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Disability and HIV

UNAIDS
August 2017

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This report highlights existing key evidence on the relationship between disability and HIV. It discusses the concrete steps needed for a person-centred, disability-inclusive HIV response that allows for increased participation of people with disabilities and integrates rehabilitation within the continuum of HIV care. Globally, it is estimated that 1 billion people (15% of the world’s population) have a disability. Of those aged over 15 years, approximately 110–190 million (2.2–3.8%) experience significant disabilities. Disability is increasing in prevalence due to ageing populations, trauma, accidents and the increase in chronic health conditions, including HIV. Persistent discrimination against and exclusion of people with disabilities, in particular women and girls with disabilities, increases their vulnerability, including their risk of HIV infection.
 

Including disability in HIV policy and programming : good practices drawn from country-based evidence

MAC-SEING, Muriel
December 2014

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The purpose of this document is to share good practices and processes concerning the inclusion of disability issues in HIV policy and programming, drawing on specific experiences in Senegal, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Cambodia and on lessons learned at international AIDS conferences. More specifically, it is intended to 1) provide a clear indication to HIV and AIDS practitioners that disability mainstreaming in HIV and AIDS is indeed possible and workable in various contexts and by implementing specific steps/initiatives; 2) transfer concrete knowledge and practices to disability stakeholders, including disabled people's organisations, on how to work in HIV and AIDS; and 3) persuade HIV-related development partners that more investment is needed to develop this knowledge base in order to bring about practical changes at micro, meso and macro levels, as well as among the population. The good practices are also intended to inspire and motivate other organisations and agencies to use and replicate them in other contexts and countries, if/when they are adapted to the needs and situations of people with disabilities and communities

LL 07

Including disability in HIV policy and programming : good practices drawn from country-based evidence : brief

MAC-SEING, Muriel
December 2014

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This brief is an introduction to the lessons learned document on good practices about the inclusion of disability in HIV policy and programming. Good practices and processes concerning the inclusion of disability issues in HIV policy and programming are highlighted, drawing on specific experiences in Senegal, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Cambodia and on lessons learned at international AIDS conferences

LL No 7 Brief 

Psychosocial care and support for older carers of orphaned and vulnerable children : policy guidelines

MLILO, Ncazelo
MEINTJES, Berenice
2011

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This policy guideline is "intended to offer a concise description of the concept of psychosocial support and how it relates to older carers of orphaned and vulnerable children in a time of HIV and AIDS. It offers recommended strategic focus areas which may be used to influence policies which provide support for older carers. Policy makers may find the guidelines helpful in providing ideas to effect changes that will improve the wellbeing of older carers"

HIV/AIDS and disability networking : summary report of survey consultation

CAMERON, Cathy
March 2010

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Recognising the importance of the connection between HIV and disability, this report aims to explore options for the development of a global network among the HIV/AIDS and disability fields in order to advance policy and program development. Through a survey consultation process, the report identifies and documents communication and collaborative activities that currently exist or are under development and provides recommendations to increase communication and collaboration. This report would be of interest to those working in the HIV/AIDS and disability fields

Disability in national strategic plans on HIV and AIDS : a review on the national response to the interrelations of disability and HIV in eastern and southern Africa|Final report

GRANT, Kitty
STRODE, Ann
HANNASS-HANCOCK, Jill
December 2009

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This report examines national AIDS and HIV strategic plans (NSPs) in eastern and southern Africa and includes findings, discussions and best practice examples on the integration of disability throughout the countries. "Generally, the findings of the report show that less than 50% of the countries in Eastern and Southern Africa recognise disability as an issue of concern, or specifically recognise the vulnerability of people with disabilities to HIV and AIDS within their NSPs. Furthermore, it found that even where countries have recognised disability as an issue, there is limited specific guidance within the NSP on HIV-related service provision to meet the needs of people with disabilities. Only one country, South Africa, showed extensive integration of disability into the various focus areas of its NSP." The report concludes with recommendations and provides detailed appendices of national reports for each country surveyed

Advancing the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of people living with HIV : a guidance package

THE GLOBAL NETWORK OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (GNP+)
et al
May 2009

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This resource examines the sexual and reproductive health benefit of reforms in diverse sectors. It makes 12 recommendations which highlight changes that must be made in health services, in the policy and legal arena, and in advocacy efforts. People living with HIV developed this guidance package to help policymakers, programme managers, health professionals, donors, and advocates better understand the specific steps that should be taken to support their sexual and reproductive health and rights

Women and health : today's evidence tomorrow's agenda

ABOUZAHR, Carla
DE ZOYSA Isabelle
GARCIA MORENO Claudia
Eds
2009

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This is a report on women and health - both women’s health needs and their contribution to the health of societies. Women’s health has long been a concern for the World Health Organization but today it has become an urgent priority. This report explains why. Using current data, it takes stock of what is known about the health of women throughout their lives and across the different regions of the world

eforums on HIV and TB : a toolkit for launching, moderating and managing a high quality eforum

KISTLER, Elizabeth
et al
2009

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This toolkit aims to provide organisations working in health and development with tools to launch, moderate and manage high-quality eForums that provide a safe space for civil society focused information sharing, networking and dialogue. It has the potential to be applied to a range of health and development issues. It is intended for international, regional and national civil society organisations recognising the power of information and the significance of a transparent, broad-based communication mechanism that enhances civil society responses to HIV and TB

HIV/AIDS and disability : final report of the 4th international policy dialogue

HEALTH CANADA
2009

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This report documents the International Policy Dialogue which provided an "opportunity for participants to talk about the connections between HIV/AIDS and disability, and its significance to international development issues...Through panel presentations, plenary discussion and breakout sessions, participants discussed emerging issues on the intersectionality of HIV/AIDS and disability, and charted a way forward in terms of policy and programme development"

