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Developing intervention strategies to improve community health worker motivation and performance

FRANK, Tine
KALLANDER, Karin
2012

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"This 28-page learning paper describes Malaria Consortium’s experience with Integrated Community Case Management (ICCM) in malaria prevention and treatment in Mozambique and Uganda. ICCM is an approach where community-based health workers are trained to identify, treat, and refer complex cases malaria (and other diseases) in children"
The Learning Series Papers

Briefing for the day of the African child : reaching Millennium Development Goal 4 : what progress has Africa made and what more needs to be done?

HARTILL, Richard G
MILLER, Carol A
June 2009

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This briefing document reviews examples of the progress that Africa has made in reaching the Accelerated Action Towards Africa Fit for Children 2008 - 2012 as adopted by the African Union and Member States in the agreed actions related to Enhancing Life Chances and Child Survival and looks at what more needs to be done. The commitment, "Enhancing Life Chances", entails strengthening health systems to provide quality maternal and child health services; scaling up essential interventions to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality and reduce neonatal mortality; scaling up a minimum package of proven child health interventions; and supporting family and community based actions that enhance children’s health, nutrition and well-being including potable water, improved sanitation and hygiene, appropriate young child feeding practices and food security measures

Disappearing daughters

KELLY, Annie
June 2008

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This report highlights the decline in the number of girls born and surviving in northern India compared to boys, driven by discrimination against women and the preference for sons over daughters. The problem affects all levels of society with the illegal use of ultrasound technology to detect the gender of unborn children leading to sex-selective abortions, and in poorer communities, where this technology is less available, the neglect and denial of medical care and nutrition of girl children

State of the world's mothers 2008 : closing the survival gap for children under 5

SAVE THE CHILDREN USA
May 2008

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This report shows which countries are succeeding - and which are failing - to deliver basic health care to the mothers and children who need it most. It examines where the health care gaps between the poorest and best-off children are widest, and where they are smallest. It also looks at the survival gaps between the rich and poor children in developing countries, and shows how millions of children’s lives could be saved by ensuring all children get essential, low-cost health care

Challenging assumptions : breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

PROGRAM FOR APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY IN HEALTH (PATH)
March 2008

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This policy brief considers the risks of HIV transmission from mother to child through breastfeeding, and the benefits of breast milk in preventing child malnutrition and morbidity and mortality in the first two years of life

Tracking progress in maternal, newborn and child survival : the 2008 report

BRYCE, Jennifer
HARRIS REQUEJO, Jennifer
2008

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This report looks at progress on maternal and child survival, including country profiles on the 68 countries with the highest levels of maternal and child mortality, which account for 97 percent of maternal and child deaths. The report highlights progress, obstacles and solutions to achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 (child survival) and 5 (maternal health)

The state of Africa's children 2008 : child survival

ROGERS, Kate
GEBRE-EGZIABHER, Hirut
2008

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This report complements UNICEF’s ‘State of the World’s Children 2008’. It considers progress towards the related Millennium Development Goals in the region and the main causes of child deaths. It considers health-care systems and community-based approaches to providing maternal and child health care and outlines priorities required to accelerate progress

Uganda demographic health survey 2006

UGANDA BUREAU OF STATISTICS (UBOS)
MACRO INTERNATIONAL INC
August 2007

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The 2006 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) is a nationally representative survey of 8,531 women age 15-49 years and 2,503 men age 15-54 years and is the first such survey to cover the entire country. The primary purpose of the UDHS is to furnish policymakers and planners with detailed information on fertility; family planning; infant, child, adult, and maternal mortality; maternal and child health; nutrition; and knowledge of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. In addition, in one in three households selected for the survey, women age 15-49, men age 15-54, and children under age 5 years were weighed and their height was measured to assess their nutritional status. Women, men, and children age 6-59 months, in this subset of households were also tested for anemia, and in addition the women and children were tested for vitamin A deficiency. In addition to the main report, the key findings, a preliminary report, a wall chart and fact sheet are also available online

National fact sheet India (provisional data) : 2005-2006 National family health survey (NFHSIII)

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR POPULATION SCIENCES, MUMBAI
2007

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This fact sheet presents provisional information on key indicators and trends at a national level from the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the third in the NFHS series of surveys. The survey provides information on population, health and nutrition in India and each of its 29 states, based on a sample of households which is representative at national and state levels. NFHS-3 provides trend data on key indicators and includes information on several new topics, such as HIV/AIDS-related behaviour and the health of slum populations. For the first time, NFHS-3 also provides information on men and unmarried women. In addition, HIV prevalence is measured at the national level and for selected states. The NFHS-3 fieldwork was conducted by 18 Research Organisations between December 2005 and August 2006

Integrated management of pregnancy and childbirth : WHO recommended interventions for improving maternal and newborn health

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO), DEPARTMENT OF MAKING PREGNANCY SAFER
2007

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This paper contains five tables listing recommendations to improve maternal and newborn health and survival, through health services, family and community. Table 1. Care in pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum period for mother and newborn infant; Table 2. Place of care, providers, interventions and commodities; Table 3. Home care, family, community and workplace support for the woman during pregnancy and childbirth and for the newborn infant; Table 4. Care for the woman before and between pregancies; Table 5. Pregnant women not wanting child

