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Preparation of students with disabilities to graduate into professions in the South African context of higher learning: Obstacles and opportunities

NDLOVU, Sibonokuhle
WALTON, Elizabeth
2016

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Background: Persons with disabilities continue to be excluded from professions in South Africa despite legislation on non-discrimination and equity. Objectives: We sought to identify both the opportunities and obstacles that students with disabilities face in professional degrees.

 

Method: Selected texts from the South African and international literature were analysed and synthesised.

 

Results: Students with disabilities are afforded opportunities to graduate into professions through the current climate of transformation, inclusion and disability policies, various support structures and funding. These opportunities are mitigated by obstacles at both the higher education site and at the workplace. At university, they may experience difficulties in accessing the curriculum, disability units may be limited in the support they can offer, policies may not be implemented, funding is found to be inadequate and the built environment may be inaccessible. Fieldwork poses additional obstacles in terms of public transport which is not accessible to students with disabilities; a lack of higher education support extended to the field sites, and buildings not designed for access by people with disabilities. At both sites, students are impacted by negative attitudes and continued assumptions that disability results from individual deficit, rather than exclusionary practices and pressures.

 

Conclusion: It is in the uniqueness of professional preparation, with its high demands of both theory and practice that poses particular obstacles for students with disabilities. We argue for the development of self-advocacy for students with disabilities, ongoing institutional and societal transformation and further research into the experiences of students with disabilities studying for professional degrees.

The medical inadmissibility of intellectual disability: A postcolonial reading of Canadian immigration systems

SPAGNUOLO, Natalie
2016

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This article builds upon existing critiques of Canada’s immigration system by focusing on the medical inadmissibility of young people labelled with intellectual disabilities. In considering how the Canadian state regulates applications for permanent residency, it explores discourses and practices of citizenship which invoke mutually-constituting identity markers such as disability and race. A close reading of case studies involving family applicants, demonstrates how immigration policies and legal systems frame the needs of young people labelled with intellectual or ‘profound’ disabilities as a burden to Canadian society. Individuals who were initially denied admission to Canada due to their diagnostic label, experience disability-related discrimination in different ways depending on the role of their perceived racial, gender, and class identities, among others. The individuals considered in this study navigate intersectional identities and ableist legal systems in their efforts to resist discrimination and win a review of their residency applications. This analysis will show that applicants are forced to work through the logic of medical assessment processes to favourably position their children within impairment hierarchies which rank intellectual disability as ‘too disabled’ to be admissible.

 

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2016, Vol. 3 No. 2

Contingencias normalizadoras en la relación Discapacidad–Trabajo en Francia y Uruguay

MÍGUEZ, María Noel
ANGULO, Sofía
DÍAZ, Sharon
GÓMEZ, Ana Paula
MACHADO, Roxana
2016

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La idea de deconstrucción analítica del concepto de contingencia da espacio a un ‘juego’ del pensamiento con relación a lo azaroso como naturalizado, cuando de hecho, al plantearlo desde la normalización, ya trae su correlato desde la ideología de la normalidad. Se invita a reconocer la temática en su tensión entre lo que se dice y lo que se hace, a partir del análisis reflexivo de algunas categorías analíticas y su referenciación con sensaciones y percepciones de sujetos concretos que hacen a personas en situación de discapacidad de la población económicamente activa. Bajo el rótulo de normalidad, en estas sociedades contemporáneas se van mezclando naturalizaciones que no son más que construcciones sociales que remiten a la producción y reproducción de la Ideología hegemónica. Todo está construido para hacer creer que lo contingente es tal, la normalidad es tal, en un marco donde los procesos de objetivación individuales y colectivos tienden a resquebrajarse o desaparecer.