Building capacity to mainstream HIV/AIDS internally : reflecting on CABUNGO's experience with NGOs in Malawi

CABUNGO
JAMES, Rick
July 2005

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Many community service organisations (CSOs) in Malawi turn a blind eye to the impact of HIV and AIDS in their own organisation. This is partly because, although individual staff are highly aware of HIV and AIDS issues, the internal impact on their own organisation is not very visible yet, and costs are unknown. Most CSOs do not yet fully appreciate the extent of what mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in their organisation means. This brief paper contends that if the programming side of an organisation is going to be effective, it is critical for an organisation to put its own house in order and mainstream HIV and AIDS internally. It presents its case study and describes challenges encountered by 23 participating organisations. Lessons for donors, and for CSOs are elaborated

Poverty, equity and health research

MATLIN, Stephen
Ed
2005

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The Global Forum Update on Research for Health is the result of a collaboration between the Global Forum for Health Research and Pro-Brook Publishing Limited. This second volume focuses on the cultural, social and economic factors that contribute to the growing health disparities within and between populations, and in particular between high-income countries and low-income countries. The articles address the theme of poverty, equity and health research, which was also the theme of Forum 9, held in Mumbai in 2005

Support to mainstreaming AIDS in development : strategy note and action framework 2004-2005

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
2004

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This UNAIDS strategy note sets out the rationale and suggests a framework for mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in development work. It proposed a working definition of the concept of mainstreaming, and suggests that mainstreaming occurs on four levels: global and regional, through UN agencies and transnational organisations; national, through government ministries, large NGOs, national employers; sectoral through ministries, private companies and civil society organisations; and sub-national, through local government and NGOs, and small companies. It summarises the lessons learned and the main challenges in current practice. Finally, it presents an overview of the UNAIDS Secretariat's strategic considerations and planned activities to support mainstreaming in partner countries

Policies for orphans and vulnerable children : a framework for moving forward

SMART, Rose
July 2003

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This paper presents a summary of the global orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) situation, and current policy responses. It is meant for individuals with strategic decision making responsibilties for HIV/AIDS programmes. It firstly defines what is meant by OVC and points out that sub-Saharan Africa has the most OVCs in the world and is therefore the focus of the paper. It outlines existing policy frameworks in responding to OVC including international and national instruments. It identifies policy gaps in national responses to the OVC crisis, and proposes a country-level OVC policy package based on current thinking. The focus is on children under 18 in general, and there is no response to specific age groups

A framework for conceptualising and reviewing vulnerability to malaria, TB and HIV

TOLHURST, R
THEOBALD, S
June 2003

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This policy brief aims to define vulnerability in the context of infectious disease and provide a framework for analysis. The framework can be used to identify factors that influence vulnerability to infectious disease, including vulnerability to exposure, infection, progression to disease, progression to severe disease, and the effects of disease. The paper identifies strategic areas for further research, the implications for policy makers and future directions for research, interventions and policy

Missing the message? 20 years of learning from HIV/AIDS

SCALWAY, Thomas
2003

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This report focuses on the way in which the response to the HIV pandemic has been shaped, with a particular emphasis on the way in which communication has been used.
Often the emphasis is on information dissemination, and the distribution of health messages. While information is vital, past successes in fighting AIDS suggest that approaches need to be far broader than this. A politicised civil society, with communities able to take ownership of the response to HIV/AIDS, can catalyse extraordinary change and mobilisation. Similarly, a media able to support informed, inclusive debate will also be critical to future successes.
This report provides an overview of these issues, and suggests how the problems can begin to be addressed through work with policymakers, civil society and the media

Cross-generational and transactional sexual relations in sub-Saharan Africa : prevalance of behaviour and implications for negotiating safer sexual practices

LUKE, Nancy
KURZ, Kathleen
September 2002

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This paper is a literature and evidence survey of cross-generational and transactional sex in Africa. It examines the age and economic asymmetries in sexual relationships in an African context, prevalence of cross-generational and transactional sexual relationships, adolescent girls' and men's motivations and adolescent girls' negotiating power in relationships. It comes to the conclusion that adolescent girls have power when negotiating the start and end of relationships and they are strongly motivated to enter into cross-generational relationships for the material benefits and status that they bring. However, once they have entered the relaltionship the balance of power shifts to the man, especially in the context of gift-giving.
The paper also examines the evidence around cultural acceptance of cross-generational and transactional sexual relationships, violence and rape within the relationships, multiple relationships, and outcome of the relationships. The authors' recommendations are to: gather policy support for changing the social norm; mount programmatic responses; conduct research to investigate the success of programmatic responses, document the policy process, and fill other important information gaps

Gender and health : technical paper

DOYAL, Lesley
1998

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This paper aims to indroduce health policy makers and planners to the concept of gender, and its role in health and health policy and in programme development. It shifts away from 'women in development' to explore 'gender and development', in other words approaching gender as a social rather than a biological idea. It aims to present an accessible review of the literature on gender and health

Early childhood development

WORLD BANK

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The early child development (ECD) website is a knowledge source designed to assist policy makers, programme managers, and practitioners in their efforts to promote the healthy growth and integral development of young children. It lists details of the key players in the field of ECD, contains downloadable resources including documents, reports and websites, and has a regional focus on Africa, the Caribbean and Latin America. The website contains sections on the World Bank's ECD and HIV/AIDS initiative in sub-Saharan Africa as well as tools and manuals developed by the World Bank's ECD team

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