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Matrix of five types of ECD HIV/AIDS interventions, suggested outcome indicators, and comments

WORLD BANK
2004

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This is a matrix of the five recommended types of Early Childhood Development (ECD) and HIV and AIDS interventions. It includes suggestions of delivery services to young children, education and support for families and caregivers, training and support of care providers, sensitisation through the mass media and community mobilisation. It provides indicators and comments for each of these categories and is a useful overview of the key interventions which could take place in this field

Double exposure : disability and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa

SWEENEY, Jacinta
2004

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This paper argues that the situation regarding disability and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is in need of more attention. People with various disabilities are more exposed to contracting HIV/AIDS: firstly, because they are deprived of their right to HIV/AIDS information; secondly, because disabled women in particular are sexually exploited due to society’s paralleling of disability with worthlessness. Fundamentally, people with disabilities are further exposed to HIV/AIDS because they are socially excluded. The paper uses the social exclusion framework to argue that there is a need to view social exclusion, disability and HIV/AIDS as part of a relationship. It reviews the debate of definitions of disability and presents various scenarios that illustrate the overlap between poverty and disability, the inaccessibility of HIV/AIDS information, education and communication (IEC) and attitudinal discrimination towards disabled people. The response of some key donors, governments and non-governmental organisations to the situation regarding disability and HIV/AIDS is also reviewed. The paper concludes that the social exclusion framework is useful in order to understand the conceptualisation of disability and that this conceptualisation must be adapted to the social model, which removes the onus of disability from the person to society

The development, implementation and evaluation of interventions for the care of orphans and vulnerable children in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe : a literature review of evidence-based interventions for home-based child-centred development

STREBEL, Anna
2004

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This short paper gives a literature review of many programmes aimed at supporting orphans and vulnerable groups in the southern Africa region. It is not an in-depth survey, but provides a compact and accessible guide to the many different community initiatives that have been undertaken. It finishes with a short section on the lessons to be learned from care programmes

Helping children in the time of HIV and AIDS

CHLDREN'S INSTITUTE
2004

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The information and recommendations in this clear, accessible publication come from an in-depth multi-site qualitative research study conducted by the Children’s Institute between 2001 and 2003. The research explored the life experiences of children in communities heavily affected by HIV and AIDS. It also looked at the experiences of their caregivers and service providers. This brief publication is aimed at individuals and organisations and considers which children to help, who should help, how to strengthen community responses, and related fundamental questions about starting to take action to help children

Women, girls and HIV/AIDS : vulnerabilities and opportunities [whole issue]

HEALTH ACTION INFORMATION NETWORK (HAIN)
2004

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Examines the factors that make women vulnerable to HIV. Articles look at gender and human rights dimensions of HIV/AIDS; the situation of migrant women; and interlinking factors that lure young Cambodian women to work in other places, and increases their risk for HIV infection. There are also articles on research into microbicides and the advocacy of the Global Coalition of Women and AIDS

Symposium on sharing best practice in orphans and vulnerable children programming : workshop report November 2004

WORKING GROUP ON ORPHANS AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN, UK CONSORTIUM ON AIDS AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
2004

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This CD-ROM documents a symposium dedicated to sharing best practice in orphans and vulnerable children programming. It includes the symposium report, and slides and 2-page summaries of each presentation. In addition, it includes a number of useful publications produced by the by the UK AIDS NGOs Consortium's Working Group on Orphans and Vulnerable Children member organisations and partners. The symposium was organised around five key themes: 1. Strengthen the capacity of families to protect and care for orphans and vulnerable children by prolonging the lives of parents and providing economic, psychosocial and other support; 2. Mobilize and support community-based responses; 3. Ensure access for orphans and vulnerable children to essential services, including education, health care, birth registration and others; 4. Ensure that governments protect the most vulnerable children through improved policy and legislation and by channelling resources to families and communities; 5. Raise awareness at all levels through advocacy and social mobilization to create a supportive environment for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS

Safe love, safe life : youth-for-youth HIV/AIDS prevention in the Balkans

INTERNATIONAL PLANNED PARENTHOOD FEDERATION (IPPF)
2004

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This document outlines aims and progress of an IPPF project, 'Promoting Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and Human Rights for Youth and Adolescents in the Balkans'. The project took a holistic approach to prevention, accommodating for and responding to a plurality of youth needs, addressing issues such as discrimination, prejudice, rights and gender and integrating HIV and AIDS into the discussion of overall sexual health. Lessons learnt include the need to create a network among NGOs; to reach socially excluded young people; to raise awareness of HIV and AIDS as everyone's problem; to make a greater use of the media and to be prepared to work with other NGOs. This report will be useful reading for anyone working in HIV prevention projects, especially for NGOs operating in the Balkans

