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Policy development: An analysis of disability inclusion in a selection of African Union policies

GROCE, Nora
LANG, Raymond
SCHNEIDER, Marguerite
KETT, Maria
COLE, Ellie
July 2017

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Contemporary debates in international development discourse are concerned with the non‐tokenistic inclusion and participation of marginalized groups in the policy‐making process in developing countries. This is directly relevant to disabled people in Africa, which is the focus of this article. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities delineates the principles of inclusion in society. Furthermore, the African Union (AU) plays a key role in advising its Member States about disability issues, and this advice should be reflected in disability‐inclusive policies. This article analyses nine policy or strategy documents produced by the AU, covering the policy domains of education, health, employment and social protection that are crucial to the inclusion of disabled people in international development. These were analysed according to seven discrete elements (rights, accessibility, inclusivity, implementation plans, budgetary allocations, enforcement mechanisms or disaggregated management information systems) using a rating scale of one to four, with four being the highest level of inclusion. The process (for example, level of consultation), the context (for example, the Sustainable Development Goals) and actors involved in the policy development were reviewed as far as was possible from the documents.

Dev Policy Rev. July 2017
https://doi.org/10.1111/dpr.12323

Strengthening participation of children and young people with disability in advocacy

SIMMONS, Dr. Catharine
ROBINSON, Dr. Sally
October 2014

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Participation by children and young people in advocacy and change-making can not only improve and foster positive change in their own lives, but also influence the lives of others. When young people’s participation is supported, meaningful and engaged, multiple benefits accrue; their perspectives and experiences bring a unique contribution and can result in rights-based empowerment, enacted citizenship and improved relationships. This has the potential to shape policy, to increase the relevance and responsiveness of organisations they use, and to influence change in their communities in positive ways

 

However, there are significant issues and a range of barriers that discourage, prevent or actively exclude children and young people with disability from participating. A culture of low expectations, social and cultural barriers, relationship and identity difficulties and practical hurdles exist for many young people. As a result, many are precluded from participation, particularly around change-making activities

 

This paper examines how meaningful participation of children and young people with disability in advocacy and change-making can be strengthened. In the paper CDA calls for the promotion of children and young people’s participation as active and valued community members

 

This paper is also available at https://www.cyda.org.au/cda-issue-papers

 

Issue Papers

Nairobi declaration : inclusive post-2015 development agenda for persons with disabilities in Africa

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY ALLIANCE (IDA)
et al
March 2014

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The Nairobi declaration calls for a more inclusive post-2015 agenda with a specific demand that development agenda targets and indicators explicitly include persons with disabilities. This document succinctly summarises the issues faced by persons with disabilities in Africa and their specific demands to enable greater inclusion in the post-2015 development agenda. It was adopted by persons with disabilities from Africa, representatives of national, sub-regional and Pan-African disabled people’s organisations, on the 8th of March during the Nairobi conference “Inclusive post 2015 development agenda and UN CRPD in Africa”, organised by the International Disability Alliance in partnership with the International Disability and Development Consortium, UNICEF and the UN Partnership to promote the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

“Inclusive post 2015 development agenda and UN CRPD in Africa”

8 March 2014

Nairobi, Kenya

Climate change and disaster risk reduction : mainstreaming disability

CHRISTOFFEL BLINDENMISSION (CBM)
2014

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This thematic brief on the sustainable development goals provides key recommendations for the post 2015 goals to mainstream disability in climate change and disaster risk reduction.  It summarises key principles of inclusive climate change and disaster reduction policies and presents a case study of inclusive emergency response in the Philippines after typhoon Hayian

CBM thematic brief : sustainable development goals

Mapping exclusion

KOZMA, Agnes
PETRI, Gabor
November 2012

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This is a comprehensive report on the state of deinstitutionalization from institution-based services towards community-based services in the mental health field in Europe. The report consists of a comparative analysis of trends and policy changes in Europe based on a survey, and 32 country reports are presented in the annex covering issues crucial in the context of community care, such as data about institutional and community-based services, national mental health and deinstitutionalization strategies, information on guardianship and involuntary admission policies
Note: The report is in English, summaries are available in Dutch, French, Hungarian, Polish, Spanish, Romanian and Swedish

