This infographic illustrates the OPERA framework. This framework is for monitoring economic, social and cultural rights fulfilment and consists of four levels of analysis: outcomes, policy efforts, resources and assessment. The infographic lays out specific benchmarks and for what is measured by each level of analysis and how each concept is to be measured
“This paper presents a practical framework for integrating different tools and techniques in order to provide a more comprehensive assessment of how public policies comply with the obligation to fulfill ESC rights. The OPERA framework (so called because it triangulates Outcomes, Policy Efforts and Resources to make an overall Assessment) articulates relevant human rights standards and principles to take into account when monitoring ESC rights fulfillment and offers practical guidance on which tools and techniques might be employed to evaluate them. These range from simple descriptive statistics that summarize data to more complex fiscal policy and budget analysis that assess the availability and allocation of resources. By making explicit this crucial link between the various human rights standards and principles that underpin the obligation to fulfill and the different assessment methods available to monitor them, the framework enables a systematic approach to building evidence of failures to fulfill ESC rights”
This report is a “methodological case study on the use of available resources to realize economic, social and cultural rights in Guatemala…To assess Guatemala’s compliance with its development and human rights commitments, the study adopted a multidisciplinary approach, combining a range of quantitative and qualitative research techniques drawn from the fields of human rights law, public policy analysis and development economics. This paper provides a step-by-step explanation of the methodological approach designed for the “Rights or Privileges” project, in order to illustrate the application of CESR’s analytical framework OPERA (so called because it triangulates evidence gathered on Outcomes, Policy Efforts and Resources to make an overall Assessment)”
This document provides guidance for government ministries, non-governmental and civil society organisations on the steps and processes in developing, disseminating and using technical resource materials which have been produced to support programmes responding to the needs of orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) and people affected by HIV and AIDS in Uganda. The key steps can be adhered to at national, district, sub-county and community levels. Following the key steps will ensure the materials are relevant, address the needs of beneficiaries and are owned and used by key stakeholders
This paper explores the contribution of information and communication strategies to universal access to anti-retroviral treatment. It suggests that people taking antiretroviral drugs and their supporters need to understand new and complex ideas around drugs, side effects, nutrition and positive living. Treatment literacy aims to help individuals and communities understand why ARV treatment is needed, and what it can and cannot do. Effective treatment literacy, developed by or with people living with HIV and AIDS and those taking ART, can lead to improved health outcomes, better adherence to drug regimes and higher uptake of voluntary counselling and testing. Current resources and community capacity to understand and support antiretroviral therapy are not sufficient
This document contains guidelines on the use of language and content in HIV- and AIDS-related documents and contexts. As stigma and discrimination are often attached to the disease, the use of culturally-sensitive and appropriate terminology and ethical considerations in the production of materials are vital. Contains seven tables addressing commonly used terminology; stigmatising terms and expressions; culturally sensitive language; precision and differentiation of certain terms; cultural issues and practices; audio and visual content. Table 5 presents some specific examples. Each problematic term or approach is briefly discussed and provided with an alternative/preferred substitute. These guidelines are an essential tool for anyone working in the field of HIV and AIDS
Many journals around the world struggle to attract authors and readers, and frequently suffer from a lack of resources - both human and financial. In addition, research habits are changing and researchers increasingly expect any information to be found online which means that a journal which cannot be located on the web may be effectively invisible. Online publications can help to address some of these issues. At the same time, many readers still seem to prefer print so it may not be possible to stop producing a print edition as well.
Publishing a journal electronically sounds very attractive. There are a number of good reasons for doing so, but it does have disadvantages too. Before committing to the effort and expense involved in online publication, it is sensible to look carefully at both the advantages and disadvantages. In the end, the decision will depend on what the main objectives are, so it is important to be clear about the reasons for publishing in the first place: what information is being disseminated, and to whom
A synthesis of learning based on experience of ActionAid and the 'Strategies of Hope' series in Africa, looking at production, distribution and use of HIV/AIDS information and communication materials. Explores what users want, need and find useful (or less useful) from these materials. Valuable for people planning to get involved in communications work in the field of HIV/AIDS.
Highlights poverty as a key constraint to people engaging with existing HIV/AIDS messages and as a vital part of people's reality that materials need to address to be relevant.
Looks at the limitations of information alone for promoting attitudes and behaviour, while stressing the continued need for effective useable and relevant resources. Gives criteria for useful information resources on HIV/AIDS. Research found that materials developed in one context are not easily transferable to other contexts, raising challenges for those aiming at generic materials or those for widespread use. It is vital to make information materials culturally appropriate and relevant and to develop them in a participatory way.