 

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2016, Vol. 3 No. 2

The Re-covering Self: a critique of the recovery-based approach in India’s mental health care

BAYETTI, Clement
JADHAV, Sushrut
JAIN, Sumeet
2016

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This paper critiques recent initiatives for deploying the Recovery Model in the Indian sub-continent. It traces the history and growth of the model, and questions its applicability for mental health care in the Indian sub-continent. The authors argue that mental health professionals in this region are at the crossroads of a familiar past: either to uncritically import and apply a Euro-American 'recovery' model or reconfigure its fundamental premise such that it is embraced by the majority Indian population. The paper proposes a fundamental re-thinking of existing culturally incongruent 'Recovery Models' before application in India’s public mental health and clinic settings. More crucially, policy makers, clinicians and researchers need to reconsider the local validity of what constitutes 'recovery' for the very people who place their trust in State mental health services. This critical reappraisal, together with essential culturally-sensitive research, is germane to prevent yet again the deployment of culture-blind programmes and practices. Addressing these uncontested issues has profound implications for public mental health in the Global South.

 

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2016, Vol. 3 No. 1

Una Vida Sin Palabras?: Disability, Subalternity and the Sandinista Revolution

BURKE, Lucy
RUDMAN, Thomas
2016

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This paper offers an analysis of the documentary film, Una Vida Sin Palabras [A life without words] (2011). The film follows a short period in the lives of a campesino family living in a rural area of Nicaragua as a teacher of Nicaraguan sign language, working for a local NGO, endeavours to teach three deaf siblings how to sign. Bringing together the critical practices of Disability and Subaltern studies in the specific context of contemporary Nicaragua, the paper argues: (1) that the film ultimately re-inscribes and reinforces the subalternity of the disabled subjects it sets out to portray; and (2) that the hierarchy it produces between its object – the deaf family – and its implied educated, metropolitan audience replays some influential (but, we would argue, politically limited) critiques of the failure of the first Sandinista Government (1979-1990) and other broad based radical political movements to represent the national popular. In so doing, the paper also makes a case for the political and intellectual importance of bringing a Critical Disability Studies perspective to the field of Subaltern Studies, and argues that an engagement with the problems that are presented by this film at the level of both form and content raise some important questions for both fields of enquiry.

 

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2016, Vol. 3 No. 1

Exploring normativity in disability studies

VEHMAS, Simo
WATSON, Nick
2016

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Normativity is a concept that is often misapplied in disability studies, especially in ‘postconventional’ accounts, where the concept is conflated with ‘normal’, ‘normate’, or ‘standard’. This article addresses this confusion, explores the meaning and use of ‘normativity’, and presents some analytic tools to discuss normative issues of right and wrong. The article finishes by discussing examples where conceptual confusions result in confused normative judgments focusing in particular on agency, responsibility and moral status. The article argues that disability research should carefully consider the use of theories and empirical knowledge in the light of their ethical implications as well as the lived experiences of disability.

Interventions to improve the labour market situation of adults with physical and/or sensory disabilities in low and middle-income countries : a systematic review

TIPNEY, Janice
et al
November 2015

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This systematic review analyses the methodology, collection, and results of fourteen individual studies that examined the effectiveness of fifteen different intervention methods to assist students with disabilities in low and middle income countries to improve the labour market situation

Campbell Systematic Reviews 2015:20

 

Participation and quality of life outcomes among individuals with earthquake-related physical disability: A systematic review

NUNNERLEY, Joanne
DUNN, Jennifer
McPHERSON, Kathryn
et al
May 2015

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A literature review to evaluate quality of life and participation outcomes of individuals with earthquake-related physical injury. A systematic review was performed searching MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL and AMED electronic databases from 1966 to January 2014. Studies that measured quality of life or participation outcomes among individuals who acquired a physical disability as a result of an earthquake injury were included, with no limits on research design. The search yielded 961 potentially relevant articles after removal of duplicates. Of these, only 8 articles met the inclusion criteria. Seven papers were reviewed from the following 5 earthquakes: 2001 Gujarat earthquake, India; 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China (also known as the Sichuan earthquake); 2005 Kashmir earthquake, Pakistan (27); 2009 Padang earthquake, Indonesia; 2010 Port-au-Prince earthquake.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, vol.47, no.5, 2015, 385-393

10.2340/16501977-1965

Nigerian Realities: Can we ignore Traditional Leadership in developing successful CBR?

