Nicole LeBlanc, a disability rights activist, talks about the 30th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and what she hopes for the next 30 years. Areas highlighted on the road to achieving equality and equity for all include health and health services, housing, flexible working, vocational rehabilitation and disaster preparedness.
Telehealth provides psychotherapeutic interventions and psychoeducation for remote populations with limited access to in-person behavioural health and/or rehabilitation treatment. The United States Department of Défense and the Veterans Health Administration use telehealth to deliver primary care, medication management, and services including physical, occupational, and speech-language therapies for service members, veterans, and eligible dependents. While creative arts therapies are included in telehealth programming, the existing evidence base focuses on art therapy and dance/movement therapy, with a paucity of information on music therapy.
Discussion of didactic and applied music experiences, clinical, ethical, and technological considerations, and research pertaining to music therapy telehealth addresses this gap through presentation of three case examples. These programmes highlight music therapy telehealth with military-connected populations on a continuum of clinical and community engagement: 1) collaboration between Berklee College of Music in Boston, MA and the Acoke Rural Development Initiative in Lira, Uganda; 2) the Semper Sound Cyber Health programme in San Diego, CA; and 3) the integration of music therapy telehealth into Creative Forces®, an initiative of the National Endowment for the Arts.
These examples illustrate that participants were found to positively respond to music therapy and community music engagement through telehealth, and reported decrease in pain, anxiety, and depression; they endorsed that telehealth was not a deterrent to continued music engagement, requested continued music therapy telehealth sessions, and recommended it to their peers.
Knowledge gaps and evolving models of creative arts therapies telehealth for military-connected populations are elucidated, with emphasis on clinical and ethical considerations.
People with disabilities in Mexico can face severe abuse and neglect by their families with little protection or support from the government. This report documents how the lack of policies to support independent living can increase the risk of family violence and abuse for people with disabilities. It also documents the barriers people with disabilities face in accessing protection from abuse and justice on an equal basis with others, and documents serious concerns regarding implementation of procedural accommodations to ensure that people with disabilities can participate fully and equally in the justice system.
Based on research in 2018 and 2019, this report documents violence committed by family members against people with disabilities in four Mexican states: Oaxaca, Jalisco, Nuevo León, and Mexico City. Interviews were carried out with 24 women and 14 men with disabilities.
A growing body of evidence shows that people with disabilities have historically been denied their sexual and reproductive health rights, despite having the same sexual and reproductive health needs as people without disabilities, and continue to face many barriers to accessing these lifesaving services.
This evidence gap map, developed as part of the UK Department for International Development’s Women’s Integrated Sexual Reproductive Health (WISH) programme, collates evidence on ‘what works’ to enable access to sexual reproductive health services for persons with disabilities in low and middle-income countries.
In order to investigate whether people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are at higher risk of severe outcomes from COVID-19, the COVID-19 outcomes among people with IDD living in residential groups homes in the state of New York and the general population of New York State were compared. Data for people with IDD are from a coalition of organizations providing over half of the residential services for the state of New York, and from the New York State Department of Health. Analysis describes COVID-19 case rates, case-fatality, and mortality among people with IDD living inresidential group homes and New York State through May 28, 2020
Disability and Health Journal, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2020.100969
Disability Rights Defenders (a project of the Independent Living Institute, Sweden) and the European Network on Independent Living held a webinar focused on legal clinics - a tool to promote disability rights.
About the webinar: Can legal clinics focussed on human rights and disability rights be a tool to promote disability rights and support a social change in society? How do legal clinics work and cooperate with clients, universities and civil society organisations? In our webinar we want to spread knowledge and information on legal clinics and share experience from Europe, the US and Latin America.
Leprosy can be cured, but physical disability (PD) as a result of the infection can progress in the post-release from treatment phase. This study evaluated the likelihood of, and factors associated with, the progression of the PD grade post-release from treatment among leprosy patients treated in Cáceres-MT, Brazil in the period 2000 to 2017.
A retrospective cohort study and survival analysis were performed in the hyperendemic municipality of Cáceres in the state of Mato Grosso. The study population consisted of newly diagnosed leprosy patients released from treatment between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2017.
Infect Dis Poverty 9, 53 (2020)
The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR), Regional Office for the Americas and the Caribbean, ONG Inclusiva and the Latin America and the Caribbean Network for Disability Inclusive Disaster Risk Management (LAC DiDRR Network) organized a webinar on Thursday, 23 April that focused on people with disabilities in the face of COVID-19. Reflections surrounding the inclusion and active participation of people with disabilities within all disaster risk management and disaster risk reduction processes were among the issues analysed through this seminar. The results of a survey aimed at gaining a greater understanding of the experience of people with disabilities in the face of COVID-19 that was carried out by ONG Inclusiva were also presented.
