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Gender equality and disability inclusion within water, sanitation and hygiene: exploring integrated approaches to addressing inequality

WATERAID
CBM AUSTRALIA
KILSBY, Di
et al
March 2017

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WaterAid, in collaboration with CBM Australia and Di Kilsby consulting have published a paper to examine the linkages, common approaches and learning in both areas. Today we launch a Discussion Paper ‘Integrating gender equality and disability inclusion in water, sanitation and hygiene: exploring integrated approaches to addressing inequality’. 

The discussion paper explores: 
• How the water, sanitation and hygiene sector can continue to improve practice on gender and disability
• How an integrated approach to the two intersectional issues of gender and disability help us to ‘do development better’

The discussion paper provides reflections on applying integrated gender and disability approaches to rights- based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programs in Timor-Leste and Papua New Guinea.  
The paper is intended as a conversation starter for WASH program managers and other development practitioners looking to strengthen their conceptual and practical understanding of challenges and successes in integrating gender and disability in WASH and those looking to move towards more transformative and sustainable practice.

Improving the education response to HIV and AIDS : Lessons of partner efforts in coordination, harmonisation, alignment, information sharing and monitoring in Jamaica, Kenya, Thailand and Zambia

VISSER-VALFREY, Muriel
March 2008

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This report presents the overall findings from case study exercises carried out in Jamaica, Kenya, Thailand and Zambia to examine the quality, effectiveness and coordination of the education sector's response to the HIV epidemic. The report also makes recommendations for improving coordination across agencies in support of country-level and global actions. The case studies were carried out by the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team on Education

HIV and AIDS treatment education : a critical component of efforts to ensure universal access to prevention, treatment and care

UNAIDS INTER AGENCY TASK TEAM (IATT) ON EDUCATION
June 2006

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The expansion of access to ART is significantly improving the lives of people living with HIV and the wellbeing of communities affected by the epidemic. However, stigmatization and discrimination and poor adherence threaten to weaken the full potential of drug treatment and medical care. This paper looks at the contribution that treatment education can make to maximise the impact of greater ART accessibility and improved care provision. It takes a wide-ranging approach to education, which should include treatment literacy, advocacy and community mobilisation. It takes the view that treatment preparedness can only be achieved through the full involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS. An effective strategy will also rely on inter-sectoral collaboration between governments, the education sector, civil society and development organizations. It argues that the success of interventions will depend on their gender-responsiveness, and in their ability to adopt participatory and interactive methods, targeting different groups and settings in a culturally sensitive manner

Community-based rehabilitation : new challenges

RULE, Sarah
LORENZO, Theresa
WOLMARANS, Milani
2006

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The chapter reports on two CBR programmes in South Africa: the CBR Education and Training for Empowerment (CREATE) programme in Pietermaritzburg and the CBR partnership programme between Disabled People South Africa (DPSA) and the provincial Department of Health in Mpumalanga. It explores the implementation of CBR as a strategy for community development, the development of grassroots workers and challenges facing CBR
Chapter 20 from ‘"Disability and social change : a South African agenda " edited by WATERMEYER, Brian et al

Preventing chronic diseases : a vital investment. Overview

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2005

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This report urges health planners and decision-makers influence multisectoral government action to prevent chronic diseases. It dispels the long-held misunderstandings about heart disease, stroke, cancer and other chronic diseases that have contributed to their global neglect. It states clearly that 80% of the 35 million chronic disease-related deaths in 2005 will occur in low and middle income countries, where they affect men and women at younger ages than in high income countries. Premature deaths in countries such as China, India and the Russian Federation are projected to cost billions of dollars over the next 10 years

Tackle malaria today : give tomorrow a chance

MEEK, Sylvia
WHITTY, Christopher
LINES, Jo
et al
2005

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Every year malaria causes up to three million deaths, and if attempts to control the pandemic fail, drug-resistant malaria will spread even further. This report provides key statistics about the disease and makes a case for an effective and internationally coordinated response to the crisis, which should include drugs development, use of insecticide, increased funding, investment in the delivery systems and human resources and the involvement of the private sector

