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The future of world health. The new world order and international health

FRENK, Julio
et al
May 1997

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The key point covered in this article is that international cooperation for world health faces unprecedented challenges. The health situation in nations is increasingly influenced by global determinants such as environmental threats, the expanded movement of people and goods that facilitates the spread of pathogens across national borders, and the trade in legal and illegal hazardous substances. After nearly 50 years of activity, the major agencies involved in international health cooperation have not responded adequately to the new picture of change and complexity. Just as national health systems across the globe are engaged in reform efforts, so it is time to reform the world health system. The first step in reform is to achieve a consensus about the essential core functions of international health organisations and about a coordinated division of labour among them

Implementing Agenda 21 : NGO experiences from around the world

ALYANAK, Leyla
CRUZ, Adrienne
Eds
1997

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A collection of essays on issues arising, and experiences around, attempts to implement Agenda 21, which was adopted at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio. Challenges and progress are discussed in broad terms, followed by a series of case studies. The commitment of civil society to achieving the goals of Agenda 21, inspite of social, institutional and political context, the changing role of the United Nations, and financial constraints, is documented.

A guide to sector-wide approaches for health development : concepts, issues and working arrangements

CASSELS, Andrew
1997

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Introduces and explains the concept of sector-wide approaches, which involves a partnership between governments and all donors working in the health sector, whereby goals are jointly set, coherent sector-wide strategies are mutually agreed, funding is allocated in line with goals and strategies, and actions and responsibilities are collective, though ownership belongs to the government. The approach also calls for the concentration of funding on interventions of proven effectiveness, and the use of national systems for financial management, monitoring, and the procurement of goods and services. Although experience with the approach is limited, the author cites convincing evidence of its potential to overcome many long-standing problems in the provision of development aid. The strategy also responds to growing recognition that, when attempting to achieve sustained improvements in health, sector-wide approaches offer a better prospect of success than the piecemeal pursuit of separately financed projects. With this potential in mind, the author sets out a framework for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the approach, the way it works in practice, the problems that are likely to arise, and procedures and mechanisms for overcoming these problems. Topics discussed range from the specific circumstances where sector-wide approaches are most appropriate, through ways of ensuring that investments reduce poverty and inequities, to the types of formal agreements needed to minimize misunderstandings. [Publisher's abstract, amended]

Convention on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines and on their destruction

INTERNATIONAL CAMPAIGN TO BAN LANDMINES (ICBL)
1997

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This convention is addressed to State parties outlining the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines and on their destruction. It outlines 22 articles on obligations, international cooperation and ground rules in which States Parties are bound to comply. It states victim assistance duties for care and rehabilitation and stresses the role of public conscience for the ban of anti-personnel mines

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