The study also highlights the importance of materials in local languages, targetting specific audiences, and using a range of media and methods, that are low cost or free. Users were found to stress the need for large quantities of materials and wide distribution rather than an overemphasis on high quality.
What constitutes 'good' information varies over time, as do user needs. It is vital that feedback and learning are built into the processes of developing and re-developing materials
The multimedia toolkit aims to promote and support linkages between new and traditional media for development through a structured set of materials. The materials are based on a standard set of templates, and are intended to be used as building blocks from which trainers can build up training workshops appropriate for their own contexts. New materials will be added to this ItrainOnline section as they are developed; the materials currently available are just a starting point. Eventually the MMTK will offer a comprehensive suite of training materials covering technical, content, organizational and ethical topics
This international resource pack is for practitioners, and pulls together practical ideas and experiences from people who have used the Reflect approach around the world. It includes sections on the 'written word', 'numbers', 'spoken word', and 'images'. Explains how techniques such as drama or citizen's juries could be deployed to explore and convey issues relevant to development
This guide offers step-by-step guidelines for developing behaviour-change communication materials for HIV/AIDS and STI prevention and care and support programmes
This manual provides a comprehensive methodology for developing materials for a low-literate audience in the context of a behaviour change communication program. It demonstrates the process of learning about target populations using qualitative research methodologies, developing effective messages with thir input, and crafting visual messages to support the overall HIV and AIDS program. Involving the target population and stakeholders in the development process is key to ensuring high-quality effective print materials. Finally, the guide outlines the process for rigorous pretesting to ensure that the information and issues are understood by the population groups that programs are trying to reach and influence. It can be adapted and used to develop audio-visual materials or materials for other target groups
This report examines how information can be packaged and communicated so that it reflects the context of the reciever. It stresses that communication and information provision is a process like any other in development, and ICTs should be seen as tools to improve livelihoods, and not an end in and of themselves. It reviews recent research on the types of information demanded by communities, and emphasises the importance of visual content for including non- and semi-literate people. The paper outlines then key elements required in any planned content production, especially by NGOs or governments. A final comment is made on intellectual property rights (IPR)
This handbook presents key principles and steps in developing and evaluating health communication program for the public, patients, and health professionals. It expands upon and replaces two earlier publications titled Pretesting in Health Communications and Making PSA's Work. Referring primarily to the context of the United States, the guide discusses specific steps in program development and includes examples of their use. Sources of additional information on each subject are included at the end of the chapters
Tool kit for developing a communications strategy for World Health Day in 2003
This toolkit looks at planning documentation and communication, so that lessons from the work of NGOs and Community Based Organisations are captured and shared with others. Includes sections on: introducing communication and documentation; planning, designing and evaluating particular documentation 'products'; and building documentation and communication skills. Also includes a range of useful handouts and workshop session outlines, and 12 'information cards' relating to specific communication 'products' such as newsletters, or radio programmes
A step-by-step guide to advocacy for immunization. Covers preparation (building a plan, gathering information, creating messages and materials), outreach (building a coalition, engaging policymakers, working with the media, involving the public) and monitoring and evaluating. Includes a brief section of further sources of information (manuals, guides and websites) as well as useful examples and case studies
[Publisher's abstract] This book presents an investigation by research into the ways in which distance learning is affected by the physical design of printed study materials. In particular, it examines the use of engineering drawing systems for illustrated, instructional texts concerned with technical aspects of infrastructure development. Part I comprises a review of literature on learning and adult education; international development and distance learning; information design for self-instruction; and research into illustration, with particular reference to the visual perception of engineering drawings and the implications for their cross-cultural use. Part II presents questions and hypotheses which emerged from the literature review. It also presents the research methodology designed to test comprehension of engineering drawing systems, along with the results of tests undertaken by five adult learning groups selected from pre-degree, undergraduate and postgraduate populations. Part II concludes with an analysis and discussion of the results of these tests. Part III presents the conclusions drawn from both the literature review and from the analysis of the research results. It concludes with proposals for further study
A practical guide to advocacy work around malaria, including useful facts and statistics, and detailed information on advocacy strategies for social change. It presents a comprehensive tool for telling others about the Roll Back Malaria partnership and influencing their thinking around malaria control. It outlines four basic steps that are essential for an effective advocacy initiative: gathering the facts, packaging the message, working with the media and mobilising others. It contains specific examples and creative ideas. Political protocol, media etiquette and social values vary widely from country to country and the guide suggests cultural sensitivity. There is an advocacy resources chapter where readers may borrow successful ideas from others to creatively adapt and apply to their own situations and campaigns
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