Providing antiretroviral treatment in southern Africa : a literature review

HEALTH SYSTEMS TRUST
February 2004

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This report outlines experience with ART in a number of sub-Saharan countries. ART is provided through a number of different avenues, which include the public sector, the non-profit sector, the corporate sector and the private sector. ART programmes may involve collaboration between two or more sectors with such partnerships being encouraged in recognition that the magnitude of the task may exceed the capacity of any one sector. Particular attention is paid to Botswana, the first sub-Saharan country to provide ART on a wide-scale through the public sector. The report consists of four chapters, focusing on provision of ART in the different sectors, challenges to scaling up ART programmes (including community preparedness and involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS, and issues for further research

Ethiopian strategic plan for intensifying multi-sectorial HIV/AIDS response 2004-2008

NATIONAL HIV/AIDS PREVENTION AND CONTROL OFFICE (HAPCO)
FEDERAL MINISTRY OF HEALTH (FMOH)
2004

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This document sets out the strategic issues facing Ethiopia as it plans its response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Issues include capacity, community mobilisation, mainstreaming HIV in health programmes, coordination and networking, and targetting vulnerable groups. This document lists objectives under each of these headings, and strategies that will be used to achieve them. Each strategy is then listed with corresponding 'major activities' (milestones), indicators, verification method, and responsible bodies (mostly regional health bureaux, Ministry of Health, HAPCO and other stakeholders). The report includes a statement about budget requirements and allocations, governance, monitoring and evaluation, the roles of the different stakeholders, and a list of relevant documentation (manuals, guidelines, policy documents)

Involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS in treatment preparedness in Thailand : case study

KUMPHITAK, Aree
KASI-SEDAPAN, Siriras
WILSON, David
et al
2004

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People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in Thailand are increasingly encouraged to work in partnership with NGOs to improve access to disease prevention and treatment provision. This case study outlines the impact of this collaboration over a period of four years. PLHA have been directly involved in lobbying and advocacy, helping make ART more widely available, but also promoting prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, focusing on the use of co-trimoxazole. Their involvement as co-providers in care has positively changed the attitude of health care staff towards HIV/AIDS patients. The study concludes that a coordinated collaboration between the public health system, NGOs and PLHA would have important spin-offs for both health care providers and PLHA themselves

Scaling up HIV/AIDS programs : a manual for multisectoral planning

HELFENBEIN, Saul
SEVERO, Catherine
2004

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[Publisher's abstract] : The social and economic complexity of the HIV/AIDS epidemic means that a plan for scaling up must be a multisectoral undertaking. Planning and implementing HIV/AIDS programs occur in four stages: (1) the strategy stage, where a country collects baseline data and defines its national goal, (2) the stage of creating partnerships, designing activities, and allocating resources to achieve the goal, (3) the capacity-building stage, and (4) the day-to-day implementation of activities and the institutionalization of processes and systems. This manual is invaluable to those responsible for the second stage. It explains in detail how to determine resource needs and provides templates for defining needs in all areas related to HIV/AIDS, such as medicines, supplies, equipment, training, and construction. It includes instructions and templates for calculating costs and creating budgets. The process yields plans and working groups in areas such as human capacity development, operations research, and monitoring and evaluation

The provision of reproductive health services in private hospitals in Amman, Jordan

BANKS, Dwayne
SHAHROURI, Manal
September 2003

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This survey of the 30 private acute care hospitals in Amman provides baseline information on services and aims to help the Jordanian Ministry of Health (MOH) understand the steps it must take to enhance its contracting with private sector facilities. The survey measured the availability of a broad range of hospital services, focussing on prenatal, delivery, and postnatal services. It also looked at hospital staffing, and it queried the satisfaction of hospitals with existing contracts with the MOH and their willingness to expand contractual relationships, comply with clinical guidelines, and participate in the health information system. The survey found that, among the 25 respondent hospitals, more than 90 percent offered reproductive health services. While all hospitals expressed a willingness to engage in a contractual relationship with the MOH, many described frustrations with current contracting, and less than half were willing to use the clinical guidelines and the information system