VERMEER, Bertine
CORNIELJE, Marije T
CORNIELJE, Huib
POST, Erik B
IDAH, Mike A
2015

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Purpose: To study the role of traditional leaders (Sarakuna) who provide a form of social welfare for persons with disabilities in the Hausa society of Northern Nigeria. From the results of this study, lessons are derived for cooperation with Sarakuna in (emerging) Community Based Rehabilitation programmes.

 

Methods: A literature study was done using different (non-)electronic sources. In addition, 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted with different stakeholders (e.g., non-governmental organisations, disabled people’s organisations), and 8 focus group discussions were held with (leaders of) persons with a disability. Question-led analysis was utilised by considering 4 dimensions: rehabilitation outcomes, rehabilitation services, involvement of beneficiaries, and social acceptability.

 

Results: Not much literature is available on the role of traditional leadership in rehabilitation programmes and social welfare. Nevertheless, this study found indications that traditional leadership is still present in contemporary NorthernNigeria. Some Sarakuna improve the socio-economic position of persons with disabilities by functioning as mediators and by their ability to provide social insurance. Their cooperation with multiple stakeholders enables them to distribute food and clothes. Also, since they possess essential information, NGOs are helped to access the community of persons with disabilities. Sarakuna are in a position to promote the inclusion and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities, but often lack necessary skills and training; yet, Community Based Rehabilitation programmes often ignore them.

 

Conclusions and Implications: Community Based Rehabilitation programmes should take better note of social contexts and therefore should also work in the specific context of traditional leadership. In this way, rehabilitation programmes are more likely to meet the expectations of persons with disability.

Children with disabilities and disaster risk reduction : a review

RONOH, Steve
GAILLARD, JC
MARLOWE, Jay
March 2015

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Children with disabilities are often excluded from disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives and, as a result, can experience amplified physical, psychological, and educational vulnerabilities. Research on children with disabilities during disasters is lacking, and their potential value in helping shape inclusive policies in DRR planning has been largely overlooked by both researchers and policymakers. This article highlights the existing research and knowledge gap. The review includes literature from two areas of scholarship in relation to disasters—children, and people with disabilities—and provides a critique of the prevailing medical, economic, and social discourses that conceptualize disability and associated implications for DRR. The article analyzes the different models in which disability has been conceptualized, and the role this has played in the inclusion or exclusion of children with disabilities in DRR activities and in determining access to necessary resources in the face of disaster. Finally, the study explores possible pathways to studying the contribution and involvement of children with disabilities in DRR.

 

International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, Volume 6 Issue 1

Interrogating the impact of scientific and technological development on disabled children in India and beyond

WOLBRING, Gregor
GHAI, Anita
2015

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Products of scientific and technological developments are emerging at an ever increasing speed whereby these developments impact the daily life of humans in numerous ways. We focus for this paper on two classes of emerging products; one being social robots and the other being products that are envisioned to increase the cognitive abilities of humans beyond the species-typical and their impact on aspects of childhood such as education and self-identity formation. We analyse the utility and impact of these two classes of products through the lens of the alternative report on India to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Committee on the Rights of Children authored by the by National Disability Network of India and the lens of ability expectations. We posit that the discourses around these two classes of emerging products do not address the problems the alternative report raises, but could heighten the problems identified by the report. We believe the two classes of products highlight the need for ability expectation governance.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2015, Vol. 2 No. 2

A 10-year literature review of the impact of community based rehabilitation

BOWERS, Bob
KUIPERS, Pim
DORSETT, Pat
2015

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A thematic literature review of the impact of CommunityBased Rehabilitation (CBR) in low to middle-income countries was conducted. The review covered the period from 2002 to 2012, and the CBR Matrix was utilised to provide structure for the evidence. Seven studies that investigated the impact of CBR interventions in developing countries were included. A modified harvest plot was used to summarise the strength and nature of evidence provided in relation to the CBR Matrix. Quantitative studies tended to focus on the Health domain, while qualitative studies generally focussed on the Social and Empowerment domains. No evidence of CBR impact was found in the Education domain, and very little evidence was found pertaining to Livelihood. Overall, the evidence base related to the impact of CBR remains limited, both in terms of quantity and robustness of design.

