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Disability and unpaid care work

CBM AUSTRALIA
2019

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This report looks at the impact of unpaid care work on disability inclusive programming and shares some practical ideas for how to address this based on experiences of CBM partners and other agencies. 

 

Programme experience discussed include:

  • Building agency and relationships: a community mobilisation approach in Jharkhand, India
  • Engaging men as care advocates in the Phillipines
  • Recognising and supporting care givers in Ghana
  • Good practice

 

Education, work, and motherhood in low and middle income countries: A review of equality challenges and opportunities for women with disabilities

TEFERA, Belaynesh
et al
March 2018

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This systematic review examined the equality challenges and opportunities for women with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to participate and succeed in education, employment, and motherhood. The search of Web of Science, PsychINFO, Google Scholar, and MEDLINE databases yielded 24 articles, which were subsequently passed through open, axial, and selective coding. The resulting review found that women with disabilities in LMICs have severe difficulty participating and succeeding in education, employment, and motherhood. 

 

Social Inclusion, Vol 6, No 1, 82–93

Everybody Matters: Good practices for inclusion of people with disabilities in sexual and reproductive health and rights programmes

Van SLOBBE, Caroline
November 2017

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This publication provides introductory chapters from two activists who work to create better opportunities for people with disabilities in Nigeria and India. Subsequently, the challenges that organisations worldwide have encountered whilst improving the access to and knowledge of sexual and reproductive health and rights for people with disabilities are presented. Ways in which they managed to find solutions and the results achieved are reviewed. Some cases show the importance of a more personal approach whilst others emphasise the advantage of changing systems and policies. Different regions, types of disabilities and various SRHR-topics are reflected in these stories. All cases provide lessons learnt that contribute to a set of recommendations for improved responses. The closing chapter highlights the challenges, solutions, and ambitions that are presented and lead up to a concise overview of recommendations.  

Good practice examples include:

A shift in SRH programming (Nepal)

Breaking Barriers with performance art (Kenya)

Her Body, Her Rights (Ethiopia)

People with disabilities leading the way (Israel Family Planning Association)

Best Wishes for safe motherhood (Nepal)

It’s my body! (Bangladesh)

Calling a spade a spade (Netherlands)

Four joining forces (Colombia)

Change agents with a disability (Zimbabwe)

Tito’s privacy and rights (Argentina)

Sign language for service providers (Kenya)

The grace of motherhood: disabled women contending with societal denial of intimacy, pregnancy, and motherhood in Ethiopia

TEFERA, Balaynesh
et al
September 2017

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Ethiopian disabled women’s experiences of intimacy, pregnancy and motherhood are reported. Qualitative, in-depth, and semi-structured interviews along with personal observations were used to explore the full experiences of participants. Interview data revealed that mothers experienced significant challenges with regard to accessibility of health centers, physician’s lack of knowledge about and problematic attitudes toward them and more general societal prejudices towards individuals with disability. The 13 participants were employed women with physical or visual disabilities, and the interviewees were from the Addis Ababa metropolitan area, Ethiopia.

 

Disability & Society, 32:10, 1510-1533

DOI: 10.1080/09687599.2017.1361385

Priority medicines for mothers and children 2011

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2011

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This resource presents a list of priority medicines for mothers and children to help countries and partners select and make available those medicines that will have the biggest impact on reducing maternal, newborn and child morbidity and mortality
WHO/EMP/MAR/2011.1

Recognition, respect and rights: disabled women in a globalised world

MEEKOSHA, Helen
FROMAHDER, Carolyn
2010

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Following a statistically rich overview of the position of disabled women and girls globally, the position of disabled women and girls in Australia is reported. The human rights violations of disabled women in the context of violence, sterilisation and, motherhood and parenting are discussed. The history, evolution and current structure of the Women with Disabilities Australia (WWDA) organisation are described. Some of the challenges and successes of WWDA are also described including: dealing with authorities; negotiating the local, the national and the global; using the new communication technologies; and forming strategic alliances.

Sub-Saharan Africa's mothers, newborns, and children : where and why do they die?

KINNEY, Mary V
et al
2010

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"The aim of this paper is to present the current situation in sub-Saharan Africa for mothers, newborns, and children under age 5 years—including the progress towards the MDGs for maternal and child health, why and where deaths occur, what known interventions can be employed to prevent these deaths, and current coverage of these interventions. All data used in this review are from the most recent UN databases, national household surveys, and peer-reviewed papers where appropriate, which are referenced accordingly"
PLoS Medicine, 7(6)

Conceptual and practical foundations of gender and human resources for health

NEWMAN, Constance
October 2009

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This paper presents learning about various forms of gender discrimination and how they serve as barriers to health workforce participation, against the backdrop of the global gender and human resources for health (HRH) literature. It points to the central roles played by pregnancy discrimination in weakening women’s ties to the health workforce, and occupational segregation in limiting men’s role in the development of a robust informal HIV and AIDS care-giving workforce. The paper also offers global recommendations for future action through health workforce policy, planning, development and support

HIV, women and motherhood

WELBOURN, Alice
2008

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This is a collection of 14 interviews which explore the many and complex issues in relation to motherhood facing women living with HIV. Twelve of the interviews are with women from many different parts of the world who are either mothers or want to become mothers. Each woman describes how she learned of her HIV-positive diagnosis and what she has done with her life since then. The other two interviewees are leading international advocates for women's rights: Mary Robinson (former President of Ireland) and Dr Musimbi Kanyoro (Director of the Packard Foundation's Population Programme). The interviews contain many important lessons for law makers and law enforcers, government policy makers, health practitioners, faith-based organisations, advocacy groups and service providers. They are designed as a means of raising public and official awareness of the hugely important issues of HIV and motherhood. These are broadcast-quality recordings which are available, on request, to radio stations