Family and community interventions for children affected by AIDS

RICHTER, Linda
MANEGOLD, Julie
PATHER, Riashnee
2004

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This report, based on over 400 documents, reviews the available scientific and programmatic information on interventions aimed at children, families, households and communities. Specifically, the report considers: home-based child-centred development programmes focussing on health and nutrition; psychosocial care and management of inherited assets; interventions directed at supporting families and households to cope with the HIV/AIDS problem and interventions directed at building the capacities of communities to provide long-term care and support for children and households. It also contains an annotated bibliography of available literature in this area in Section 2. The main emphasis of the report is on intervention principles rather than on actual program implementation details as it is widely understood that interventions need to be tailored for each particular situation. There is no specific focus on very young children but interventions to support children, families and communities run into each other with inevitable overlaps

Taking better care? Review of a decade of work with orphans and vulnerable children in Rakai, Uganda

WITTER, Sophie
CALDER, George
AHIMBISIBWE, Timothy
2004

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Taking Better Care looks at the situation facing orphaned and vulnerable children in the Rakai District in Uganda and at the legacy of Save the Children's Child Social Care Project (CSCP) there. The report examines the impact of the CSCP, implemented between 1991 and 1996, and at trends in Rakai since the CSCP ended, as well as outlining the lessons learned and providing recommendations for future action. It concludes that in order to support orphans and vulnerable children in a long-term, sustainable way, child-care models now need to incorporate a maximum of state support and civil society mobilisation, combined with more traditional family support

Advocacy guide: HIV/AIDS prevention among injecting users : workshop manual

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
2004

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This useful, accessible manual provides an overview of advocacy and describes advocacy processes, methods and approaches in detail, including strategy development, community-based approaches, and working with the media. The final section provides advice on developing arguments and provides a wide range of question-and-answer style stances on controversial issues (eg 'needle programmes send the wrong message'). The final chapter is a comprehensive list of further resources. This focuses mostly on advocacy and HIV, but includes some materials addressing harm reduction and injecting drug users

A parrot on your shoulder : a guide for people starting to work with orphans and vulnerable children

INTERNATIONAL HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
2004

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This book is designed to help people who work with children initiate meaningful dialogue and engage them in a cheerful and positive manner. It considers issues around encouraging children’s participation, why it is important, and what to include when planning children’s participation. It discusses issues of safety in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and why, how and when to use games. It contains activities and ideas on how to include children in participatory processes

Meeting the special needs of young children : the way forward

WORLD BANK
2004

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The ECD HIV/AIDS Workshop in Tanzania 12 - 16 April 2004, co-sponsored by the World Bank, UNICEF and UNAIDS, was the first of its kind in Sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives were to accelerate the early child development response in the region to learn how to access World Bank funding for ECD AIDS activities and to prepare an ECD HIV/AIDS action plan. This report gives a short summary of the workshop

Assessing the costs of a rural PMTCT pilot site in the Eastern Cape

DESMOND, Chris
BOYCE, Gerard
Eds
2004

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Mother to child transmission is by far the largest source of HIV infection in children below the age of 15. Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programmes have been implemented nationally in South Africa since 2000. This report presents the results of research conducted at a pilot site in the Eastern Cape into the use of resources associated with the implementation of a PMTCT programme. It is part of a larger research project that seeks to examine and compare the costs of providing nevirapine and AZT in both urban and rural contexts. It is hoped that this study will contribute to the national programme of monitoring and evaluating the costs and effectiveness of PMTCT interventions in South Africa

A description of the selected interventions for the care of orphans and vulnerable children in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe

DLAMINI, Phetsile K
2004

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This report contributes to phase one of a research programme which explores the social, political, economic and systemic determinants that affect vulnerability to HIV. This report documents existing interventions to gain more in-depth knowledge of interventions at grassroots level, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and consider opportunities and threats; analyse and assess the outcomes of such interventions and whether objectives were met, including the impact on vulnerable children, their families and communities, considering nutritional and education status, and psychosocial well-being; ascertain the level of awareness around HIV and AIDS, and especially of prevention strategies and care

HIV/AIDS and the public sector workforce : an action guide for managers

RAU, Bill
2004

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The guide is designed for human resource managers, employee welfare managers, medical officers and labor representatives in government ministries and agencies. It will assist in designing and developing prevention, care, and support programmes, and in mitigating the effect of staff losses due to AIDS in the public workplace. It includes information on the effects of HIV on the public sector, the components of prevention, care and support programmes and policies in the public sector, methods to gain the support of senior management and employees for HIV/AIDS workplace programmes and policies, background information on the disease, and country experiences