Bali commitments on equal access to elections

GENERAL ELECTION NETWORK FOR DISABILITY ACCESS (AGENDA)
November 2012

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This report records the outcome of the 2nd Regional Dialogue which adopted the Bali Commitments. The Bali Commitments recognise the rights of persons with disabilities to have the equal right to participate in political life and that they often face discrimination and exclusion from participation. While recognising that there are unique barriers faced by countries in Southeast Asia, the Bali Commitments commit to making the political process more accessible, and resolve to eliminate all forms of discrimination. It outlines the eight mains points that need to be addressed to achieve full and equal participation in the political process for persons with disabilities
2nd Regional Dialogue
Bali, Indonesia
10-11 November 2012

Social determinants of health : the role of social protection in addressing social inequalities in health

ROHREGGER, Barbara
August 2011

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This paper aims to provide focused insights into specific aspects of the international debate on social protection. The author highlights that "the social, economic and political context in which people grow, live, work and age has enormous impact on their health status. These wider structural determinants of health lie largely outside the health sector. The level and coverage of social protection systems is one key determinant. Social protection measures and mechanisms directly contribute to poverty reduction and human resource development by providing recipients with in-kind or cash transfers. They also allow beneficiaries to gain better access to social services, including health facilities, drugs, etc"
Discussion Papers on Social Protection, Issue No 11

Disability and international cooperation and development : a review of policies and practices

LORD, Janet
et al
May 2010

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This paper reviews the policies and practices of major multilateral and bilateral agencies that include disability in development. The paper provides examples of their programs and highlights five emerging trends of disability in international cooperation and development. This paper is useful for people interested in disability and international cooperation and development
Social Protection Discussion Paper No 1003

Testing youth transitions in Kenya : are young people with disabilities falling through the cracks?

MUGO, John Kabutha
ORANGA, Josephine
SINGAL, Nidhi
2010

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"This paper focuses on the situation of young people with disabilities and examines the transitional opportunities available to them in Kenyan society, considering three principal areas: education, employment and social participation. The paper utilises the findings of a systematic analysis of relevant government reports and documents. Some of the issues raised are contextualised using data collected from one secondary school for the blind in Nairobi. (The) analysis indicates that, although their numbers are significant, young people with disabilities face difficult obstacles in progressing to higher levels of education. They are faced with limited employment opportunities and are at a greater risk of being exploited in the social sphere. Some policy options to tackle this situation are indicated"
Working Paper No 34

Older people in emergencies : considerations for action and policy development

HUTTON, David
2008

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This analysis highlights factors that particularly affect older people in emergencies, especially health-related concerns. It also proposes a strategy to raise awareness about older people in emergencies, and recommends policies and practices to address these considerations. It sets out objectives for the three phases of an emergency response: the preparedness phase; the emergency response and operations phase; and the recovery and transition phase

Civil society engagement for mainstreaming disability in the development process : report of an action research project initiated in Gujarat with multi-stakeholder partnership

UNNATI ORGANISATION FOR DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION (UNNATI)
Handicap International
2008

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This report describes "a three-year action research (2002-2005), in Gujarat, to understand the prevailing situation and invoking the participation of civil society groups for mainstreaming disability... The four key strategies adopted in the project have been detailed to share how civil society groups can be mobilised and invoked to take concrete action for promoting participation of persons with disabilities on local issues, creation of a barrier-free environment, developing materials for public education and social communication and influencing development organisations for mainstreaming disability"

People with disabilities in India : from commitments to outcomes

O'KEEFE, Philip
et al
May 2007

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This report explores the social and economic factors that impact the lives of disabled people in India. It examines the ways in which public sector interventions can improve the quality of life they experience and it presents the socio-economic profile of people with disabilities, addresses the societal attitudes they live with, and discusses the root causes of disability in India. This work would be useful for anyone with an interest in disability and development

CSO capacity for policy engagement : lessons learned from the CSPP consultations in Africa, Asia and Latin America

