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Minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES (IFRC)
November 2018

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The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) Minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies (2018) is in its second edition. The first pilot version of the IFRC Minimum standard commitments to gender and diversity in emergency programming was published in 2015. The pilot version has been tested globally by Red Cross and Red Crescent staff, volunteers and management in low-, medium- and high-scale disasters and humanitarian crises. This edition is the result of three years of testing, revision and feedback from protection, gender and inclusion (PGI) and sectoral specialists. New chapters, such as cash-based interventions, have been added as well as a stronger focus on sexual and gender-based violence and disability inclusion to align with the commitments of the IFRC and its member National Societies. This edition is accompanied by the IFRC Protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies toolkit (2018–2019).

This guidance presents Red Cross and Red Crescent staff, members and volunteers with a set of minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion (PGI) in emergencies. It aims to ensure that the emergency programming of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and National Societies provides dignity, access, participation and safety for all people affected by disasters and crises.

It provides practical guidance on how to mainstream these four principles in all sectors, based on a consideration of gender, age, disability and other diversity factors. This includes limiting people’s exposure to the risks of violence and abuse and ensuring that emergency programmes “do no harm”.

The standards address protection, gender and inclusion concerns by providing practical ways to engage with all members of the community, respond to their differing needs and draw on their capacities in the most non-discriminatory and effective way. This helps to ensure that local perspectives guide assistance delivery. The standards also support incorporation of the seven Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

Improving social inclusion and empowerment for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries: why does it matter and what works?

WHITE, Howard
SARAN, Ashrita
POLLOCK, Sarah
KUPER, Hannah
July 2018

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The aim of the Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) is to provide an assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to improve social inclusion and empowerment for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The studies included in this REA are taken from the Disability EGM prepared by the Campbell Collaboration for DFID under the auspices of the Centre for Excellence for Development Impact and Learning (CEDIL). Eligible studies included systematic reviews and impact evaluations published in English from 2000 onwards that assessed the effectiveness of interventions for people with disabilities in LMICs. The REA focused on studies identified by the EGM process that included ‘social inclusion’ or ‘empowerment’ as study outcomes and used the World Health Organization CBR matrix as a framework to categorise the different interventions and outcomes considered by the studies available. Evidence limitations and gaps were identified. 

There were 16 eligible primary studies, including studies conducted in 12 countries: Bangladesh (two studies), Brazil, Chile, China (two studies), Ethiopia, India (three studies), Kenya (two studies), Malaysia, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, and Vietnam (two studies). Five of the studies concern interventions for people with physical or sensory impairments, nine for people with mental health or neurological conditions, and two for all disability types.

Managing epidemics - Key facts about major deadly diseases

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2018

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The manual is structured in three parts.

  • Part One “Epidemics of the 21st century” provides vital insights on the main features of the 21st century upsurge and the indispensable elements to manage them.
  • Part Two “Be in the know. 10 key facts about 15 deadly diseases” contains key information about 15 diseases (Ebola Virus Disease, Lassa Fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Yellow Fever, Zika, Chikungunya, Avian and Other Zoonotic Influenza, Seasonal Influenza, Pandemic Influenza, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Cholera, Monkeypox, Plague, Leptospirosis and Meningococcal Meningitis). This section provides tips on the interventions required to respond to epidemics of all these diseases.
  • Part Three “Tool boxes” gives an overview and summarized guidance on some other important topics, including: the role of WHO, the International Coordinating Group, laboratory diagnosis and shipment of infectious diseases substances, and vector control.

 

The handbook enables the three levels of WHO – its Headquarters, Regional Offices and Country Offices to work efficiently together by building the foundations of a shared conceptual and thinking framework, which includes common terminology. 

Evaluation of disability-inclusive development at UNDP

INDEPENDENT EVALUATION OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
March 2017

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The Independent Evaluation Office (IEO) presents its evaluation of disability-inclusive development at the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). This work was carried out in 2016 and analyses UNDP’s contribution to disability-inclusive development during the period 2008-2016, which corresponds to the current and past UNDP strategic plans, and to the period within which the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has been in force. The work of UNDP was considered through the four key principles of the CRPD, namely nondiscrimination, participation and inclusion, accessibility and accountability. Eleven country office visits were made and 337 people interviewed. Key findings (24) are provided, conclusions made and future strategic planning put forward.

