makers and practitioners

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
et al
2007

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"The purpose of this manual is to inform readers of practical ways to develop coordinated and integrated programmes to reduce drinking and driving (including riding motorcycles) within a country. The manual is aimed at addressing drinking and driving among drivers. Commercial drivers are an especially important group to address in terms of drinking and driving because of the large number of passengers they can carry and/or the number of kilometres they are likely to travel. While impaired pedestrians are acknowledged as a problem, this issue is not addressed here.
The manual is aimed at policy-makers and practitioners, and draws on experience from countries that have succeeded in reducing drinking and driving. It provides the background evidence to start a drinking and driving programme, and takes the user through the steps needed to undertake a problem assessment in a country. It then explains how to plan and implement a programme, including setting up a working group, developing a plan, examples of laws and enforcement needed, how to develop public education and publicity campaigns, and finally how to evaluate the programme.
In developing this manual the authors have drawn on case studies from around the world to illustrate "good practice". Examples from low and middle-income countries are given wherever possible, but it is a reflection on the lack of attention given to the issue in many countries that most examples are from highly motorized countries"

Situation of disabled people in the enlarged European Union : the European Action Plan 2006-2007

Commission of the European Communities
November 2005

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This action plan follows the European Union Disability Strategy of 2005. It relates specifically to mainstreaming disability in policy formulation and is intended to ensure a coherent follow-up to the European Year of Disabled People. The paper recognises that disability policy is most effectively dealt with at national level but aims to provide a dynamic framework to develop a broader EU Disability Strategy. It includes important information and data on the employment situation of people with disabilities, as well as laying down guidelines for developing accessible goods, services and inclusive policies. This paper would be useful to anyone with an interest in mainstreaming disability in development cooperation, in particular policy-makers, NGOs and disabled people's organisations

Lancet Neonatal Survival Series

2005

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The goal of the Lancet Neonatal Survival Series is to provide information that will affect policy globally. The papers also provide a framework for practical action in countries so that these interventions reach families in greatest need. New information is given regarding critical factors related to neonatal deaths, where and why newborns die and assessments of the effectiveness and costs of interventions for newborn care. Practical steps are given to strengthen health care now in countries such as Ethiopia where 135,000 babies die every year, yet only five percent of women have a skilled care attendant during childbirth

CBR : a strategy for rehabilitation, equalization of opportunities, poverty reduction and social inclusion of people with disabilities - joint position paper 2004

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
International Labour Organization (ILO)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
et al
2004

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In 1994 the ILO, WHO and UNESCO published the first version of this joint position paper. Since then progress has been made in several fields. Nevertheless many disabled people are still not reached or included in the fields of rehabilitation, employment or education - particularly disabled women, people with mental health problems or HIV/AIDS and poor disabled people.
This paper underlines that community-based rehabilitation is a strategy promoting multi-sectoral collaboration to reach different community groups. CBR has to be based on the principles of equal opportunities, participation and human rights.

Index for inclusion : developing learning and participation in schools

BOOTH, Tony
AINSCOW, Mel
2002

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The Index for Inclusion is a set of materials to guide schools through a process of inclusive school development. It is about building supportive communities and fostering high achievement for all staff and students.
This second edition manual comes with practical advice and questionnaires to help make schools more inclusive

The world health report 2001. Mental health : new understanding, new hope

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
October 2001

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This report raises awareness of the global burden of mental and neurological disorders, and its cost in human, social and economic terms. It also aims to dismantle the barriers which prevent millions of sufferers of mental and neurological disorders from receiving the treatment they need and deserve. The report describes how mental health problems can be solved (eg. by drug therapy, psycho-social rehabilitation and psychotherapy, vocational rehabilitation, housing), and gives examples of the effectiveness of these treatments for a wide range of mental disorders

Convention on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines and on their destruction

INTERNATIONAL CAMPAIGN TO BAN LANDMINES (ICBL)
1997

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This convention is addressed to State parties outlining the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines and on their destruction. It outlines 22 articles on obligations, international cooperation and ground rules in which States Parties are bound to comply. It states victim assistance duties for care and rehabilitation and stresses the role of public conscience for the ban of anti-personnel mines

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