A step-by-step guide to undertaking an accessibility audit in the workplace.
This accessibility standards and audit pack is a toolkit designed to improve the accessibility of buildings in low and middle income settings.
The World Blind Union (WBU) and CBM Global Disability Inclusion have developed Accessibility GO! A Guide to Action. The guide provides practical support on how to deliver a wholistic organisational approach towards accessibility. It describes how to progressively achieve seven core accessibility commitments across built environments, information and communications, procurement of goods and services, training and capacity development, programmes, meetings and events, recruitment, and human resource (HR) management. The guide offers pathways to progressively realise accessibility in various contexts and organisations; recognising that users of the guide will be diverse.
This webinar, hosted by Global Disability Innovation (GDI) hub, brings together a diverse panel of experts to discuss what inclusive design looks like in practice for them, who benefits and how it can offer methods to build a more accessible world that benefits all of us.
Speakers presentations were:
- What inclusive design means to GDI Hub and why it matters, drawing on our experience working in both the UK and globally
- An overview of inclusive design of the built environment in the UK and Kenya, including the role of access panels to embed the views of disabled people in planning and decision-making
- An introduction to GDI Hub’s AT2030 programme including our Inclusive Infrastructure research sub-programme that is conducting six global case studies in LMIC cities around the world over the next 2-3 years.
- The challenges and opportunities for an accessible Mongolia and the importance of Disabled People’s Organisations (DPO) engagement in decision-making
- The importance of inclusive planning processes for accessible cities in Indonesia
The Inclusive Infrastructure sub-programme of the AT2030 programme began in March 2020, right out the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Over three years this part of the AT2030 programme will be conducting case studies in six cities on the current state of accessibility and inclusion of the built environment in each of those places.
The first case study took place in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. In March 2020, research was about to begin, Mongolia closed its border as the Coronavirus pandemic escalated. This meant to travel to Ulaanbaatar to conduct research was not possible and new ways of working remotely had to be adopted.
Research was carried out by collaborating with a local team based in Ulaanbaatar: AIFO, an Italian NGO that has been working in Mongolia since 1993 and two Disabled Persons’ Organisations: ‘Universal Progress’ Independent Living Center and Tegsh Niigem.
Perspectives on working together, collaborating remotely and why this research is relevant to the country are shared.
This case study on inclusive infrastructure in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia is the first part of a series of six global case studies. The series is being developed to understand global priorities for inclusive design within the Inclusive Infrastructure work of the AT2030 programme; to build evidence on the awareness, understanding, acceptance, application and experience of Inclusive Design and accessible environments globally, particularly in lower and middle-income countries
Background: In spite of legislations and policies to ensure an inclusive society in South Africa for the accommodation of people with disabilities, there are reports that they still struggle to move freely within society.
Objectives: As part of a larger qualitative exploratory study on the preparation of undergraduate civil engineering students in a local university to contribute to the development of an inclusive society, this article seeks to understand the impact of the lived experiences of people with disabilities in their interaction with the built environment.
Method: Four persons with disabilities, considered to be knowledgeable about South African legislations relating to disability, were purposely selected to each share one specific experience whilst interacting with the built environment. The transcribed texts of the interviews were analysed by using the phenomenological–hermeneutic method.
Results: The participants exhibited strong desires to participate in society. However, the sense of loss of control and independence as they encountered challenges in the built environment changed the euphoria to disempowerment, rejection, anger and despondency. In spite of their experiences, participants expressed a commitment towards overcoming the challenges encountered in the broader interest of people with disabilities.
Conclusion: A deeper understanding of the impact of the experiences of people with disabilities when they participate within the built environment in South Africa revealed a broad spectrum of negative emotions, which may impact the quality of life and well-being of the participants.
African Journal of Disability, Vol 9, 2020
In five years of war, Yemen has experienced every manner of explosive weapons—aerial bombs and missiles, artillery, mortars, and improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and much more. The explosions destroy bridges, ports, roads, hospitals, water systems, and generate long lasting civilian harm. When explosive weapons strike roads and bridges, they greatly increase the time it takes to re-supply cities. Such damage cuts deeply into food and water access, and has negative effects on population health.
The report highlights six case studies, showing the extent and impact of such bombings. One case study looks at the long-term impact on specific populations including: internally displaced persons; persons with disabilities; women and children.