Health aid and infant mortality

MISHRA, Prachi
NEWHOUSE, David
2007

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This paper examines the relationship between health aid and infant mortality, using data from 118 countries between 1973 and 2004. Health aid has a statistically significant effect on infant mortality: doubling per capita health aid is associated with a two percent reduction in the infant mortality rate. For the average country, this implies that increasing per capita health aid by US$1.60 per year is associated with 1.5 fewer infant deaths per thousand births. The estimated effect is small, relative to the targets envisioned by the Millennium Development Goals

State of the world's mothers 2007 : saving the lives of children under 5

SAVE THE CHILDREN
2007

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This year’s State of the World’s Mothers report shows which countries are succeeding, and which are failing, to save the lives of mothers and children. It examines how investments in health care and nutrition can make a difference for children, mothers, communities and society as a whole. It also points to proven, low-cost solutions that could save the majority of these young lives

Lay health workers in primary and community health care : a systematic review of trials

LEWIN, Simon A
et al
November 2006

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This document updates a systematic review produced in 2005 by Lewin. It focuses on on the effects of lay health worker interventions in improving maternal and child health and in addressing key high burden diseases such as tuberculosis in low and middle income countries. The study concludes that; "the use of lay health workers in health programmes shows promising benefits, compared to usual care, in promoting immunisation and breastfeeding uptake; in reducing mortality and morbidity from common childhood illnesses; and in improving TB treatment outcomes. Little evidence is available regarding the effectiveness of substituting lay health workers for health professionals or the effectiveness of alternative training strategies for lay health workers"

Danger signs of neonatal illnesses : perceptions of caregivers and health workers in northern India

AWASTHI, Shally
VERMA, Tuhina
AGARWAL, Monica
October 2006

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This article explores the "household practices that can affect neonatal health, from the perspective of caregivers and health workers; to identify signs in neonates leading either to recognition of illness or health-care seeking; and to ascertain the proportion of caregivers who recognize the individual items of the integrated management of neonatal and childhood illnesses (IMNCI) programme"
Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84(10)

Better breastfeeding, healthier lives [whole issue]

March 2006

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This issue looks at the merits of breastfeeding and suggests ways for programmes and providers to help women improve breastfeeding practices. Breastmilk offers infants and young children complete nutrition and early protection against illness, increasing their chances of survival. National governments need to devise and implement comprehensive strategies to promote optimal practices and advise women about the benefits of breastfeeding. Includes an outline of Madagascar's policy approach and a discussion on breastfeeding as a contraceptive option

WHO/UNICEF regional child survival strategy : accelerated and sustained action towards MDG 4

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) WESTERN PACIFIC REGION
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF) EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC REGION
2006

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This strategy calls for accelerated and sustained action for child survival in the Western Pacific Region of the WHO and the East Asia and Pacific Region of UNICEF. It focuses on children from birth to five years of age. The strategy calls for one coordination mechanism for planning child survival actions at country level; one national plan; one monitoring and evaluation process; a focus on advocacy and communication; and financial resources to accelerate and sustain progress

Opportunities for Africa's newborns : practical data, policy and programmatic support for newborn care in Africa

LAWN, Joy
KERBER, Kate
2006

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The African region has the highest rates of neonatal mortality in the world, and has shown the slowest progress so far in reducing neonatal deaths. New policies, however, seem to provide opportunities to accelerate progress for maternal, newborn and child health. Section 1 presents an overview of neonatal deaths, and lives that could be saved in Africa in order to guide policy and programme priority setting. Section 2 explores the the continuum of care through pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period, highlighting current gaps in coverage of care and opportunities to address these gaps at all levels - family and community care, outreach services, and primary and referral care facilities. Section 3 contains an overview of the current situation for 9 key programmes related to newborn health. Section 4 discusses lessons learned and existing gaps between new policies and their implementation. Section 5, finally, contains a summary of relevant data for decision making for 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa regarding maternal, newborn and child health status and policy. This accessible and comprehensive tool will be of use to policy makers, health and community workers and programme managers

Child survival in sub-Saharan Africa : taking stock

SUPPORT FOR ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH IN AFRICA (SARA) PROJECT
2005

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This paper presents the findings and recommendations of research, funded by USAID, to understand better the growing gap between Africa and the rest of the world in achieving the UN Millennium Development Goals that relate to child health. It aims to provide an analysis of child health trends in order to identify how USAID could improve its contribution to improving child health in Africa

Community perceptions of pre-term labour in rural Malawi

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This policy brief looks at perceptions of neonatal and infant death. Death in the first four weeks of life accounts for almost 40% of deaths in children under five years of age. The causes of neonatal death in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly the contribution of pre-term birth, are poorly documented. It is vital to understand community perceptions of ill health in pregnancy through a combination of both traditional and biomedical models of health. The Malaria Knowledge Programme (MKP) carried out a qualitative study to investigate the perceptions of women, men and health workers of pre-term labour, its causes and prevention strategies. Although ante-natal clinic attendance was recognised as one way of preventing pre-term labour, constraints to accessing these services included lack of money and poor quality services

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