The government of Paraguay has launched an accessible communication service to ensure that persons with disabilities can receive comprehensive information about COVID-19
Inclusive education is a concept born in the global North. Research has shown that its relatively recent but widespread adoption by countries in the global South is often done without consideration of the actual needs of these contexts, and by solely focusing on strategies for learners with disabilities. As a result, inclusive education has been criticised as a neo-colonial project in need of renovation. The aim of this article is to show how research can broaden the understanding of inclusive education and make it more relevant to southern contexts. Drawing on an ethnographic research on inclusive education in Colombia, I present some unique examples of vulnerability, but also experiences of belonging in the direst of circumstances. I conclude that in order to decolonise the concept of inclusive education and make its practice sustainable in southern contexts, we need more culturally sensitive research to inform our understanding of these under-researched spaces.
Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2020, Vol. 7 No. 1
A series of disability-related resources related to the COVID-19 pandemic for people with intellectual disabilities and their families.
- Trusted COVID-19 Information
- Plain Language Information
- COVID-19 and Discrimination
- Information for Caregivers
- COVID-19 and Government Support
- COVID-19 and Mental Health
- Accessible Information on COVID-19
- Emergency Preparedness and People with a Disability
This regional report on inclusion and education in Latin America and the Caribbean offers a deep dive into the core challenges and key solutions for greater inclusion, in a region characterized for having the largest and most challenging socio-economic inequalities in the world.
In the framework of this report, 29 in-depth case studies from the region covering 8 dimensions of exclusion were prepared. The Report covers access to education of Venezuelan migrants in Colombia and Haitians in Dominican Republic; remoteness in Suriname and Brazil; disability in Nicaragua; girls in Peru and boys in Jamaica; sexual orientation in Mexico and Chile; and youth incarceration in Uruguay. It also explores how the Covid-19 pandemic has further exposed and deepened the disparities that already existed in education.
Chapter 2 analyses the role of legal tools in supporting the development of inclusive education. Chapter 3 addresses governance and finance. Chapter 4 discusses the politically complicated issue of how curricula and learning materials are adapted to the principles of inclusive education. Chapter 5 looks at ways teachers can support the case for inclusion, considers their needs, and examines how well governments help them prepare to meet the inclusion challenge. Chapter 6 examines school-level factors. Chapter 7 examines communities’ crucial role in achieving inclusive education. After these chapters addressing the main inclusion challenges, Chapter 8 looks at them all through the lens of COVID-19.
A short blog about disability in Latin America and the Caribbean, disability inclusion in disaster risk management in the region and disability inclusion in development in the region. An example of problems with infrastucture access in the Domincan Republic is given. World Bank projects in various countries in South America are mentionned.
Original Research Articles
- Quality of Life of Persons with Disabilities in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, Ethiopia
- Health-Related Quality of Life of Wheelchair Fencers, Sedentary People with Disability and Conventional Fencers in Brazil, Assessed by Short Form 36 (SF-36)
- Environmental Accessibility Assessment for People with Vision, Hearing and Speech Disabilities in Mongolia
- Impact of Exercise Training on Depression among People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Narrative Review
- Intersections of Disability and Gender in Sports: Experiences of Indian Female Athletes
- ‘Enabling Access’: A Pilot Study on Access and Use of Assistive Products in the Northern Province, Sri Lanka
- Happiness and Resilience among Young Physically Disadvantaged Employees in India: A Pilot Study
- Barriers Faced by Persons with Disabilities in Formal Employment in India
Purpose: It is well established that physical exercise, in general, decreases anxiety and depression. Para sport or sport for people with disabilities is used as a rehabilitation strategy to improve their quality of life. This study aimed to investigate people with disabilities who practise wheelchair fencing, sedentary people with physical disability and conventional fencers, assessed by Short Form 36 (SF-36), by comparing the groups.
Method: Forty-two people from Physical Disability Association of Parana (ADFP) answered SF-36 and were divided into three groups: Conventional Fencers (CF), Wheelchair Fencers (WF), and Sedentary People with Physical Disability (SD).
Results: This study was the first to report the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of conventional fencers, wheelchair fencers, and sedentary people with physical disability, using SF-36. The data demonstrated high scores in CF and WF, on seven SF-36 scales of the eight-scale profile, including functional and mental health, role physical, bodily pain, general health perception, vitality, social functioning, mental health. Moreover, the sedentary group had lower scores in most of the domains when they were compared to CF.
Conclusion: The results might provide supportive evidence that HRQOL of WF has demonstrated a positive effect on people with disability since para sport has been used as a rehabilitation programme.
