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Impact of lived experiences of people with disabilities in the built environment in South Africa

McKINNEY, Victor
AMOSUN, Seyi L.
August 2020

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Background: In spite of legislations and policies to ensure an inclusive society in South Africa for the accommodation of people with disabilities, there are reports that they still struggle to move freely within society.

 

Objectives: As part of a larger qualitative exploratory study on the preparation of undergraduate civil engineering students in a local university to contribute to the development of an inclusive society, this article seeks to understand the impact of the lived experiences of people with disabilities in their interaction with the built environment.

 

Method: Four persons with disabilities, considered to be knowledgeable about South African legislations relating to disability, were purposely selected to each share one specific experience whilst interacting with the built environment. The transcribed texts of the interviews were analysed by using the phenomenological–hermeneutic method.

 

Results: The participants exhibited strong desires to participate in society. However, the sense of loss of control and independence as they encountered challenges in the built environment changed the euphoria to disempowerment, rejection, anger and despondency. In spite of their experiences, participants expressed a commitment towards overcoming the challenges encountered in the broader interest of people with disabilities.

 

Conclusion: A deeper understanding of the impact of the experiences of people with disabilities when they participate within the built environment in South Africa revealed a broad spectrum of negative emotions, which may impact the quality of life and well-being of the participants.

 

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 9, 2020

Death sentence to civilians: The long-term impact of explosive weapons in populated areas in Yemen

BOTTOMLEY, Alison
SALAVERT, Lise
et al
May 2020

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In five years of war, Yemen has experienced every manner of explosive weapons—aerial bombs and missiles, artillery, mortars, and improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and much more. The explosions destroy bridges, ports, roads, hospitals, water systems, and generate long lasting civilian harm. When explosive weapons strike roads and bridges, they greatly increase the time it takes to re-supply cities. Such damage cuts deeply into food and water access, and has negative effects on population health.

The report highlights six case studies, showing the extent and impact of such bombings. One case study looks at the long-term impact on specific populations including: internally displaced persons; persons with disabilities; women and children.

“Disability Is Not Weakness” Discrimination and barriers facing women and girls with disabilities in Afghanistan

GOSSMAN, Patricia
April 2020

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Everyday barriers that Afghan women and girls with disabilities face are described.  Decades of conflict have decimated government institutions and development efforts have failed to reach many communities most in need. Obtaining access to health care, education, and employment, along with other basic rights, is particularly difficult for Afghan women and girls with disabilities, who face both gender discrimination and stigma and barriers associated with their disability.

 

This report is based primarily on research by Human Rights Watch researchers from April 2018 through January 2020 in Kabul, Mazar-e Sharif, and Herat, Afghanistan. 23 interviews with women with disabilities and 3 interviews with family members of women and girls with disabilities were conducted. 14 healthcare and education professionals were interviewed, including representatives from the United Nations and international and local nongovernmental organizations providing services to persons with disabilities in Afghanistan

Building the inclusive city - Governance, access, and the urban transformation of Dubai

SANTIAGO PINEDA, Victor
2020

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This book is an anthropological urban study of the Emirate of Dubai, its institutions, and their evolution. It provides a contemporary history of disability in city planning from a non-Western perspective and explores the cultural context for its positioning. Three insights inform the author’s approach. First, disability research, much like other urban or social issues, must be situated in a particular place. Second, access and inclusion forms a key part of both local and global planning issues. Third, a 21st century planning education should take access and inclusion into consideration by applying a disability lens to the empirical, methodological, and theoretical advances of the field

Integrating geospatial data and measures of disability and wealth to assess inequalities in an eye health survey: An example from the Indian Sunderbans

MOHANTY, Soumya
et al
December 2019

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The Sunderbans are a group of delta islands that straddle the border between India and Bangladesh. For people living on the Indian side, health services are scarce and the terrain makes access to what is available difficult. In 2018, the international non-governmental organisation Sightsavers and their partners conducted a population-based survey of visual impairment and coverage of cataract and spectacle services, supplemented with tools to measure equity in eye health by wealth, disability, and geographical location. Two-stage cluster sampling was undertaken to randomly select 3868 individuals aged 40+ years, of whom 3410 were examined

 

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Dec; 16(23): 4869

doi: 10.3390/ijerph16234869

Disability at a Glance 2019: Investing in accessibility in Asia and the Pacific — Strategic approaches to achieving disability-inclusive sustainable development

TATA, Srinivas
et al
December 2019

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This report lays out foundational concepts and terminologies related to disability and accessibility, and outlines the tools and approaches for successful investment in accessibility. Furthermore, it identifies drivers and added values of investment, and analyses the status of disability-inclusive development and accessibility investment across Asia and the Pacific. Finally, it provides recommendations to governments across key areas of focus to ensure that societies are built to be sustainable and inclusive.