Africa's recovery from conflict : making peace work for the poor

ADDISON, Tony
2003

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This publication is a policy-focused summary of the UNU/WIDER book from conflict to recovery in Africa. As this study makes clear, peace is often elusive and economic policy can play a mojor role in supporting the efforts of those working at the national and international levels to build peace. Above all it is crucial to focus post-conflict policies on the needs of thepoor, so that recovery is broad based in its benefits, and does not simply benefit a narrow elite

State of the world's vaccines and immunization

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Department of Vaccines and Biologicals
2002

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This report warns that unless urgent and strategic action is taken to close the gaps in funding, research and global immunization coverage, the world will see the re-introduction of old diseases and the emergence of new infections. The report is also available on CD-ROM

State of the world's vaccines and immunization

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Department of Vaccines and Biologicals
2002

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This report warns that unless urgent and strategic action is taken to close the gaps in funding, research and global immunization coverage, the world will see the re-introduction of old diseases and the emergence of new infections. The report is also available in printed form

Gender impacts of health reforms : the current state of policy and implementation

STANDING, Hilary
2001

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This article follows another one written in 1997 that raised questions about the gender implications of health reforms in low income countries. This article attempts to update the issues, taking into account the changes in the language and concepts of health reform and moves towards a more intersectoral view of health. It focuses on the following issues: the importance of contextualising health reforms and associated impacts, such as the different economic, political, demographic and epidemiological drivers in different countries; the change in language from first-generation supply side reforms to second-generation reforms emphasising anti-poverty interventions; the continuing problem of the lack of data; marketisation in the health sector and the resulting pluralism of provision; decentralisation and accountability; systems versus advocacy approaches; and policy issues

Current issues in sector-wide approaches for health development : Uganda case study

BROWN, Adrienne
2000

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This brief document reports on the broad achievements and constraints faced in the health sector in Uganda. Poverty-reduction funds are being channelled into primary care, and improved management of public funds is helping the situation. However, capacity beyond the Ministry of Health is limited, and decentralization, with unclear policy links in the regions, is a challenge. There is some evidence of success in using funding strategies to reorient services to primary care and prevention

HIV and health-care reform in Phayao : from crisis to opportunity

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
2000

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Describes the successes and challenges of the fight against hiv/aids in the Phayao district of northern Thailand. While existing measures have succeeded in reducing seroprevalence among vulnerable groups (pregnant women, military conscripts), progress has levelled off. To enable further progress, the authors have identified profound health care reforms, at the level of 'purpose and roles': the sector is charged not only with providing services, but with couselling and enabling individuals and communities to assess how hiv/aids affects them, to change their behaviour as needed, and to learn from their actions

Planning for education in the context of HIV/AIDS

KELLY, Michael J
2000

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Examines (briefly) the role of education in HIV prevention, and (in detail) the growing, potentially devastating impact of HIV on education systems. The latter is analysed with respect to the demand and supply of education (growing number of orphans, declining number of teachers, and associated issues); the impact of HIV on the content, process, organisation, and role of education, and on the planning and management of education. Concludes that education must be radically re-examined in the light of the HIV pandemic, and its role in the prevention of the disease

Strengthening disability and development work : discussion paper February 1999

MILES, Susie
1999

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This discussion paper is part of an ongoing consultative process among BOND's Disability and Development Working Group (DDWG) members and between DDWG and the Department of International Development (DFID). The aim of the process is to influence development assistance policy makers, including DFID, to adopt an inclusive approach to development. It will be useful to government policy-makers, as well as people working in international development, donor agencies and advocates.
The paper includes topics like disability and poverty, rights of the disabled, inclusion, equal opportunities and development, information, capacity building and partnership. Part (c) focuses on gender and looks at it in terms of discrimination, abuse and exclusion. Women and children are shown to be the most vulnerable

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