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Who counts reality? Participatory monitoring and evaluation : a literature review

ESTRELLA, M
GAVENTA, J
1998

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This paper presents a literature review of experiences in participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) from around the world, used in different contexts and involving all kinds of stakeholders - NGOs, donors, research institutions, government, people's organisations, and communities. It introduces the key principles of PM&E, its applications for different purposes, and a number of tools and methods used, including participatory learning methodologies as well as more conventional approaches. Finally, it raises key issues and broad challenges emerging from the literature, and outlines potential areas for future research.

Working with indigenous knowledge : a guide for researchers

GRENIER, Louise
1998

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This book provides an examination of indigenous knowledge and what it can offer a sustainable development strategy, and offers a guide to collecting, using, and assessing indigenous knowledge. Includes a review of case studies in Indonesia, Ecuador, Ethiopia, and Venezuela

The first mile of connectivity : advancing telecommunications for rural development through a participatory communication approach

RICHARDSON, Don
PAISLEY, Lynnita
Eds
1998

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Begins with the need to work at the 'first mile' of connectivity - essentially the prevailing conditions for rural communities - when discussing the value of new information communication technologies. Emphasises people and the communication process, and the various factors of community dynamics and context that frame any communicaiton initiatives, not the technology . Chapters cover a range of examples of participatory communication methods, such as Participatory Rural Communicaiton Appriasal, and the training of 'community animators'. Looks at examples of rural telephony and radio, telecentres, video and the Internet, and also discusses some issues connected to telecommunications infrastructure and regulation, such as rural networking co-operatives and parterships with the private sector

PHAST step-by-step guide: a participatory approach for the control of diarrhoeal disease

SAWYER, Ron
SIMPSON-HEBERT, Mayling
WOOD, Sara
1998

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This document offers practical guidelines to help communities improve hygiene behaviour and prevent the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. Using a typical PHAST approach, it advocates the adoption of participatory methods and the involvement and empowerment of communities. Tailored for facilitators and programme managers working in the community, it provides some key background concepts and suggests detailed step-by-step activities that should help identify, analyse and plan solutions to the related problems of water management, sanitation, hygiene behaviour and diarrhoeal diseases

Whose reality counts? : putting the first last

CHAMBERS, Robert
1997

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This book describes how very poor communities are often not developed due to the fact that interventions are not taking place in "communities" or "areas" where people suffer most from the effects of poverty. It is a thought provoking book for rural development planners and CBR workers

Voices of the poor : poverty and social capital in Tanzania

NARAYAN, Deepa
1997

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This study explores the usage of participatory methods for policy research by comparing and contrasting these findings with those from more conventional household consumption and expenditure surveys. It shows how using these measures leads to different conclusions about the causes and nature of poverty. The study goes on to discuss the concept of social capital at the local level, providing quantifiable evidence that village-level social capital (defined as membership in groups with particular characteristics) significantly affects household welfare

Process observation in PRA : guidelines and reflections

NARAYANASAMY, N
RAMESH, R
June 1996

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The article advocates the use of 'Process Observation', a process by which PRA can be monitored and evaluated according to its functioning. Whilst PRA exercises are being carried out and after the exercises have been completed, observation is essential to ensure that PRA methodology is being adhered to and that processes of change have been initiated. A framework for this process is provided

The World Bank participation sourcebook

BHATNAGAR, Bhuvan
KEARNS, James
SEQUEIRA, Debra
February 1996

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This sourcebook is to support participatory processes in economic and social development. It includes a section of reflections on participation as well as shared experiences; practice pointers in participatory learning and decision-making; and in enabling the poor to participate

Recording and using indigenous knowledge : a manual

International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR)
1996

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A practical, user-friendly manual that describes how to record indigenous knowledge together with local people. It includes ten case studies and questions guides on more than 20 development issues - mainly agricultural, but including water and sanitation. Well illustrated, it emphasises working in a participatory mode and adapting techniques to suit local conditions. It is seen as useful for professionals, field staff and students in all fields of development work. The format allows easy copying for use in training

Participatory development communication : a West African agenda

BESSETTE, Guy
RAJASUNDERAM, C V
Eds
1996

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Outlines the activities and priorities of the participatory communication CIME (Communicaiton, information, media, Education) research programme of IDRC in West Africa. Includes a useful historical overview of development communication and related areas of development, and a review of current participatory communication methods, such as 'community media', that put the 'grass-roots expression of its needs' at the heart of development. Also considers the relationship between grass-roots communication and non-formal education and in particular the need for supporting and developing the skills of young women and girls as effecetive communicators at the grass-roots level

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