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Coronavirus (COVID-19) - Cochrane resources and news

2020

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Cochrane provides high-quality, relevant, and up-to-date synthesized research evidence to inform health decisions. This page highlights content relating to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the various related activities that Cochrane is undertaking in response.

We will be continually adding updates and additions to this page. Sections include information and resources for:

 

  • Public, patients, and carers
  • Healthcare workers
  • Researchers
  • Policy and guideline developers
  • The Cochrane Community

Poverty and social exclusion of persons with disabilities (2020) - European Human Rights Report Issue 4

HAMMERSLEY, Hayden
2020

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The extent of the effect of poverty and social exclusion on persons with disabilities in the EU was examined

The report shows how, in all EU countries, persons with disabilities are more likely to be poor and unemployed than persons without disabilities. It presents actions that the EU, it's Member States and other European Countries should take to improve the situation.

Disability inclusion helpdesk; evidence digest issue 2, December 2019

SDDirect
November 2019

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Produced by the Disability Inclusion Helpdesk. A summary of the latest evidence on disability inclusion in international development from programmes and researchers around the world are highlighted:

·         Access to health: the missing billion

·         Sexuality and disability for children and youth in China

·         Analysing INGO practice 

·         Disability and technology

·         Disability and inequality in Liberia 

·         Pregnancy, childbirth and motherhood in Nepal 

·         Violence against women and girls with disability in Nepal

 

Brief overviews are provided of policy and news from the UK, various UN organisations, Asia Pacific Social Protection Week and South Africa

 

Brief updates of DFID's (UK Departments for International Development) funded programmes are given including: Disability Inclusive Development (DID) Programme; Inclusion Works; The Disability Catalyst Programme; Programme for Evidence to Inform Disability Action (PENDA), Innovating Pathways for Employment Inclusion (IPEI)

Persons with disabilities in a just transition to a low-carbon economy

HASAN, Maria
November 2019

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Implementing a just transition to a low-carbon economy that aims to leave no one behind will require a context-specific and locally determined mix of legal standards, social protection, skills development and attitudinal transformation that create an enabling environment for green jobs to perpetuate and decent work opportunities for persons with disabilities to proliferate.

Social protection and disability in Zambia

KIDD, Stephen
WAPLING, Lorraine
KABARE, Krystle
October 2019

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This report presents findings from a short study in Zambia to examine its social protection system and programmes and identifies the challenges faced by persons with disabilities in accessing them. The study was undertaken by a visit to Zambia between 31st October – 4th November 2016 during which a range of interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken. The study was supported by a review of the literature and some limited analysis of administrative data.

Topics presented in the report include:

  • the broader context of Zambia particularly around issues of education, health and consumption dynamics
  • the national population of persons with disabilities
  • key challenges faced by persons with disabilities
  • the legislative and policy framework on disability in Zambia
  • the governance of social protection and support for persons with disabilities
  • the disability classification system and an overview of the social protection system
  • the evolution of the Social Cash Transfer and access to the scheme by persons with disabilities 

How do we improve access to healthcare for people with disabilities?

Disability Evidence Portal
August 2019

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Gaining access to healthcare is often a challenge for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries. Part of this has to do with a general dearth of healthcare services in low-resource settings. But part of this difficulty has to do with structural, attitudinal, economic and social barriers to participation and healthcare which affect people with disabilities more than people without disabilities. This lack of access to healthcare is a problem because, in general, people with disabilities may need to access healthcare more frequently than people without disabilities. Full and equitable access to quality healthcare is a human right, and an important imperative of the global agenda. This evidence brief summarises what we know about how to improve access to healthcare for people with disabilities in low-resource settings.

What interventions are effective to support home-based carers?

Disability Evidence Portal
August 2019

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Many people with disabilities require the assistance of other people in order to go about their daily lives. In high-income countries, home-based carers are professional or para-professional workers who provide assistance to people with disabilities, in their homes. They are often well-trained, and remunerated for their services. However, individuals with disabilities in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) predominantly live with their family, and receive home-based care from family members. There are some stresses associated with giving care to others, and these include burnout, compassion fatigue, and an array of emotional and social consequences related to the caring role. The carers, too, need care. This evidence brief summarises what we know about how to support home-based carers, taking into consideration that these people, in LMIC, are often untrained, unpaid family members of the person for whom they are caring.

How do we ensure that social protection assistance initiatives work for people with disabilities?