HIV/AIDS and disability

SOURCE INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SUPPORT CENTRE
2004

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This Key list highlights essential information resources on HIV and AIDS and disability. In recent years, research has identified HIV and AIDS as a significant and relatively unrecognised problem among disabled populations worldwide. The research has demonstrated that people with disabilities are at risk of HIV infection; women with disability, disabled members of ethnic and minority communities, disabled adolescents, and disabled people who live in institutions are particularly at risk. In addition, HIV and AIDS educational, testing and clinical programmes remain largely inaccessible to people with disabilities. Over the last few years awareness of the importance of such work has increased, more HIV projects with a disability focus are being initiated and more resources are becoming available

HIV/AIDS and early childhood development (ECD)

SOURCE INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SUPPORT CENTRE
2004

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This Key list highlights essential information resources on HIV and AIDS and early childhood development. Very young children living in HIV/AIDS affected communities are often ignored in development and HIV/AIDS policy and programming responses. Children aged 0-8 are at a critical stage of their development and need to receive adequate nutrition, healthcare, educational and psychosocial support. Families and communities under pressure to cope with the impact of the pandemic find it difficult to meet all of their developmental needs. This list of resources includes evidence of the need to address the needs of very young children living with and affected by HIV/AIDS in development interventions and strategies at community, national and international levels. There are suggestions on how this could be achieved including key tools, manuals and case studies of current work

Disability and HIV & AIDS : a participatory rapid assessment of the vulnerability, impact and coping mechanisms of the disabled people on HIV/AIDS

NGANZI, Patrick
MATONHODZE, George
2004

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This study assesses the vulnerability, impact and coping mechanisms of disabled people on HIV and AIDS, and suggests strategies for developing an HIV and AIDS programme for disabled people’s organisations. Using participatory methodologies of inquiry, the study found that disabled people perceive themselves to be at higher risk of HIV infection due to their disability, regardless of their awareness levels. Their social exclusion from the mainstream HIV/AIDS services makes the situation worse. The study revealed that the many myths and misconceptions around HIV and disability increase the vulnerability of disabled people to HIV/AIDS, such as the belief that sex with a disabled person cleanses a person of HIV/AIDS. It also revealed that disabled people have limited access to HIV/AIDS information and limited use of HIV/AIDS services mainly because of the nature of their disability, the location of the facilities and the attitudes of service providers. In conclusion, the study revealed that disabled people are at a higher risk of infection by sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS due to their exclusion from mainstream HIV interventions. This situation is further exacerbated by the lack of policy framework on disability and HIV and AIDS

Disability and HIV & AIDS : a participatory rapid assessment of the vulnerability, impact, and coping mechanisms of parents of disabled children on HIV & AIDS

NGANZI, Patrick
MATONHODZE, George
2004

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This study assesses the vulnerability, impact and coping mechanisms of parents of disabled children on HIV/AIDS and suggests strategies for developing an HIV and AIDS programme. Using participatory methodologies of inquiry, the study found that the parents of disabled children are at a higher risk of infection to sexually transmitted infections (STI) and/or HIV and that the risk increases as the parents try to cope with having a disabled child. Therefore, a disabled child in a family acts as one of the pre-disposing factors to the parents' infection and when an infection happens in a home, the quality of care for the very disabled child is compromised causing a vicious cycle of disability and HIV/AIDS at the household level.The study recommends that target-specific interventions should be designed and implemented for the parents of disabled children to address issues of HIV/AIDS and disability, empowerment and gender issues as well as sexual reproductive health

Scaling up HIV/AIDS programs : a manual for multisectoral planning

HELFENBEIN, Saul
SEVERO, Catherine
2004

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[Publisher's abstract] : The social and economic complexity of the HIV/AIDS epidemic means that a plan for scaling up must be a multisectoral undertaking. Planning and implementing HIV/AIDS programs occur in four stages: (1) the strategy stage, where a country collects baseline data and defines its national goal, (2) the stage of creating partnerships, designing activities, and allocating resources to achieve the goal, (3) the capacity-building stage, and (4) the day-to-day implementation of activities and the institutionalization of processes and systems. This manual is invaluable to those responsible for the second stage. It explains in detail how to determine resource needs and provides templates for defining needs in all areas related to HIV/AIDS, such as medicines, supplies, equipment, training, and construction. It includes instructions and templates for calculating costs and creating budgets. The process yields plans and working groups in areas such as human capacity development, operations research, and monitoring and evaluation

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