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Positive women : voices and choices. Zimbabwe report


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This report is from a project led by HIV positive women, to explore the impact of HIV on their sexual behaviour, well-being, and reproductive rights, and to promote improvements in policy and practice. The report demonstrates that HIV positive women continue to have sexual feelings and enjoy sexual relationships after HIV diagnosis. Some had a strong desire to become mothers when they did not already have children at the time of diagnosis. The study also showed that most women had little or no knowledge of HIV transmission or risk before diagnosis. Most did not recieve adequate pre-test counselling and had encountered stigma from health care workers. A major achievement of the project was that the research process empowered the team leaders who carried out the project. All were women living with HIV and were elected from HIV support groups in Zimbabwe

Outcome mapping : building learning and reflection into development programmes

EARL, Sarah

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Assessing the impact of the efforts of a single external development agency is problematic because changes in the well-being of beneficiaries occur as a result of a ‘confluence of events’. Outcome mapping is a dynamic methodology that looks at the contribution an agency has made at project, programme or organisational level to influence the processes leading to changes in the behaviour, relationships, actions and activities of people and organisations. According to the authors, development is about people relating to each other and their environment. Outcome mapping is therefore a monitoring and evaluation system for current and completed activities and provides a framework and vocabulary for understanding changes and assessing efforts. It is based on principles of participation, iterative learning and evaluative thinking throughout.
This book includes a thorough explanation of the outcome mapping approach, and provides detailed information on workshop design and facilitation, as well as numerous worksheets and examples

Male, female or disabled : barriers to expression of sexuality


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"This research is based in social model of disability and emancipatory research paradigm, and it explores barriers to the expression of sexuality in a small group of disabled persons in Italy. It has been carried out exclusively through Emails, Newsgroups and Internet, and it also explores the role of internet-based information technologies in participatory and emancipatory research"

Effectiveness Initiative : first fruits [whole issue]

October 2001

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Describes the emerging findings from the Effecitveness Initiaitve (EI), an open and flexible dialogue between ten international sites investigating good practices and lessons in early childhood development. Includes description of a variety of tools and strategies that have been used `for listening to different voices' and for finding out information about each of the projects. These include the `river analogy', used to construct a visual history of projects in Peru and Colombia; the farm land `machamba' analogy form Mozambique that helps people to analyse the evolution of community based early childhood development sites; seasonal calenders from the Philippines; meetings and debates from Portugal; different forms of open and unstructured interviews; personal diaries and `family books'; and the analysis of anecdotes and stories in almost all the teams. This issue looks at a range of the projects and a number of issues related to the EI enquiry, such as: looking at how `Atlas-ti' qualitative analysis software has been used to identify common elements of effective programming while retaining links with the original qualitative data - charting both 'thematic affinities' and diverse local expressions of what makes for effectiveness; and how data gathered by the projects is returned to all the people who provided it for challenge and modification in open meetings; also describes the way different kinds of information were collected, compared and `triangulated' to confirm findings. Key findings include: that `credibility', built on trust and respect of local priorities, is vital; also simply creating room for reflection and research by those involved in projects is an important component of making effective programmes; and conducting research in the local language helps to get at issues that are important for participants and staff

A participatory approach in practice : understanding fieldworkers' use of participation rural appraisal in ActionAid The Gambia

June 2001

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This paper uses a case study to argue that participatory approaches emerge from a complex process of negotiation where fieldworkers are subject to unique combinations of competing influences from the organisations they work for, the communities they work with, and their own personal characteristics. It suggests that fieldworkers can actively pursue personal agendas and can also be involved in changing the structures that condition their actions. However, the paper concludes that elements of the organisational structure can leave little room for fieldworkers to use their agency positively, and that managers need to address this in order to reduce the gap between the policy and practice of participatory approaches

Family tree of theories, methodologies and strategies in development communication : convergences and differences

May 2001

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This report presents a family tree of theories, concepts, methodologies and strategies for change in the field of development communication. It presents a chronological evolution and comparison of approaches and findings. The goal of this report is to clarify the understandings and the uses of the most influential theories, strategies, and techniques

Petals and thorns : the dilemmas of PLA and debt bondage

BUSZA, Joanna
DA, Ly Saranda
et al
February 2001

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Successful participatory activities rely on community interest and enthusiasm. The very involvement of participants is assumed to demonstrate their consent, and the number of activities or rates of attendance often serve as process indicators for monitoring a project. However, what if community members do not control their daily movements? This article examines the dilemmas faced by a community development project working with debt-bonded sex workers in Cambodia. It outlines the ethical concerns that the project team has faced so far, and described in detail what steps were taken to try to address the most important of these issues: that of consent

Getting better all the time! A self-help guide to evaluation


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This comprehensive manual has been written for senior staff and managers who are responsible for leading others through the evaluation process. It will be of interest to people involved in small or large-scale evaluation of services, projects or programmes. It is intended both as a 'read alone' manual and as a group training text

Responding to reproductive health needs: a participatory approach for analysis and action


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A report and training guide documenting two workshops in Nepal in the late 1990s, designed to help NGO trainers gain skills to assist communities in identifying and addressing reproductive health needs. Specific objectives include helping participants develop a gender-sensitive approach, analyze their current activities with regard to gender issues, and gain skills in the use of participatory methods and tools. Describes the methodology, objectives and stages of the workshops, and includes participatory exercises and tips

Creating space for children's participation : planning with street children in Yangon, Myanmar


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This paper is about a two-week empowerment evaluation that took place in April 2001 with World Vision's Street Children and Working Children Program (SWC), which is based in Yangon, Myanmar. The process allowed the children to be the primary evaluators. They spent time interviewing various stakeholders in the programme and analysed the information gathered. The evaluation described in this report was an experience that had a great impact on all involved. It brought about a fundamental shift in the way project staff viewed the children and, equally importantly, in the way the children viewed themselves

Evaluation and poverty reduction


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This collection of papers includes contributions from leading figures in development including policy makers and a Nobel Laureate. It covers a broad spectrum from methodological issues to policy concerns, whilst emphasising 'what works' in poverty reduction programmes. Contributors emphasise social funds and safety nets, social services, crisis prevention, informal social security and insurance systems, anti-corruption programmes, mobilisation of the poor and ultimately the creation of a workable civil society

Putting child rights and participatory monitoring and evaluation with children into practice : some examples in Indonesia, Nepal, South Africa and the UK

NURICK, Robert

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This paper focuses on children's rights and includes examples of participatory monitoring and evaluation with children. In particular, it looks at organisational mapping and case studies of child-sensitive monitoring and evaluation activities in South Africa and Nepal and reports on young people's participation in the evaluation of the Saying Power Scheme. Examples of evaluation techniques such as 'confidence lines' and the 'H method' are given

Comprehensive participatory planning and evaluation

et al
December 2000

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This publication aims to assist individuals and organisations in planning and evaluating interventions in a flexible, comprehensive and participatory manner. Comprehensive participatory planning and evaluation (CPPE) makes use of both casual and dynamic models and offers a high degree of participation, with increased sense of self-esteem and ownership. It is implementation-orientated and can be applied to a number of situations, including programmes and projects. This guide is clearly written, and the CPPE approach is effectively illustrated in simple steps. Covers a range of topics, including problem assessment, intervention identification, planning, setting up a monitoring and evaluation system and proposal writing. The annexes contain two case studies, practical suggestions for planning workshops and a useful checklist