Disability Evidence Portal
August 2019

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Social protection systems and other financial assistance, including cash transfers and integrated benefits packages, may be important ways to facilitate the inclusion of people with disabilities in services and society. There is limited information, however, with regards to their impact in low- and middle-income settings. To understand how these programs work, it is important to recognise that there are disability-targeted entitlements, but people with disabilities may also be eligible for mainstream programmes aimed at other targeted groups, such as people of a certain socio-economic status. This evidence note summarises what is known about challenges faced by both of these types of initiatives, as well as evidence-based recommendations to strengthen them.

The missing billion - Access to health services for 1 billion people with disabilities

KUPER, Hannah
HEYDT, Phyllis
July 2019

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One billion people around the world live with disabilities. This report makes the case that they are being “left behind” in the global community’s work on health. This lack of access not only violates the rights of people with disabilities under international law, but UHC (Universal Health Care) and SDG 3 cannot be attained without better health services for the one billion people with disabilities. 

Health and healthcare are critical issues for people with disabilities. People with disabilities often need specialized medical care related to the underlying health condition or impairment (e.g., physiotherapy, hearing aids). They also need general healthcare services like anyone else (e.g., vaccinations, antenatal care). On average, those with disabilities are more vulnerable to poor health, because of their higher levels of poverty and exclusion, and through secondary conditions and co-morbidities. People with disabilities therefore may require higher levels of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment services. However, health services are often lower quality, not affordable, and inaccessible for people with disabilities. In many situations these barriers are even more significant for women with disabilities, compared to men with disabilities.

Every learner matters: Unpacking the learning crisis for children with disabilities

McCLAIN-NHLAPO, Charlotte
et al
June 2019

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This paper was developed by the World Bank in partnership with Leonard Cheshire and Inclusion International. It is an attempt to add knowledge to the current understanding of the importance of learning achievements, with a focus on children with disabilities. While the premise is that inclusive education refers to the inclusion of all children, the focus of this paper is on children with disabilities.

The aim of the paper is to:

  • Provide an evidence-based review of educational participation of children with disabilities.
  • Establish a case for focusing on learning achievements for students with disabilities.
  • Take stock of current mechanisms of measurement of learning outcomes and review their inclusivity.
  • Explore evidence of practice and systems which promote disability-inclusive learning for all. 

Four case studies are provided - from Pakistan, South Africa, Canada and UK.

Disability inclusion helpdesk; evidence digest issue 1, June 2019

SDDirect
June 2019

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The Evidence Digest aims to capture knowledge emerging from Helpdesk activities in a systematic manner and disseminate findings. This short summary will:

Share information on and learnings from the Disability Inclusion Helpdesk over the last quarter, highlighting headline messages and implications for programmers and policymakers;
Share relevant information and learning from other DID outputs;
Provide relevant information on recent evidence, policy changes and events in the field of disability inclusion, and;
Raise awareness on how to access the Helpdesk and demonstrate its offer.

Health economic evaluation in orthotics and prosthetics: a systematic review protocol

CLARKE, Leigh
DILLON, Michael
SHIEL, Alan
June 2019

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The aim of this systematic review is to critically appraise the existing orthotic/prosthetic health economic evaluation literature and therefore determine evidence gaps, critical method design issues and the extent to which the literature informs orthotic/prosthetic policy and investment decisions

 

Systematic Reviews volume 8, Article number: 152 (2019)

doi:10.1186/s13643-019-1066-9

 

 

Disability in Gaza: policy, barriers to inclusion and a mapping of interventions (Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Report No.12)

LEE, Harri
ABU ALGHAIB, Ola
LAURICIANO, Rabeca
May 2019

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This report presents key findings from a practical ‘know-how’ query, which included a rapid review of key literature as well as a small set of key informant interviews (KIIs) to help fill gaps and supplement online evidence. This query is based on a rapid review of the available literature to provide a brief overview of the barriers people with disabilities face in Gaza in terms of access to basic services, jobs and social inclusion/participation (Section 2), and the policy framework in Gaza in relation to the rights of people with disabilities(Section 3). The main body of this query comprises a mapping of existing interventions for people with disabilities in Gaza and an analysis of the trends and gaps in programming (Section 4)

Final evaluation report project for ASEAN hometown improvement through disability-inclusive communities model

MEKONG INSTITUTE (MI)
May 2019

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This report covers the objectives, process, findings and recommendations of final evaluation on APCD Project for ASEAN Hometown Improvement through Disability‐Inclusive Communities Model. The project reached to the end of implementation in its second year and required a final evaluation to assess its achievements and non-achievements in against of its desired objectives from this project. The final evaluation has assessed the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability of the project. This report provides analysis of its findings from literature review and field visits during the evaluation and provides country-specific as well as overall recommendations for further implementation of this kind project in future. 