 

Report available in summary (32 p) or in full. Video also available (51 min).

Inclusive disaster risk reduction

LAFRENIERE, Annie
WALBAUM, Veronique
2017

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This policy paper defines the themes of inclusive disaster risk reduction and explains how these activities fit into the HI mandate. It also identifies the target population and defines modalities of intervention–standard expected outcomes, standard activities–as well as monitoring and evaluation indicators.

Protection mainstreaming toolkit field - testing version

GLOBAL PROTECTION CLUSTER
2017

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The Global Protection Cluster (GPC) Protection Mainstreaming Toolkit is designed as a companion to the GPC Protection Mainstreaming Training Package.The Training Package is the starting point to understand the concept and principles of “protection mainstreaming”. The Toolkit is designed to practically assist humanitarian workers to mainstream protection at the individual programme or project level as well as at the collective strategic and coordination level. The Toolkit targets coordination structures (e.g. Clusters, Inter-Cluster Coordination Groups, and Humanitarian Country Teams) and donors by providing the tools and necessary advice to mainstream protection into their strategies and throughout the Humanitarian Programme Cycle (HPC). It also targets operational organisations (e.g. UN, INGOs and NNGOs), with the tools to mainstream protection into their organisational procedures and programmes. Finally, the Toolkit allows humanitarian workers to monitor and evaluate the process and the impact of having mainstreamed protection on the affected population.

Physiotherapy care for adults with paraplegia due to traumatic cause: A review

GUPTA, Nalina
RAJA, Kavitha
October 2016

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Abstract

 

 

Purpose: This review aimed to identify the practice guidelines/ recommendations for physiotherapy management in acute /post-acute/ chronic/long-term phase of rehabilitation of clients with paraplegia due to traumatic causes.

 

Methods: Of the 120 articles retrieved, 26 met the inclusion criteria. After quality appraisal, 16 articles were included in the study. Data were extracted under the sub-headings: physiotherapy care in acute, chronic and long-term community stage; expected outcomes; effect of physical interventions; morbidities; wheelchair characteristics and standing.

 

Results: There is strong evidence in support of strength and fitness training, and gait training. Parameters of strength training (frequency, duration and intensity) vary. There is lack of evidence on passive movements, stretching, bed mobility, transfers and wheelchair propulsion. Preservation of upper limb functions is an important consideration in caring for clients with paraplegia.

 

Conclusion: Many areas of rehabilitation interventions remain inadequately explored and there is a need for high quality studies on rehabilitation protocols. Client preferences and feasibility are other areas that should be explored.

 

Limitations: The search criteria of articles in the English language or articles translated in English is a reason for this limitation. Articles related to advanced therapeutic interventions such as robot-assisted training, and transcranial electrical and magnetic stimulation were excluded from the study.

Chap. 2: Intervention Cost-Effectiveness: Overview of Main Messages

DT, Jamison
JG, Breman
AR, Measham
et al
September 2016

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"Although efficient spending on health has always been a desirable goal, it is particularly critical in the face of recent threats, such as HIV/AIDS and drug-resistant bacteria, as well as the problems presented by increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), that threaten to roll back the significant health gains achieved in the past two decades. This book is an opportunity to assess anew the costs associated with and the health gains attainable from specific interventions and thereby better inform the allocation of new health funding." 

Interventions for children affected by armed conflict: a systematic review of mental health and psychosocial support in low- and middle-income countries

JORDANS, Mark. J. D.
PIGOTT, Hugo
TOL, Wietse A
January 2016

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Over one billion children under the age of 18 live in countries affected by armed conflict. This systematic review replicates an earlier study, aiming to provide a comprehensive update of the most current developments in interventions for children affected by armed conflict. For the period 2009– 2015, a total of 1538 records were collected. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, and the included interventions involve data from 4858 children. Two types of analysis were conducted. First, for an account of intervention descriptions, thematic analysis was used to summarise themes, with a specific focus on cultural adaptations. Second, all evaluation studies reporting quantitative data were categorised into level of evidence (1 = randomized controlled trials, all types; 2 = quasi-experimental design and controlled studies; 3 = non-controlled design; 4 = case studies) 

Current Psychiatry Reports, vol 18 (9), doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0648-z

Interventions to improve the labour market situation of adults with physical and/or sensory disabilities in low and middle-income countries : a systematic review

