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Inequalities relating to health and the life course : disability, mental Illness and older age

SAMMAN, Emma
RODRIGUEZ-TACKEUCHI, Laura
November 2012

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"Issues related to early childhood feature prominently in the MDG framework (as do malnutrition, HIV status and malaria), and data collection in these areas is fairly advanced. Other sources of inequality are notable by their virtual absence - among these, older age, disability and mental illness, although these issues each appear to affect sizeable numbers of particularly vulnerable people throughout the world. A clear obstacle to ‘mainstreaming’ these sources of inequality in a new post-2015 agreement is the widespread lack of nationally representative internationally comparable data. This could arise from definitional or technical issues (what to measure and/or how), operational issues (e.g., resource or capacity constraints), attitudinal issues (relating to stigma) and/or lack of demand from data users. Greater attention is needed to explore these constraints and how they might be overcome. To this end, this paper discusses currently available data and its limitations, constraints to better data collection and efforts needed to adjust key international survey instruments- the World Bank’s Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire (CWIQ) and Living Standards and Measurement Survey (LSMS), Macro International’s Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) - to collect reliable data on these sources of inequality, alongside other household indicators"
Note: Accepted under the "Addressing Inequalities" Global Thematic Consultation - Call for Proposals for Background Papers, Oct 2012

Challenging assumptions : breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

PROGRAM FOR APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY IN HEALTH (PATH)
March 2008

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This policy brief considers the risks of HIV transmission from mother to child through breastfeeding, and the benefits of breast milk in preventing child malnutrition and morbidity and mortality in the first two years of life

Early initiation of breastfeeding - Indonesia

2008

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This is a clinical training video for midwives on the protocols for early initiation of breastfeeding. The clinical protocols covered in the video include: 1. injection of oxytocin within one minute after delivery 2. delayed cutting of the umbilical cord 3. placement of the baby in skin-to-skin contact with the mother for one hour after delivery 4. allowing the baby to root out the mother's nipple and breastfeed on its own 5. delivery of the newborn vitamin K and hepatitis B doses. The video is available through YouTube

Early initiation of breastfeeding - Indonesia

2008

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This is a clinical training video for midwives on the protocols for early initiation of breastfeeding. The clinical protocols covered in the video include: 1. injection of oxytocin within one minute after delivery 2. delayed cutting of the umbilical cord 3. placement of the baby in skin-to-skin contact with the mother for one hour after delivery 4. allowing the baby to root out the mother's nipple and breastfeed on its own 5. delivery of the newborn vitamin K and hepatitis B doses. The video is available through YouTube

Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices : part 1, definitions|Conclusions of a consensus meeting held 6-8 November 2007 in Washington, DC, USA

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2008

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This publication defines indicators that could be used to revise those outlined in the document 'Indicators for assessing breastfeeding practices', published in 1991. This document provided a set of indicators that could be used to assess infant feeding within and across countries and evaluate the progress of breastfeeding promotion efforts

Infant and young child feeding in emergencies : operational guidance for emergency relief staff and programme managers

IFE Core Group
February 2007

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This document aims to provide concise, practical (but non-technical) guidance on how to ensure appropriate infant and young child feeding in emergencies. A number of elements are also applicable in non-emergency settings. It is intended for emergency relief staff, programme managers, national governments, United Nations agencies, NGOs and donors, and it applies to all countries. It includes six sections of practical steps, references, key contacts and definitions. Members of the IFE Core Group are: UNICEF, WHO, UNHCR, WFP, IFBAN-GIFA, CARE USA, Fondation Terre des hommes and Emergency Nutrition Network. It is also available in Arabic, Bahasa Indonesian, French, Portuguese and Spanish

Practical mother, newborn and child care in developing countries

EBRAHIM, G J
2007

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This CD comprises electronic editions of 'Practical Mother, Newborn and Child Care in Developing Countries' by Prof G J Ebrahim, Emeritus Professor, Institute of Child Health, London. 'An autorun CD with over 260 images/figures, 430 PowerPoint slides, an index of over 90 tables and an index

HIV and infant feeding : new evidence and programmatic experience|Report of a technical consultation held on behalf of the Inter-agency Task Team (IATT) on Prevention of HIV infections in pregnant women, Mother and their Infants, Geneva, Switzerland, 25-

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
et al
2007

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This report aims to clarify and refine existing UN guidance on HIV and infant feeding. It follows a previous technical consultation in 2000 and presents a summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding HIV and Infant Feeding between 2000 and 2006

Healthy babies, happy mothers : prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Training manual

CAMEROON BAPTIST CONVENTION HEALTH BOARD
May 2006

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This is a comprehensive manual on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. It is designed to help meet the needs of both the mother and the child in all critical stages of maternity and perinatal care. Places a great emphasis on psychological support and counselling, to enable HIV-positive mothers to make informed decisions and healthy choices. Include an overview of key mother-to-child transmission issues. Topics discussed also include: basic principles of HIV counseling; voluntary counseling and testing; confidentiality; instructions for nevirapine treatment of HIV-infected mothers and for HIV-infected mothers during antenatal, labor, delivery, and postnatal periods; counseling and support for safer infant feeding; follow-up and care of an infant born to an HIV-positive mother; follow-up and care of an HIV-positive mother; PMTCT support groups; laboratory HIV testing; universal precautions; PMTCT programme supervision and monitoring; reporting and management information system (MIS). This training manual is intended as a tool for health care workers who desire to know more about HIV and to help train counsellors who work in PMTCT centers

