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Factors related to Recovery and Relapse in Persons with Stuttering Following Treatment: A Preliminary Study

ARYA, P
GEETHA, Y V
2013

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Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate and compare factors related to recovery and relapse outcomes after treatment, among adults with stuttering.

 

Method: The participants were 24 adults who underwent fluency therapy and reported for follow-up 6 months after cessation of treatment. Pre, immediate post and 6-months post-treatment follow-up evaluations were done using stuttering severity instrument SSI-3. On the basis of total scores and severity obtained, participants were then grouped as either recovered or relapsed persons with stuttering. A questionnaire was administered to obtain their ratings for the different domains of factors that contributed to treatment outcomes.

 

Results: A significant difference was found between both the groups with respect to factors contributing to recovery and relapse. The four domains which were found to be more responsible for treatment outcomes in persons with stuttering were: individual related, therapy related, environment related, and behaviour and personality related factors.

 

Conclusion: The study was conducted with fewer participants, and it is possible that there could be many other pre-treatment and post-treatment factors such as attitude, anxiety, and speech naturalness which may influence the treatment outcomes in persons with stuttering. Future research should include these other factors.

Resilient livelihoods : disaster risk reduction for food and nutrition security framework programme

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
April 2013

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Through its disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) seeks to protect livelihoods from shocks, to make food production systems more resilient and more capable of absorbing the impact of, and recovering from, disruptive events. The FAO Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security Framework Programme (DRR for FNS) serves to support and provide strategic direction, to FAO member countries and partners, for the implementation of Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security programmes. The goal is to enhance the resilience of livelihoods against threats and emergencies to ensure the FNS of vulnerable farmers, fishers, herders, foresters and other at risk groups

Differences in HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners in Nigeria

ADEEMI, Toyin
PILLAY, Basil
ESTERRHUIZEN, Tonya
February 2013

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"This study sought to compare the HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners (NDL) in Nigeria. Findings could help in the development of HIV interventions that are accessible to Nigerian learners with intellectual impairments"
Journal of the International AIDS Society, Vol 16

Music as the Means to Stimulate Novelty and Challenge Seeking in Persons with Intellectual Disability

SOLTANI, A
ROSLAN, S
ABDULLAH, M C
JAN, C C
2013

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Purpose: The main aim of the study was to determine whether challenge seeking behaviour could be increased by stimulating persons with intellectual disability with music. The intention was also to evaluate whether the participants would attempt to seek challenges when they felt bored with a music experience.

 

Method: Thirty adolescents and young adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability were randomly selected to take part in a repeated-measure experimental design, under three different conditions. In the first condition, the participants were provided adequate challenges through teaching fundamental musical skills. In the second condition, no optimal challenge was provided, and in the third condition, using special strategies, the participants were stimulated to look for novelty and challenge through involvement in creative musical tasks. Level of innovation, as an index of challenge seeking, was measured during the 8 minutes of free choice interval at the end of each condition.

 

Results: Using Friedman’s ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the findings showed that the low and statistically similar levels of challenge seeking behaviour in conditions 1 and 2 significantly increased to a high level in condition 3. It confirmed that participants with intellectual disability are capable of demonstrating challenge seeking behaviour if they are stimulated to do so. The results also confirmed that the tendency to demonstrate challenge seeking behaviour during a boring musical situation was low.

Human development report 2013|The rise of the south : human progress in a diverse world

MALIK, Khalid
et al
2013

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This report "examines the profound shift in global dynamics driven by the fast-rising new powers of the developing world and its long-term implications for human development....The report identifies four specific areas of focus for sustaining development momentum: enhancing equity, including on the gender dimension; enabling greater voice and participation of citizens, including youth; confronting environmental pressures; and managing demographic change

Employment assessment toolkit

ROYAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BLIND PEOPLE (RNIB)
2013

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"The toolkit enables employment advisors who work with blind and partially sighted people to gain a clear understanding of what your client’s aspirations are in relation to employment, and what types of support and development are needed to help fulfil these aspirations. It provides a way of having a structured conversation with clients...The questions in the toolkit should be self-explanatory. They are arranged under different sub-sections: employment activity, current job search activity, access to information, computer skills, independent travel, vision, health related issues, and target job"
Note: It is recommended to use this toolkit in conjunction with the action plan development kit; the toolkit is available to download in four different formats: PDF, Word, Word non-breaking table, and Word text only

Employment assessment toolkit : action plan development

ROYAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BLIND PEOPLE (RNIB)
2013