TIPNEY, Janice
et al
November 2015

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This systematic review analyses the methodology, collection, and results of fourteen individual studies that examined the effectiveness of fifteen different intervention methods to assist students with disabilities in low and middle income countries to improve the labour market situation

Campbell Systematic Reviews 2015:20

 

The need for a rehabilitation model to address the disparities of public healthcare for people living with HIV in South Africa

CHETTY, Verusia
HANASS-HANCOCK, Jill
June 2015

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This article advocates for the development and implementation of a model of care to guide rehabilitation of people living with HIV in South Africa. The paper begins by presenting the emerging evidence of rehabilitation in the context of HIV, and goes on to identify appropriate steps to develop a model of care based on this that would be applicable to South Africa

African Journal of Disability 4(1), Art. #137

Malawi : DoDMA exploring indigenous knowledge on disasters

KAZEMBE, Ida
May 2015

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This article contains an interview with Mulder Mkutumula, Mitigation Officer at the Department of Disaster Management Affairs in Malawi. Mr. Mkutumula discusses the importance of raising awareness and understanding of disaster risk reduction in Malawi, especially in the context of the 2015 floods

Mental health recommendations included in Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction

UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY
March 2015

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“The expert group was formed to address this challenge, bringing together UN experts to review evidence on mental well-being and disability related to disasters, share lessons learned and best practices, and develop recommendations for mainstreaming these issues in Disaster Risk Education.” This UN University report illustrates how disability and mental health should be highlighted as a priority in disaster risk reduction planning and execution. In addition, the group responsible for the report suggest that disability and mental health be integrated into any future discussions related to security and human rights. Finally, the group recommended that a United Nations working group be established to explore the ways in which policies and action effect or how these individuals can affect policy within the United Nations. 

Making it work : good practices for disability-inclusive development and humanitarian action

ADAMS, Lisa
GUY, Michael
LAST, Ulrike
2015

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“This practical guide outlines the Making it Work methodology. Making it Work aims to mobilise a group of organisations around a specific issue, document good examples of good practices and then support specific target groups to replicate or scale-up these practices...It provides a straightforward and flexible methodology that can be adapted to different organisations, topics, settings, strategies and available resources” 

Andrew Mohanraj : mental well-being, disability and disaster risk reduction

MOHANRAJ, Andrew
January 2015

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This video is an interview of Andrew Mohanraj, Regional Mental Health Development Advisor from the Christian Blind Mission (CBM) International. He explains why mental well-being and disability are important issues to consider in disaster preparedness and recovery, how efforts to reduce disaster risks can better address the needs of persons with mental and physical disabilities, and lessons learned from his own experience

A home-based rehabilitation intervention for people living with HIV and disability in a resource-poor community, KwaZulu-Natal : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

COBBING, Saul
HANASS-HANCOCK, Jill
MYEZWA, Hellen
2015

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In this paper, the researchers develop a needs-based home-based rehabilitation programme for people living with HIV in order to improve their quality of life and functional ability. The study aims to  provide rehabilitation professionals and researchers with evidence that can be utilised to improve existing rehabilitation interventions for people living with HIV.

The paper outlines a randomised control trial to test the programme, to be conducted at a public hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The trial will assess the participants’ quality of life, perceived level of disability, functional ability and endurance

Trials 16:491

How to include and empower the vulnerable in disaster risk reduction

OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE (ODI)
November 2014

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 “This event is one of a new event series Rethinking International Policy for Reducing Disaster Risk hosted by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) and Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN). The series examines some of the more thorny issues involved in renegotiating the Hyogo Framework for Action, including public private partnerships, use of risk assessments, fragile states and conflict and effective governance for DRR, amongst others”

ODI seminar “How to include and empower the vulnerable in disaster risk reduction”

London, UK

25 November 2014

The disability and vulnerability focal points (DVFP)

AURENCHE, Benoit
et al
May 2014

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Disability and Vulnerability Focal Points (DVFPs) are one of the ways in which Handicap International addresses the need to take effective, concrete action on behalf of those made vulnerable – including people with disabilities – in emergencies. DVFPs are organised as a network including DVFP structures and almost always mobile teams, whose role is making sure that aid reaches vulnerable people, rather than waiting for vulnerable people to reach the aid. This guide is intended as a practical tool for setting up a complete DVFP mechanism

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