Case studies from Australia, the Republic of Korea and India are presented.

Environmental Accessibility Assessment for People with Vision, Hearing and Speech Disabilities in Mongolia

BATDULAM, Tumenbayar
CHIMEDSUREN, Оchir
URANCHIMEG, Davaatseren
ENKHTSETSEG, Byambaa
2019

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Purpose: The main objective of this paper was to assess environmental accessibility for people with vision, hearing and speech disabilities in Mongolia, with particular focus on public buildings and public transportation.

 

Methods: A standardised internationally-used questionnaire, consisting of 29 questions, was used for the accessibility of public buildings assessment.  The questionnaire results were grouped into categories and descriptive statistics were obtained. To determine quality and accessibility to public transportation a standardised sheet, consisting of 51 questions from the internationally accepted SERVQUAL, was used. This model is commonly used for measurement of the discrepancies between actual performance and customer expectations.

 

Result: Assessment of public buildings in Mongolia revealed that they were moderately accessible for people with vision, hearing and speech disabilities. The assessment of public transportation found that the discrepancy between actual performance and customer expectation is the highest across all indicators for people with hearing and speech impairments.

 

Conclusion: The research findings indicated a strong need to pay closer attention to the current environmental unfriendliness and inaccessibility faced by people with vision, hearing and speech disabilities.

Barriers and Facilitators to Community Ambulation in Maharashtra, India: Perception of Individuals with Stroke

SHAIKH, Atiya A
ATRE, Janhavi Jagdish
2019

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Purpose: The study aimed to understand the self-perceived environmental barriers/ facilitators to community ambulation among stroke survivors in Maharashtra State, India.

 

Method: The Facilitators and Barriers Survey /Mobility Questionnaire (FABS/M) was used to collect information from a convenience sample of 50 individuals with stroke. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 22.00.

 

Results: Curbs, gravel surfaces, rain, noise, and crowd were marked as barriers by 56%, 58%, 52%, 36% and 50% of the participants, respectively. Ramps, elevators, and flat surfaces were reported as facilitators by 42%, 70% and 82% of the participants, respectively. Participants also mentioned the absence of automatic doors and escalators in community areas (92% and 88%), specialised exercise equipment, handrails and specialised bathroom equipment at home (92%, 50% and 52%), and inaccessibility to public places (50%), as barriers to easy mobility. 

 

Conclusions: To enhance community mobility of individuals with stroke, environmental barriers should be reduced and facilitators should be enhanced. The marked absence of facilitators in the environment should be rectified and appropriate steps should be taken to enhance ambulation. 

 

Limitations of the study are the small sample size. Factors like balance, economic status, physical activity of the stroke individuals and severity of stroke were also not considered.

Insights from ASEAN hometown improvement project: Towards improved practice

Asia-Pacific Development Center on Disability (APCD)
2019

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The ASEAN Hometown Improvement Project, aimed to tackle challenges emerging from urbanization and the rise of the ageing population in the ASEAN region by attempting timely and relevant improvements to disability inclusive ‘hometowns’. 

 

Three approaches were utilized:

1) Promotion of an inclusive business through capacity building of persons with disabilities

2) Promotion of accessibility features in the community and other public places, as well as to information, communication, and transportation

3) Promotion of cooperation with government sector via discussions to find solutions to improve the livelihood of persons with disabilities

 

The sections, arranged per country in alphabetical order, contain the following: Hometown Improvement Project description and backgrounder; Capacity Building Workshop details; Key Partners and Stakeholders; Training Results; Challenges; Framework for Good Practice; and Way Forward and include:

  • Cambodia: Phnom Penh Center for Independent Living's Bakery by Persons with Disabilities
  • Indonesia: Batik Design and Marketing Management at Kampung Peduli
  • Malaysia: Branding and Marketing Management for Bakery and Handicraft by Persons with Disabilities at CBR Semenyih
  • Myanmar: Mushroom Production by Persons with Disabilities with Shwe Minn Tha Foundation
  • Phillipines: Sustainable Inclusive Urban Micro-Gardening and Community-Based Cooperative at Barangay 177
  • Thailand: Earthworm Casting and Cactus Farming at Farm D
  • Vietnam: Fermented Dry Bamboo Waste Fertilizer at Bamboo Dana Co. Ltd

 

 

Report on accessibility audit in Kathmandu, Nepal

December 2018

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In Nepal, the Accessible Physical Infrastructure and Communication Services directive for People with Disability 2013, is a key legal measure taken by the government for promoting accessibility. To supplement the government’s initiation in achieving the goal of making inclusive society for all, National Federation of the Disabled – Nepal (NFDN), in partnership with CBM, carried out accessibility audit of 150 public infrastructures as a model initiative. This included government buildings, public parks and open spaces, roads and streets, corporate sectors, commercial sectors and other infrastructures within Kathmandu valley and identified the remedial actions needed to make these sectors accessible for all including Persons with disabilities. To achieve this, a set of comprehensive audit tools and checklists were developed. The Kathmandu district, Lalitpur District and Bhaktapur District were assessed.

Making cities inclusive: safe mobility for persons with disabilities in developing countries

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
June 2018

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A policy brief concerning safe and inclusive urban mobility is presented. Safe and inclusive mobility is not currently a universally recognised concept in international human rights instruments and development framework. The relationship of various global legal & policy frameworks with safe and inclusive urban mobility is discussed including:

  • The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
  • The 2030 Sustainable Development Goals
  • The New Urban Agenda
  • The UN Road Safety Decade of Action

Recommendations for improved policies and actions are made:

  • Recommendation 1: Recognise safe and inclusive mobility as a transversal issue for realising the Sustainable Development Goals and human rights
  • Recommendation 2: Agree strong political and financial commitments to improve the safety of roads with a focus on vulnerable road users
  • Recommendation 3: Provide safe and accessible urban mobility infrastructures applying universal design approach, all along the mobility chain
  • Recommendation 4: Enhance participatory and evidence-based policy-making for a better governance of road safety, mobility management and urban planning

Inclusive urban mobility and road safety in developing countries

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
June 2018

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Between 20 to 50 million people worldwide suffer non-fatal injuries in road crashes every year; around 1.25 million are killed. Unsafe roads also represent a major factor of social exclusion, especially for ‘vulnerable road users’. These include notably pedestrians, persons with disabilities, cyclists and children. They represent 46% of road casualties. Persons with disabilities are at higher risk of sustaining injuries from road crashes.

In this thematic brief, the importance of inclusive urban planning is emphasised. Urban mobility and road safety challenges discussed include: safe crossing points over roads; signage and information; collective transport (particularly buses); road design and layout, poor road markings or signposts and the lack of street lighting.

 

Case histories provided are: Engaging government and DPOs to improve safe and inclusive mobility in Burkina Faso; and  Data, road safety and urban mobility in Vientiane, Laos

 

Recommendations for improvements in policies and actions are given under the headings: 

1. Strengthening the policy and financial framework for safe and inclusive mobility action, based on evidence and through participative processes

2. Removing the barriers to safe and accessible mobility, focusing on: the built environment; transport and vehicles; people

Inclusive urban mobility and getting to school safely in developing countries

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
June 2018

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For teenagers in developing countries, there is no greater threat to life than road traffic crashes: road crashes are the leading cause of preventable death of youth aged 15 to 29 years, and the second cause for those aged 5 to 14 years.(6) The risks are even higher for children with disabilities, who are also more exposed to non-fatal injuries from road crashes.

In this thematic brief, the importance of inclusive urban planning is emphasised. Urban mobility and road safety challenges discussed include: safe crossing points over roads and collective transport (particularly buses). 

 

Two case studies are provided: Safer access to school for disabled students in Kenya; and School access and pedestrian safety improvements in Democratic Republic of Congo

 

Recommendations for improvements in policies and actions are given under the headings:

  • 1. Strengthening the policy and financial framework for safe and inclusive mobility, based on evidence and through participative processes
  • 2. Removing the barriers to safe and accessible mobility, focusing on: the built environment; transport and vehicles; people

Inclusive urban mobility and getting to work safely in developing countries

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
June 2018

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The lack of safe and accessible roads in many cities in developing countries impacts negatively on employment opportunities for persons with disabilities. Between 20 to 50 million people worldwide suffer non-fatal injuries in road crashes every year; around 1.25 million are killed. Unsafe roads also represent a major factor of social exclusion, especially for ‘vulnerable road users’. These include notably pedestrians, persons with disabilities, cyclists and children. They represent 46% of road casualties. Persons with disabilities are at higher risk of sustaining injuries from road crashes.