1990 - 2005 Celebrating the Innocenti declaration on the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding

INNOCENTI RESEARCH CENTRE, UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2005

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In 1990, the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda on breastfeeding and the recognition ofthe right of the infant to nutritious food enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This publication reviews the context of the Innocenti Declaration and analyzes the achievements that have been realized towards the targets that were established in 1990. It describes the continuing and new challenges that exist to optimal feeding of infants and young children, and suggests a way forward towards the global aim of ensuring universal enjoyment of children’s right to adequate nutrition.

Model IMCI handbook : integrated management of childhood illness

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2005

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The IMCI model handbook provides a detailed explanation of the IMCI case management guidelines. It is organized into seven main parts: overview of the IMCI process; assess and classify the sick child age 2 months up to 5 years; assess and classify the sick young infant age 1 week up to 2 months; identify treatment; treat the sick child or the sick young infant; communicate and counsel; and give follow-up care
Teaching institutions are advised to adapt the handbook in two ways: 1.to ensure that all text, charts and illustrations are consistent with nationally-adapted IMCI clinical guidelines, and 2.to ensure that its content and format corresponds to the teaching approach used by the institution

HIV and infant feeding : a compilation of programmatic evidence

KONIZ-BOOHER, Peggy
et al
July 2004

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This paper tries to deepen understandings of the biological and programmatic implications of the transmission of HIV through breastfeeding which have previously been hampered by insufficient study and difficulties of interpretation. It is a careful look at the findings of programmatic approaches. The project attempted to find, summarise and analyse reports on a wide variety of relevant programmes conducted since 1998 UNICEF guidelines were issued. The programmes range from small community research projects to national programmes. The compilation addresses numerous controversial topics and constraints, including human resources, confused mothers, stigma and discrimination, spillover of replacement feeding, free or subsidised infant formula, family economics and the difficulty in providing integrated HIV testing, informed choice counselling, community support, logistics and follow-up care for mothers and infants

Improving nutrition and reproductive health : a review of UNICEF experience with the distribution of free infant formula for infants of HIV-infected mothers in Africa

WAGT, Arjan de
Clark, David
2004

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This review considers the experience of UNICEF with the distribution of free infant formula for infants of HIV infected mothers in Africa. UNICEF has provided, or is planning to provide, support to pregnant women in 54 countries, with HIV testing and counselling, improved health care, anti-retroviral drugs, and counselling on infant feeding options. After 1998, UNICEF decided to provide poorer HIV positive mothers with an alternative to breastfeeding by providing free formula. This paper presents the experiences with the procurement, distribution and use of free formula in PMTCT programmes. It further suggests conditions for the use of free formula

Counseling mothers on infant feeding for the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV : a job-aid for primary health care workers

REGIONAL CENTRE FOR QUALITY OF HEALTH CARE
March 2003

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This booklet aims to help primary health care workers give advice to women on how to reduce the transmition of HIV to their breastfeeding babies. It is written at Primary 6 reading level and so should be appropriate for community health workers who can read at that level or above. It covers: basic counseling techniques; helping an HIV positive mother decide how to feed her baby; counseling HIV positive mothers on exclusive breastfeeding, during antenatal and postnatal visits; how to prepare animal milk for infants; how to prepare commercial infant formula for infants; and helping mothers who do not know their HIV status to decide how to feed their babies

HIV and infant feeding : a report of a WABA-UNICEF Colloquium

GREINER, Ted
Ed
2003

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This report covers the main dilemmas and debates around HIV/AIDS and infant feeding practices. There is some focus on antiretrovirals and prevention of mother to child transmission, but sessions featured in the report mainly cover technical and progammatic issues, and the sharing of field experiences. The key themes are the issues of if and how to breastfeed, and confusion over unclear messages about infant feeding practices. Increasing access to information and voluntary counselling and testing is covered as well as community involvement and the perspective and role of breastfeeding supportive NGOs. Lessons learned are drawn upon and details of each working group on various subjects are documented. Research, monitoring and evaluation priorities are looked at, and there is a presentation of knowledge gaps and challenges for the future

Global strategy for infant and young child feeding

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
2003

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This document draws attention to the impact that feeding practices have on the nutrition and survival of infants and young children. It emphasizes the crucial role that appropriate feeding practices (such as breastfeeding) play in achieving optimal health outcomes. The strategy paper is a guide for action. It identifies interventions with a proven positive impact, emphasizing the importance of providing mothers and families the support they need to carry out their crucial roles, and it explicitly defines the obligations and responsibilities in this regard of governments, international organisations and other concerned parties

HIV and infant feeding : guidelines for decision-makers

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (UNFPA)
2003

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Contents: 1. Overview 2. Protecting, promoting and supporting appropriate feeding practices for infants and young children in the context of HIV 3. Supporting HIV-positive women in their infant-feeding decisions 4. Monitoring and evaluation

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