Implication: The implementation of a public campaign is recommended, about sport as a health promoter for disability and rehabilitation. By involving healthcare providers from the area, people with disabilities can be encouraged to participate in para sport.
Access to an appropriate wheelchair is a human right. Only between 5–15% of people who need a wheelchair have access to one. One of the key barriers to access is the lack of appropriately trained rehabilitation professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate basic manual wheelchair provision knowledge in final-year physiotherapy undergraduate students in two programs in Colombia.
Materials and methods:
Students took the International Society of Wheelchair Professionals Wheelchair Service Provision – Basic Test which was administered online and in Spanish. The minimum score to pass the test is 70%; it assesses seven domains: Assessment; Prescription; Products; Fitting; User training; Follow-up, maintenance, and repairs; and Process.
Results and conclusions:
One-hundred sixteen students took the test and no one passed the test. The highest median domain scores were in Assessment and Process while the lowest were in Fitting and Products. The limitations of this study include that this sample does not represent all physiotherapy programmes or students in Colombia, there may be potential errors in the Spanish translation of the outcome measure, and students encountered Internet connectivity issues during the test that may have impacted their scores. Immediate interventions are required to improve teaching and students’ learning outcomes related to basic manual wheelchair provision in these two programs. This study may serve as a foundation for future regional or national studies that assess the situation of wheelchair provision training in rehabilitation programs that will inform improvement actions. This manuscript is also available in Spanish as Supplemental Material.
Research included a national survey (120 people), semi structured interviews, data gathering and regional workshops. Regional workshops were held in Cuzco and Arequipa in the south of the country; Chiclayo in the north, Cañete por Lima provinces; a workshop in Lima only with people with Down syndrome and another with deafblind people.
SDG 4,5,8,13,16 are particularly discussed and conclusions drawn
This report discusses the concerns and comments of organizations of persons with disabilities, human rights organizations, researchers and academics, as well as other relevant governmental actors, regarding SDGs policies in Colombia. Mainly, the analysis focuses on two of the 17 goals:
Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
Secondary sources about disability in Colombia were reviewed. Three validation workshops were organised to identify the progress and challenges of the implementation of the 2030 Agenda from the perspective of disability
Results are presented and discussed and recommendations made
Wheelchair casters fail frequently in the field causing multiple user consequences and wheelchair breakdowns. To inform caster design improvement, there exists no validated tools that can collect caster failures. This need motivated the development of a user-reported, caster failure inspection tool (C-FIT).
To develop C-FIT, a multistep design and testing approach was used which included face validity testing, test-retest reliability testing and expert review. Reliability testing was conducted with two independent cohorts of wheelchair professionals who inspected caster failures physically and online through pictures. The tool was revised based on testing outcomes and expert feedback. For preliminary data collection and evaluating usability, C-FIT was piloted at wheelchair service centers in Scotland, Indonesia and Mexico.
Caster failure items reported in the literature were screened to develop the initial list of C-FIT items. Face validity testing conducted through surveys with wheelchair experts (n = 6) provided 14 items for C-FIT inclusion. The test-retest reliability was found to be high for 10 items with physical failure inspections (n = 12). For each of these items, 75% or more participants had substantial to almost perfect agreement scores (κ = 0.6–1.0). Lower reliability scores were found with online failure inspections (n = 11). C-FIT received positive usability feedback from study participants and data collectors in the field. Pilot field data (n = 31) included comprehensive details about failures useful for manufacturers, designers and researchers to improve caster designs.
The C-FIT tool developed in this study has substantial reliability and can be used for documenting caster failures at wheelchair service centers.
To develop a predictive model to inform the probability of lower limb prosthesis users’ functional potential for ambulation.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective analysis of a database of outcomes for 2770 lower limb prosthesis users was used to inform a classification and regression tree analysis. Gender, age, height, weight, body mass index adjusted for amputation, amputation level, cause of amputation, comorbid health status and functional mobility score [Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M™)] were entered as potential predictive variables. Patient K-Level was used to assign dependent variable status as unlimited community ambulator (i.e., K3 or K4) or limited community/household ambulator (i.e., K1 or K2). The classification tree was initially trained from 20% of the sample and subsequently tested with the remaining sample.
A classification tree was successfully developed, able to accurately classify 87.4% of individuals within the model’s training group (standard error 1.4%), and 81.6% within the model’s testing group (standard error 0.82%). Age, PLUS-M™ T-score, cause of amputation and body weight were retained within the tree logic.
The resultant classification tree has the ability to provide members of the clinical care team with predictive probabilities of a patient’s functional potential to help assist care decisions.
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