The state of the world's children 2007. Women and children : the double dividend of gender equality

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2006

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"The State of the World’s Children 2007 examines the discrimination and disempowerment women face throughout their lives and outlines what must be done to eliminate gender discrimination and empower women and girls. It looks at the status of women today, discusses how gender equality will move all the Millennium Development Goals forward, and shows how investment in women’s rights will ultimately produce a double dividend: advancing the rights of both women and children"

UNICEF and WHO call for stronger support for the implementation of the joint United Nations HIV and infant feeding framework

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
December 2004

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This call for support aims to strengthen plans to help women who may be HIV positive to choose the right feeding option for their child. A framework has been created by the UN which recognises that special attention and practical support is needed in exceptionally difficult circumstances, including the presence of HIV. The framework outlines five priority areas

I'm a teenager : what happened to my rights?

HALFORD, Stuart
et al
November 2004

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This book covers 15 issues affecting the world's young people, such as sexual exploitation, child labour, crime and punishment, HIV and AIDS, and early marriage and motherhood. Chapter 13 deals with issues facing disabled youth including prejudice, abuse and lack of education. The book describes Plan International's work around the world addressing youth issues

Antiretroviral roll-out in South Africa : where do children feature?

SHUNG-KING, Maylene
ZAMPOLI, Marco
August 2004

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This is a discussion paper on South Africa's 2003 roll out plan for the 'Comprehensive Care and Treatment for HIV and AIDS' and its implementation. It considers how the plan addresses children's needs and assesses its weaknesses, particularly in relation to the topic of ART for HIV-infected children. The paper laments that children's specific needs are not adequately dealt with, stressing that a comprehensive, child-oriented approach must give consideration to the mother-infant relationship and acknowledge that the health of the mother is a necessary component of the well-being of children. The plan also fails to consider the issues of children in residential care facilities, counselling needs of children, the specific difficulties associated with testing and diagnosing babies and children, and aspects of drug availability and treatment adherence in children. The paper concludes with recommendations designed to help policy making, service delivery and advocacy strategies. In particular the document calls for child-specific attention in areas of monitoring, adherence and drug provision, recommends that greater emphasis is placed on children's needs in the upscaling of ART provision, particularly through primary health care services, and that watchdog bodies and children's rights organisations take a more active role

Childcare and early childhood development programmes and policies : their relationship to eradicating child poverty

PENN, Helen
June 2004

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The paper explores paradigms, arguments and evidence on which international agencies draw in discussing early childhood development (ECD). These include assumptions about poverty and the role of ECD in reducing poverty, assumptions about ‘the robustness’ of ECD and the contexts in which ECD takes place. Two case studies, one from Swaziland and one from Kazakhstan are used to explore strengths and limitations. The paper concludes that almost all the evidence for the effectiveness of ECD in determining cognitive, social and economic outcomes is drawn either directly from the North, particularly from the USA, or relies on assumptions drawn from work carried out in the North as a basis for recommendations in the South. The paper points out that ECD may be a useful form of practical relief to mitigate childhood poverty in particular circumstances and this could include children affected by HIV/AIDS. There is a section on page 35 on early childhood development and HIV/AIDs. Other vulnerable children are noted as those with time poor mothers and those in situations of war and conflict

Early childhood development HIV/AIDS Malawi

MALAWI COUNTRY TEAM
2004

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This PowerPoint presentation demonstrates the general context of HIV/AIDS prevalence and impact in Malawi on children aged 0-14. 1.2% of children aged 0-14 are infected with HIV. HIV prevalence in child bearing women however is 16-30%. The presentation goes on to show the situation of orphans in the country, and notes that 17.5% of all children are orphans with 24% of orphans being under 5. Around half are orphaned due to AIDS. The situation of ECD services in Malawi is presented (just 26% of people have access to ECD services). Key policies and legislative frameworks are documented along with stakeholders. Best practices are covered as well as challenges, gaps and opportunities that are evident

Status of maternity protection by country

WORLD ALLIANCE FOR BREASTFEEDING ACTION (WABA)
2004

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This factsheet compares employees' parental leave entitlement in around 120 countries. It gives details of the duration of nationally mandated maternity leave, parental leave, and paternity leave, and whether the cost is borne by the state, the employer, others or the employee. It also details mothers' entitlement to breastfeeding breaks and whether these are paid or unpaid

HIV-infected women and their families : psychosocial support and related issues. A literature review

LINDSEY, Elizabeth
2003

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This review looks at global literature from academic institutions and UN agencies on psychosocial support and counselling, to HIV infected pregnant women and their families (from pre-conception to 2 years old). It also contains information about the efficacy of practices and projects that care for infected women and their families, especially methods used in relation to mother-to-child transmission during the perinatal period. There are also interesting examples of such projects from around the world. The final section of the review makes recommendations on psychosocial support and counselling for HIV infected women and families

Sex, disability and motherhood : access to sexuality for disabled mothers

O’TOOLE, Corbett Joan
2002

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"This article examines the barriers to sexuality facing mothers with disabilities. These barriers include: stereotypes that disabled mothers are not sexual, lack of resources for essential aspects of parenting, and difficulty in creating time for personal and private adult activities. Recommendations are presented based on the experiences of disabled mothers"
Disability Studies Quarterly, Volume 22, No. 4

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