 

In this thematic brief, the importance of inclusive urban planning is emphasised. Urban mobility and road safety challenges discussed include: safe crossing points over roads; signage and information; collective transport (particularly buses); accessing buildings such as offices or retail and driving with a disability.

 

Case histories provided are: Accessible transport as part of an inclusive jobs program in Senegal; and Modified vehicles and driving licenses for drivers with disabilities in Vietnam

 

Recommendations for improvements in policies and actions are given under the headings: 

1. Strengthening the policy and financial framework for safe and inclusive mobility action, based on evidence and through participative processes

2. Removing the barriers to safe and accessible mobility, focusing on: the built environment; transport and vehicles; people

Inclusive and safe urban mobility and Disaster Risk Management in developing countries

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
June 2018

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Disabled people are disproportionately affected by disasters owing to mobility difficulties in evacuation, lack of access to information or services and discrimination. When disasters occur, constraining external factors, such as unsafe roads and lack of accessible pedestrian and transport routes, create additional difficulties for coping with the situation. Developing cities vulnerable to disasters also are likely to have a greater proportion of the population with a disability, due to past injuries.

In this thematic brief, the importance of inclusive urban planning is emphasised. Urban mobility challenges relating to disasters discussed include: inaccessible disaster shelters, inaccessible means of evacuation and lack of information.

 

Case histories provided are: Building back better in Haiti; a focus on inclusive access and mobility; and Improving universal accessibility in Kathmandu, Nepal

 

Recommendations for improvements in policies and actions are given under the headings: 

1. Strengthening the policy and financial framework for safe and inclusive mobility action, based on evidence and through participative processes

2. Removing the barriers to safe and accessible mobility, focusing on: the built environment; transport and vehicles; people

Disability inclusion in disaster risk management - Promising practices and opportunities for enhanced engagements

GUERNSEY, Katherine
SCHERRER, Valerie
April 2018

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Disaster risk management aims to address vulnerability in order to reduce risk and therefore needs to consider the full range of vulnerability drivers, including those that affect persons with disabilities. This report presents the results of comprehensive review of the state of practice in disability-inclusive Disaster risk management (DRM) undertaken by GFDRR (Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery). The report is intended to help World Bank staff incorporate persons with disabilities and a disability perspective into their ongoing DRM work. The report will also be of interest to other development actors and stakeholders working on DRM.

Disability in North Africa

ROHWERDER, Brigitte
April 2018

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This desk-based research reports explores the experiences of people with disabilities of inclusion and marginalisation in North Africa, and whether this has had an impact on regional/national economies and wider prosperity. 

Leave no one behind: Infrastructure and inclusion. K4D Helpdesk Report

RAJE, Fiona
February 2018

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This review links to the need for inclusion of all people, in particular stressing the importance of those who are disabled, people in all age groups, and women. It is guided by the consideration of how the concept of ‘leave no one behind’ can be incorporated into infrastructure planning, development, implementation and evaluation. The report focuses on transport, electricity and water infrastructure.

Including children with disabilities in humanitarian action: Nutrition

DINSMORE, Christine
Ed
February 2018

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This guidance is designed for UNICEF field staff – including humanitarian field officers, coordinators, specialist and advisors – as well as UNICEF’s partners and others involved in humanitarian work. It provides practical tips and offers entry points for making sure that humanitarian action takes children with disabilities into account. There are 5 other associated guidelines. 

All nutrition humanitarian staff can contribute significantly to the inclusion of children with disabilities, even if not an expert or specialist on issues related to disability. This booklet provides practical tips and entry points to start the process

Chapters include: 

  • impact of emergencies on nutrition of children and women with disabilities
  • why children and adolescents with disabilities are excluded from nutrition and food security interventions
  • frameworks and approaches
  • programmatic actions
  • preparedness
  • response and early recovery
  • recovery and reconstruction
  • practical tips
  • accessible infrastructure tips

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