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"This document is intended to help the employment advisor use the important information collected from the assessment tool to develop an action plan for your client. The process has two stages: Scoring the screening questions, Action plan development. The employment advisor should initially carry out these tasks after completing the assessment tool. It is important to then discuss the score and plan with your client before finalising. The action plan will then be the basis of the on-going work with your client until it is agreed to reassess the situation"
Note; This resource is available in pdf and word formats

HIV issues and people with disabilities: A review and agenda for research

GROCE, Nora
et al
January 2013

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The AIDS and Disability Partners Forum at the UN General Assembly High Level Meetings on AIDS in New York in June 2011 and the International AIDS Conference in Washington, DC in July 2012 underscore the attention to the impact of HIV and AIDS on persons with disabilities. However, research on AIDS and disability, particularly a solid evidence base upon which to build policy and programming remains thin, scattered and difficult to access. In this review paper, we summarise what is known about the intersection between HIV and AIDS and disability, paying particular attention to the small but emerging body of epidemiology data on the prevalence of HIV for people with disabilities, as well as the increasing understanding of HIV risk factors for people with disabilities. We find that the number of papers in the peer-reviewed literature remains distressingly small. Over the past 20 years an average of 5 articles on some aspect of disability and HIV and AIDS were published annually in the peer-reviewed literature from 1990 to 2000, increasing slightly to an average of 6 per year from 2000 to 2010. Given the vast amount of research around HIV and AIDS and the thousands of articles on the subject published in the peer-reviewed literature annually, the continuing lack of attention to HIV and AIDS among this at risk population, now estimated to make up 15% of the world's population, is striking. However, the statistics, while too limited at this point to make definitive conclusions, increasingly suggest at least an equal HIV prevalence rate for people with disabilities as for their non-disabled peers.

African indigenous knowledge and research

OWUSU-ANSAH, Frances E
MJI, Gubela
2013

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This paper seeks to heighten awareness about the need to include indigenous knowledge in the design and implementation of research, particularly disability research, in Africa. It affirms the suitability of the Afrocentric paradigm in African research and argues the necessity for an emancipatory and participatory type of research which values and includes indigenous knowledge and peoples. In the predominantly Western-oriented academic circles and investigations, the African voice is either sidelined or suppressed because indigenous knowledge and methods are often ignored or not taken seriously. This paper posits that to be meaningful and empowering, African-based research must, of necessity, include African thought and ideas from inception through completion to the implementation of policies arising from the research. In this way the work is both empowering and meaningful for context-specific lasting impact.

Assessing Children with Language Impairments: A Study on Kannada, a South Indian Language

CHAKRAVARTHI, S
2012

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Purpose: This is one of the first comprehensive studies to assess receptive and expressive language skills in a South Indian language, Kannada. It demystifies language impairments and provides a model for future research to understand other languages in India and in countries around the world.

 

Method: Language impairments were identified in 68 students of Grades 3 and 4, in elementary schools where Kannada was the medium of instruction. The children were assessed in different language components. The results were analysed in terms of their ages and their levels of functioning in each language component and sub-component.

 

Results: As a group, the children showed no significant deficits in phonological and semantic skills; however, individual deficits and deficits within sub-component skills of semantics were noted. Mean and individual deficits in auditory reception, aural comprehension and receptive vocabulary were also noted. Deficits in syntax & verbal expression were notably significant. The extent of language delay increases with age, and plateaus at higher ages.

 

Conclusion: Children with language impairments in Kannada, display many similar characteristics in terms of problems in different components of language. Early intervention is called for because the language delay increases as age advances. A thorough assessment reveals specific strengths and weaknesses in language components and skills. This can be used as a starting point to base remediation activities.

"Out of the shadows" : a qualitative study of parents’ and professionals’ attitudes and beliefs about children with communication disability in Uganda and how best to help them

MCGEOWN, Julia
September 2012

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"Communication forms the basis of human life and the complex ways with which humans can communicate and interact with each other sets us apart from all other species. However, not all humans are able to communicate effectively due to a range of communication impairments. The overall aim of this study is to generate solutions and recommendations to remove any barriers preventing these children from communicating effectively and potentially to improve their quality of life"
Dissertation submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for a Masters degree at the Centre for International Health and Development (CIHD) at University College London (UCL) Institute of Child Health (ICH)
The user has given permission for the uploaded document to be reproduced and made publicly available on the Source website

The Role of Community Health Workers in the Mongolian CBR Programme

COMO, E
BATDULAM, T
2012

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Purpose: This article aims to present the role of community health workers in the implementation of a comprehensive CBR Programme in rural Mongolia, and to explore the main challenges that arise in this specific geographical and socio-economic context.