CHOWDHURY, Naved
FINLAY-NOTMAN, Chelsie
HOVLAND, Ignie
August 2006

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This paper explore the views of Southern civil society organisations (CSOs) on the issues of evidence-based policy engagement and came out of the Civil Society Partnerships Programme (CSPP). "During its first phase the CSPP conducted a series of consultative seminars and workshops in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The aim was to provide a forum for representatives from policy research institutions and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), as well as other stakeholders, to come together. Participants discussed the opportunities and challenges for CSOs when using evidence to inform policy, presented lessons and best practice in this area, shared experiences about ongoing activities and identified opportunities for collaborative work"

Making PRSP inclusive

MILLER, Ursula
ZIEGLER, Stefanie
January 2006

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This handbook presents experiences and proposes ideas and comments on how DPOs and people with disabilities can enter and participate in national Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) processes. It provides an overview of the PRSP process and outlines approaches to PRSP and disability, explaining how to include disability issues in national PRSPs. It explains the three main phases of a PRSP (formulation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation), and suggests how civil society can participate in the process. Addresses issues related to stakeholders, provides information on process and project management and presents ways of influencing policies through lobbying and advocacy. It also includes case studies from four countries. This manual is aimed mainly at people with disabilities, and parents' associations (PAs) which intend to participate in their respective national PRSP process

Making PRSP inclusive [summary + CD-ROM]

MILLER, Ursula
ZIEGLER, Stefanie
January 2006

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This "summary" handbook with CD-ROM presents experiences and proposes ideas on how DPOs and people with disabilities can enter and participate in national Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) processes. It provides an overview of the PRSP process and outlines approaches to PRSP and disability, explaining how to include disability issues in national PRSPs. It explains the three main phases of a PRSP (formulation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation), and suggests how civil society can participate in the process. The CD-ROM contains all this information, as well as extensive information on four case studies including lessons learned, and appendices on stakeholders, process and project management, and influencing policies through lobbying and advocacy

Saving lives : including people with disabilities in emergency planning

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY
April 2005

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This report provides an overview of the steps US federal government should take to include people with disabilities in emergency preparedness, disaster relief and homeland security program.  Key recommendations are provided and offer examples of community efforts to take account of the needs of people with disabilities

 

Note: This report is also available in alternative formats on the National Council on Disability's (NCD) website: http://www.ncd.gov/

Legal frameworks for citizen participation : synthesis report

MCGEE, Rosemary
et al
April 2003

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This report synthesizes the collective learning generated throughout the project of the legal frameworks for citizen participation. It is not a summary of all findings however it is an analysis that presents findings of the overall study about the significance, at supra-national and supra-regional levels, of legal and policy frameworks for citizen participation in local governance. Additional detailed findings can be found in related case studies and regional reports
Research report series

Youth-adult partnerships show promise : youth involvement expands from local projects to institutional levels

SONTI, Smita
FINGER, William
March 2003

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This paper examines how youth can participate more broadly in projects, for example in policy, management and evaluation issues. Anecdotal evidence on the value of including youth perspectives in these more challenging areas is beginning to emerge, for example the Barcelona YouthForce at the XIV International AIDS Conference in Barcelona in July 2002. The paper concludes with a list of elements that help to make effective youth-adult partnerships. These elements cover organisational capacity; attitude shift; selection, recruitment and retention of youth; and level of participation

Participatory learning and action : Ethiopia project shows how a participatory process with youth can help shape national policy

RULAND, Claudia Dailander
March 2003

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Documents the use of the participatory learning and action (PLA) approach used by the Ethiopian Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture to plan its program to mobilize Ethiopian youth for improved sexual and reproductive health. The youth developed a national youth charter and a three-year action plan. The process also lead to the development of a dynamic network of young people committed to the health and future of the country

Index for inclusion : developing learning and participation in schools

BOOTH, Tony
AINSCOW, Mel
2002

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The Index for Inclusion is a set of materials to guide schools through a process of inclusive school development. It is about building supportive communities and fostering high achievement for all staff and students.
This second edition manual comes with practical advice and questionnaires to help make schools more inclusive

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