Living in an informal settlement with a visual impairment can be very challenging resulting in social exclusion. Mobile phones have been shown to be hugely beneficial to people with sight loss in formal and high-income settings. However, little is known about whether these results hold true for people with visual impairment (VIPs) in informal settlements. Findings of a case study of mobile technology use by VIPs in Kibera, an informal settlement in Nairobi are presented. The study used contextual interviews, ethnographic observations and a co-design workshop to explore how VIPs use mobile phones in their daily lives, and how this use influences the social infrastructure of VIPs. Findings suggest that mobile technology supports and shapes the creation of social infrastructure. However, this is only made possible through the existing support networks of the VIPs, which are mediated through four types of interaction: direct, supported, dependent and restricted
Paper presented at CHI 2020, April 25–30, 2020, Honolulu, HI, USA
Everyday barriers that Afghan women and girls with disabilities face are described. Decades of conflict have decimated government institutions and development efforts have failed to reach many communities most in need. Obtaining access to health care, education, and employment, along with other basic rights, is particularly difficult for Afghan women and girls with disabilities, who face both gender discrimination and stigma and barriers associated with their disability.
This report is based primarily on research by Human Rights Watch researchers from April 2018 through January 2020 in Kabul, Mazar-e Sharif, and Herat, Afghanistan. 23 interviews with women with disabilities and 3 interviews with family members of women and girls with disabilities were conducted. 14 healthcare and education professionals were interviewed, including representatives from the United Nations and international and local nongovernmental organizations providing services to persons with disabilities in Afghanistan
Recommendations to ensure persons with disabilities living in cities are not disproportionately harmed during the COVID-19 crisis are given. It is suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic be viewed as an opportunity for significant urban health reforms.
J Urban Health (2020) 97:336–341
This book is an anthropological urban study of the Emirate of Dubai, its institutions, and their evolution. It provides a contemporary history of disability in city planning from a non-Western perspective and explores the cultural context for its positioning. Three insights inform the author’s approach. First, disability research, much like other urban or social issues, must be situated in a particular place. Second, access and inclusion forms a key part of both local and global planning issues. Third, a 21st century planning education should take access and inclusion into consideration by applying a disability lens to the empirical, methodological, and theoretical advances of the field
The Sunderbans are a group of delta islands that straddle the border between India and Bangladesh. For people living on the Indian side, health services are scarce and the terrain makes access to what is available difficult. In 2018, the international non-governmental organisation Sightsavers and their partners conducted a population-based survey of visual impairment and coverage of cataract and spectacle services, supplemented with tools to measure equity in eye health by wealth, disability, and geographical location. Two-stage cluster sampling was undertaken to randomly select 3868 individuals aged 40+ years, of whom 3410 were examined
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Dec; 16(23): 4869
This report lays out foundational concepts and terminologies related to disability and accessibility, and outlines the tools and approaches for successful investment in accessibility. Furthermore, it identifies drivers and added values of investment, and analyses the status of disability-inclusive development and accessibility investment across Asia and the Pacific. Finally, it provides recommendations to governments across key areas of focus to ensure that societies are built to be sustainable and inclusive.
Case studies from Australia, the Republic of Korea and India are presented.
A short blog about disability in Latin America and the Caribbean, disability inclusion in disaster risk management in the region and disability inclusion in development in the region. An example of problems with infrastucture access in the Domincan Republic is given. World Bank projects in various countries in South America are mentionned.
Purpose: The study aimed to understand the self-perceived environmental barriers/ facilitators to community ambulation among stroke survivors in Maharashtra State, India.
Method: The Facilitators and Barriers Survey /Mobility Questionnaire (FABS/M) was used to collect information from a convenience sample of 50 individuals with stroke. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 22.00.
Results: Curbs, gravel surfaces, rain, noise, and crowd were marked as barriers by 56%, 58%, 52%, 36% and 50% of the participants, respectively. Ramps, elevators, and flat surfaces were reported as facilitators by 42%, 70% and 82% of the participants, respectively. Participants also mentioned the absence of automatic doors and escalators in community areas (92% and 88%), specialised exercise equipment, handrails and specialised bathroom equipment at home (92%, 50% and 52%), and inaccessibility to public places (50%), as barriers to easy mobility.
Conclusions: To enhance community mobility of individuals with stroke, environmental barriers should be reduced and facilitators should be enhanced. The marked absence of facilitators in the environment should be rectified and appropriate steps should be taken to enhance ambulation.