 

Methods: Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with CBR workers from three selected provinces; short meetings and interviews with respective provincial level CBR coordinators complemented the information acquired. Additionally, a workshop with national level CBR stakeholders was carried out in order to review and discuss the findings.

 

Results: The study highlighted a number of practical barriers (including long distances and lack of transportation, low population density, and harsh climate conditions) which constrain the work of community health workers in the areas studied. In relation to disability, the study shed light on the difficulties found by community workers in shifting from a medical approach to disability to a new approach that emphasizes prevention and rehabilitation. Exploring interviewees’ experience in the five areas of CBR (health, education, livelihood, social, empowerment) the authors found that working in the areas other than health is perceived as difficult due to insufficient training as well as objective contextual barriers.

 

Conclusions: Despite many challenges, CBR represents a significant improvement for disability action in rural Mongolia. In this context, the local community health workers are well suited and willing to act as CBR workers; nonetheless, more training and some tailoring work to adapt the Programme to the context is needed if all potential results are to be achieved.

 

Limitations: This study did not include direct observation of CBR activities or consultation of beneficiaries and other stakeholders. Their involvement and consultation would certainly improve the understanding of all the issues raised.

Benefits and costs of e-accessibility : how economics and market forces can support e-accessibility and the convention on the rights of peoples' with disability

BURGER, Dominique
et al
March 2012

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This white paper seeks to document the innovative elements of a conference discussion about e-accessibility costs and benefits. Despite technological and political achievements, the economics of e-accessibility need to be understood. This paper aims to define new approaches to understand how best to promote e-accessibility models
E-Accessibility costs and benefits
Paris, France
28 March 2011

Bridging aging and developmental disabilities service networks : challenges and best practices

FACTOR, Alan
HELLER, Tamar
JANICKI, Matthew
March 2012

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This reports aims to provide the "best practices guide to encourage the ‘bridging’ of the aging and developmental disabilities service networks that are both in need of including managed long-term, integrated care for people who are dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare, and rebalancing initiatives that promote community living"

"I want to be a citizen just like any other" : barriers to political participation for people with disabilities in Peru

BARRIGA, Shantha Rau
et al
2012

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"This report documents legal, physical, communication and attitudinal barriers experienced by people with different disabilities in exercising their right to political participation just like others in society. It also examines how restrictions on legal capacity impact the ability of people with intellectual and psychosocial disabilities in particular to enjoy a range of rights, including the right to own or inherit property, be employed or legally represent their children"
Note: This report is available in pdf, word and easy-read formats

Intergenerational poverty and disability : the implications of inheritance policy and practice on persons with disabilities in the developing world

GROCE, Nora Ellen
LONDON, Jillian
STEIN, Michael Ashley
2012

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"In this paper, we examine the existing data and discuss the implications of current inheritance policies and practices that affect the lives of persons with disabilities and their families, arguing that when persons with disabilities are routinely denied equal rights to inherit wealth or property, this denial has a profound impact on their ability to provide for themselves and their families. The stigma, prejudice and social isolation faced by persons with disabilities and the widespread lack of education, social support networks, and the right to appeal injustices at the family, community or national level, further limits the ability of persons with disability to contest inequities encountered in inheritance policies and practices"
Working paper series No 17

Web accessibility policy making : an international perspective

G3ICT
THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET AND SOCIETY
January 2012

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This report reviews of a number of countries policies on web accessibility to share good practice. The internet and ICT have become increasingly accessible with the introduction of electronic screen readers, close-captions video viewers and personally tailored assistive technology readers. Despite this, the authors maintain that there are still 1 billion disabled people who could have better access to the internet and ICT and there is great potential for improvement

Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities 2012 ICT accessibility progress report

GOULD, Martin
et al
2012

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"The 2012 CRPD Progress Report includes the latest data on 52 countries representing 77.4 percent of the World Population. The report offers disability advocates, governments, civil society and international organizations, monitoring the progress of the implementation of the Convention by States Parties, a unique benchmarking tool that collects data on country laws, policies, and programs pertaining to accessible and assistive Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) around the globe. All results are available cross-tabulated by region, level of income per capita of Human Development Index to facilitate benchmarking by advocates and policy makers"

Accessibility of government websites in India : a report

NARASIMHAN, Nirmita
SHARMA, Mukesh
KAUSHAL, Dinesh
2012

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"This report summarises the key findings of a test conducted to measure the accessibility of 7800 websites of the Government of India and its affiliated agencies against the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0, which is the universally accepted standard for web accessibility"

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