Kazakhstan: Education Barriers for Children with Disabilities

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
March 2019

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The video reports that most children with disabilities in Kazakhstan are not getting a quality, inclusive education and that although the Kazakh government has taken some important steps to better protect the rights of children with disabilities, much more needs to be done to ensure equal access to education for all children.

Cases of children with Downs Syndrome, autism and arthritis are highlighted.

“On the Margins” Education for children with disabilities in Kazakhstan

RITMANN, Mira
March 2019

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Thisd report presents findings of research into report into progress towards inclusive education for disabled children in Kazakhstan and also presents recommendations for future progress.

Field research for this report was carried out between September 2017 and December 2018. The report is based on over 150 interviews with children and young adults with disabilities, their families, and disability rights activists, in multiple cities in Kazakhstan: Almaty, Astana, Kostanay, Kyzylorda, Shymkent, and Taldikorgan. Human Rights Watch researchers visited one PMPK office, five inclusive schools, and four special schools in Almaty and one inclusive school in Kyzylorda. Human Rights Watch also visited three neurological-psychiatric institutions for children in Almaty, Karaganda, and Shymkent. Human Rights Watch met and corresponded with officials from the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection and exchanged letters with the Ministries of Education and Health, and with the Almaty City Administration.

ASEAN hometown national guidelines compilation

Asia-Pacific Development Center on Disability (APCD)
March 2019

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The National Guidelines for the Project for ASEAN Hometown Improvement through DisabilityInclusive Communities Model: A Compilation is a consolidation of policies from 7 ASEAN countries, namely, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, to provide a technical guiding document in the planning and implementation of an inclusive Hometown Improvement process.

 

Policies for each country are reported and topics covered include: situation of persons with disabilities; disability inclusive governance; accessibility for persons with disabilities; disability inclusive business; hometown improvement model; and partnership amongst ASEAN

 

Reimagining the workplace: disability and inclusive employment

LEONARD CHESHIRE
February 2019

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This UK based report examines the challenges and barriers facing disabled people throughout their working journey, as well as considering solutions to some of the key issues. Through our own research survey and interviews we look at the impact on disabled people where they cannot access adequate support as well as what works in improving their employment prospects

 

Topics discussed include: conditions of employment; preparing for work; falling out of work; and the performance of government based programmes.

 

ComRes interviewed in 2018 online 1,647 disabled adults in the UK, aged between 18 and 65, and in 2017 they interviewed 1,609 disabled adults. ComRes interviewed 503 UK line managers responsible for or involved in the recruitment process in 2018 and in 2017.  Between 1 December 2018 – 20 January 2019, Leonard Cheshire conducted in-depth telephone interviews with seven disabled people of working age about their experiences of employment. 

 

Recommendations are made throughout.

Leaving no-one behind: Building inclusive social protection systems for persons with disabilities

KIDD, Stephen
et al
February 2019

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How to make social protection systems and schemes more inclusive of persons with disabilities is examined. Social protection can play a key role in empowering persons with disabilities by addressing the additional costs they face, yet the majority of persons with disabilities are currently excluded from schemes.

The report identifies a wide range of barriers persons with disabilities experience in accessing social protection to be overcome. It calls for better data on disability, disability-specific and old age pension schemes and expanded coverage; adapting communications about social protection schemes; and improving disability assessment mechanisms. The research underpinning the report comprised involved a review of the literature, an analysis of household survey datasets, and consultations with key stakeholders and persons with disabilities in seven low- and middle-income countries: Brazil, India, Kenya, Mauritius, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia.

Topics covered include:

  • Types of social protection schemes for persons with disabilities
  • Levels of investment in social protection for persons with disabilities
  • Coverage of persons with disabilities by social protection
  • Impacts of social protection on persons with disabilities
  • Barriers to accessing social protection and measures to address them
  • Links between social protection schemes and other public services

Leaving no-one behind: Building inclusive social protection systems for persons with disabilities

KIDD, Stephen
et al
February 2019

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This report identifies a wide range of barriers persons with disabilities experience in accessing social protection to be overcome. It calls for better data on disability, disability-specific and old age pension schemes and expanded coverage; adapting communications about social protection schemes; and improving disability assessment mechanisms. The project involved a review of the literature, an analysis of household survey datasets, and consultations with key stakeholders and persons with disabilities in seven low- and middle-income countries: Brazil, India, Kenya, Mauritius, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia.

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