 

 

Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development (DCID), Vol 26, No 2

The right to adequate housing for persons with disabilities living in cities

UNITED NATIONS HABITAT
2015

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“This study reviews the literature on the meaning and impact of the right to adequate housing for persons with disabilities in cities. It uses the foundational framework of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), and demonstrates how the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) provides a new understanding of this complex right”

 

Adequate Housing Series

Disability and Forced Migration: Critical Intersectionalities

PISANI, Maria
GRECH, Shaun
2015

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The vast majority of the world’s displaced people are hosted in the global South, in the poorest countries in the world. This is also a space with the highest numbers of disabled people, many of who live in extreme and chronic poverty. This poverty, alongside deprivation, wars, conflict, and environmental disasters is what drives people to flee, in search of security. This includes disabled people. In spite of this, this population (disabled forced migrants) continues to be cast in a shadow, of epistemological, ontological and practical invisibility. It is hardly theorised in forced migration studies and rarely contemplated in humanitarian intervention. The lives of disabled forced migrants are cast aside in a Eurocentric disability studies that remains global North-centric and focused, while Southern contexts and histories and the geopolitics that envelope them, are forgotten or never known. Migration theory grows without the disabled person, disability studies without the migrant, and practice without the disabled migrant. In this paper, we explore the disability/forced migration nexus with a view to understanding some of the critical intersectionalities that emerge, and their implications for theory and practice. We trace elements of the forced migration trajectory, from exodus, to crossing international borders, to life in protracted refugee camps, the use of networks and smugglers, to those related to national and human security. We argue that forced migration studies, as well as humanitarian practice continue to be premised on and adopting an ableist approach focused on heteronormative productive bodies, while disability studies, with a corpus of work premised on an assumption of citizenship, has failed to critically engage with issues of sovereignty, borders and bodies that lie beyond the protection of the Nation State. In this paper, we also question and contest dominant and hegemonic frames that are historically contextualized, alongside discourses and structures that not only produce forced migration, but also serve to perpetuate the global divide and inequalities. We conclude by calling for a critical interrogation of theoretical perspectives in both forced migration and disability studies, in policy and humanitarian action, and to work towards a praxis geared towards social justice for disabled forced migrants.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2015, Vol. 2 No. 1

Disability and displacement in times of conflict: Rethinking migration, flows and boundaries

BERGHS, Maria
2015

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In this paper, I try to understand the changed relationship of conflict to migration as seen through a lens of fluidity and what that entails for disabled people - particularly what boundaries and borders are at stake. Secondly, I investigate migration through the idea of ‘ontological insecurity’ and try and link this to ideas of (dis)/ableism. Then, I attend to what happens when boundaries are enforced in the humanitarianism of a refugee camp, to explain how territoriality of such a setting unmakes people into ‘strangers’. I show how the structural violence of poverty leads to a necessary fluidity and illustrate how people use this to combat the ‘unmaking’ of the self and reinsert themselves back into social life and relationships. Lastly, I examine the place of biolegal politics in medical humanitarianism and explore the relationship to ‘necropolitics’ and its consequences.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2015, Vol. 2 No. 1

‘Nowhere to be found’: disabled refugees and asylum seekers within the Australian resettlement landscape