Limitations of the study are the small sample size. Factors like balance, economic status, physical activity of the stroke individuals and severity of stroke were also not considered.
Purpose: The main objective of this paper was to assess environmental accessibility for people with vision, hearing and speech disabilities in Mongolia, with particular focus on public buildings and public transportation.
Methods: A standardised internationally-used questionnaire, consisting of 29 questions, was used for the accessibility of public buildings assessment. The questionnaire results were grouped into categories and descriptive statistics were obtained. To determine quality and accessibility to public transportation a standardised sheet, consisting of 51 questions from the internationally accepted SERVQUAL, was used. This model is commonly used for measurement of the discrepancies between actual performance and customer expectations.
Result: Assessment of public buildings in Mongolia revealed that they were moderately accessible for people with vision, hearing and speech disabilities. The assessment of public transportation found that the discrepancy between actual performance and customer expectation is the highest across all indicators for people with hearing and speech impairments.
Conclusion: The research findings indicated a strong need to pay closer attention to the current environmental unfriendliness and inaccessibility faced by people with vision, hearing and speech disabilities.
Purpose: Physical accessibility is one of the fundamental rights of wheelchair users in order to ensure their integration into society. After Bangladesh ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on November 30, 2007, there has been a paradigm shift in the government’s approach to ensure the welfare and rights of persons with disabilities through legislative and policy actions. This study assesses how accommodative the public buildings are for wheelchair users in Khulna, Bangladesh.
Method: All the public buildings in Khulna city - including government offices, public schools, colleges and universities, hospitals, libraries, post offices and court buildings - were visited to assess the presence and suitability of facilities for wheelchair users, such as accessible parking, ramps, elevators, doors, and essential interior facilities like water closets and drinking-water fountains. Bangladesh has no specific accessibility guidelines document, but accessibility requirements have been included in the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 2008. The study made its assessment using an abridged form of the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and BNBC 2008.
Results: Only 6.7% (5) of the 75 public buildings were found suitable for wheelchair users. There is scope for modifications to be made in 28% (21) of the buildings which are currently unsuitable for wheelchair users.
Conclusion: The study revealed that public buildings are, in general, not very accommodative of wheelchair users. There is a need for modifications in infrastructure to ensure inclusive development of these individuals.
The ASEAN Hometown Improvement Project, aimed to tackle challenges emerging from urbanization and the rise of the ageing population in the ASEAN region by attempting timely and relevant improvements to disability inclusive ‘hometowns’.
Three approaches were utilized:
1) Promotion of an inclusive business through capacity building of persons with disabilities
2) Promotion of accessibility features in the community and other public places, as well as to information, communication, and transportation
3) Promotion of cooperation with government sector via discussions to find solutions to improve the livelihood of persons with disabilities
The sections, arranged per country in alphabetical order, contain the following: Hometown Improvement Project description and backgrounder; Capacity Building Workshop details; Key Partners and Stakeholders; Training Results; Challenges; Framework for Good Practice; and Way Forward and include:
- Cambodia: Phnom Penh Center for Independent Living's Bakery by Persons with Disabilities
- Indonesia: Batik Design and Marketing Management at Kampung Peduli
- Malaysia: Branding and Marketing Management for Bakery and Handicraft by Persons with Disabilities at CBR Semenyih
- Myanmar: Mushroom Production by Persons with Disabilities with Shwe Minn Tha Foundation
- Phillipines: Sustainable Inclusive Urban Micro-Gardening and Community-Based Cooperative at Barangay 177
- Thailand: Earthworm Casting and Cactus Farming at Farm D
- Vietnam: Fermented Dry Bamboo Waste Fertilizer at Bamboo Dana Co. Ltd
In Nepal, the Accessible Physical Infrastructure and Communication Services directive for People with Disability 2013, is a key legal measure taken by the government for promoting accessibility. To supplement the government’s initiation in achieving the goal of making inclusive society for all, National Federation of the Disabled – Nepal (NFDN), in partnership with CBM, carried out accessibility audit of 150 public infrastructures as a model initiative. This included government buildings, public parks and open spaces, roads and streets, corporate sectors, commercial sectors and other infrastructures within Kathmandu valley and identified the remedial actions needed to make these sectors accessible for all including Persons with disabilities. To achieve this, a set of comprehensive audit tools and checklists were developed. The Kathmandu district, Lalitpur District and Bhaktapur District were assessed.
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