SOLDATIC, Karen
SOMERS, Kelly
BUCKLEY, Amma
FLEAY, Caroline
2015

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Australia has long placed restrictions on the immigration of people with disabilities. While recent civil society mobilisation has forced some shift in policy, it is far from clear whether this will result in people with disabilities being accepted as immigrants. The issue is complicated further for people defined as ‘refugees’ and ‘asylum seekers’ who have encountered the migration restrictions on disability. As a result of this policy landscape, there is limited rigorous research that seeks to understand the social inclusion and participation of disabled refugees and asylum seekers within the resettlement process. An extensive review reveals that refugees and asylum seekers with disabilities remain largely absent from both resettlement literature and disability research. This paper summarises the limited available research in the area around the following themes: processes of offshore migration and the way that disability is assessed under Australia’s refugee legislation; the uncertainty of the prevalence of disability within refugee and asylum seeker communities; the provision of resettlement services, both mainstream and disability-specific, through the transitional period and beyond; and the invisibility of asylum seekers with disabilities in Australia’s immigration detention centres, community-based arrangements and offshore processing centres. To conclude, the paper outlines implications for further research, policy and practice in the Australian context.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2015, Vol. 2 No. 1

Using Postcolonial Perspectives to Consider Rehabilitation with Children with Disabilities: The Bamenda-Toronto Dialogue

NIXON, Stephanie A
COCKBURN, Lynn
ACHEINEGEH, Ruth
BRADLEY, Kim
CAMERON, Debra
MUE, Peter N
SAMUEL, Nyingcho
GIBSON, Barbara E
2015

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This article discusses tensions in children’s rehabilitation that came to light through a series of ‘postcolonial dialogues’ amongst Canadian and Cameroonian participants. We defined ‘tensions’ as conflicts, contrasting ways of seeing things, and/or taken-forgranted ideas that shape issues related to rehabilitation for children with disabilities. These tensions were identified, articulated, and deconstructed through an iterative, multi-phase dialogue among eight individuals who identify as people with disabilities, rehabilitation providers, and/or rehabilitation researchers in Cameroon and Canada. The tensions discussed in this article problematize conceptualizations of disability and of client-centred care, the role of pain as a reinforcement tool in rehabilitation, and assumptions about poverty and religion in the context of rehabilitation practice. We present this synthesis to achieve several aims: (1) to provide multiple ways for rehabilitation providers and others to better understand these particular substantive issues; (2) to model the use of a critical lens as an approach for thinking about rehabilitation that promotes reflective and deliberate practice and that can be applied across contexts; and, (3) to promote dialogue about postcolonial and other critical perspectives on rehabilitation with children and with other groups.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2015, Vol. 2 No. 2

Disabling streets or disabling education? Challenging a deficit model of street-connectedness

CORCORAN, Su Lyn
2015

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Current interventions aiming to assist street-connected children in making the transition from the street, prioritise a return to mainstream primary education. In so doing, implementing organisations equate their ideas of a normative childhood with school attendance. This article challenges the appropriateness of such priorities by exploring the experiences of teachers in four Central Kenya primary schools and examining Kenyan education policy related to street-connected children. The paper argues that teachers’ belief in their inability to support the learning of street-connected children alongside the linguistic loopholes within the wording of educational policy to allow for alternative education systems, formal education can further compound processes of marginalisation. Findings further indicate that current education policy and practice can fail to effectively incorporate street-connected children and to some extent be described as disabling.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2015, Vol. 2 No. 2

Revolutionary entanglements: Transversal mappings of disability in the favela

NASCIMENTO, Ashley Do
SKOTT-MYHRE, Hans A
SKOTT-MYHRE, Kathleen S G
2015

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This paper examines, complicates and contests the implicit discourse of children living in poverty as inherently disabled. Challenging the media portrayal of young people living in the favelas in Rio de Janeiro within the neo-liberal discourse of development, the article will draw on the experience of one of the author’s (Ashley Do Nascimento) experience as a child and youth care worker and ethnographer in a favela in Rio. An argument will be made for re-thinking dis-ability in relation to poverty and childhood in the global south.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2015, Vol. 2 No. 2

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