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Pre-Primary and Primary Inclusive Education for Tanzania (PPPIET) – Foundation phase : Desk Review presented by the Task Team February 2020

JUDGE, Emma
August 2020

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The Disability Inclusive Development (DID) consortium is working together on the Pre-Primary and Primary Inclusive Education in Tanzania (PPPIET) programme whose ultimate goal is to foster quality sustainable inclusive education for all children with disabilities (CWD) at scale across Tanzania in mainstream pre-primary and primary government schools.  To achieve this, it aims to support collective, coordinated systems change by establishing an agreed common model of basic inclusive pre-primary and primary education in mainstream government schools, and galvanising significant progress in spreading its systematic implementation for all CWD across Tanzania over six years.

 

This task requires the cooperation of government, civil society and DPOs to achieve real change.  No single organisation or government department can achieve inclusive education on its own.  Cooperation between all government ministries, including education, health, finance and social welfare are key to providing individual support to learners with disabilities.  Pooling the skills and resources, and exchanging learnings to achieve quality inclusive education of children can help all involved.  Working together will build collective commitment and action, not just amongst DID consortium members but also across government, donors, education actors and the private sector. 

 

The first part in this process was for the Task Team to conduct a desk review to establish an overview of the current educational context with regards to children with disabilities, including legislative, policies and practice, inclusive education strategies, disability contexts, cultural perspective, interventions, existing assessment and quality assurance processes, and opportunities and challenges. 

Guidance note 1: Inclusive digital learning

McGEOWN, Julia
BOISSEAU, Sandra
BOHAN-JACQUOT, Sandrine
April 2020

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This guidance is part of a series to provide support during the Covid-19 crisis. The guidance notes include: #1- Inclusive Digital learning; #2 - Teacher resources; and #3 Home support

 

To help with the vast range of information on distance learning, here are some recommendations about helpful resources that are simple to use to complement learning, do not require subscriptions, include resources in a range of languages (used in the context of HI programs), and are free to the user.

 

Ten top tips are given on inclusive digital learning with a focus on children with disabilities with resources to follow

Guidance note 2: Teacher resources

McGEOWN, Julia
BOISSEAU, Sandra
BOHAN-JACQUOT, Sandrine
April 2020

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This guidance is part of a series to provide support during the Covid-19 crisis. The guidance notes include: #1- Inclusive Digital learning; #2 - Teacher resources; and #3 Home support.

 

To help teachers support their students during school closure, and to improve both wellbeing and learning outcomes for girls and boys affected by the COVID 19 crisis, a wide range of resources have been developed.

 

10 tips for teaching children with disabilities during COVID-19 are given with links to various resources.

Ensuring inclusive education during COVID-19

RICHLER, Diane
TESNI, Sian
McGEOWN, Julia
et al
April 2020

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 Practical recommendations and examples for supporting inclusive education approaches in the COVID-19 response, with a particular focus on supporting children and young people with disabilities are presented

What an inclusive, equitable, quality education means to us : report of the International Disability Alliance

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY ALLIANCE (IDA)
March 2020

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This report is the result of a process aimed at building a cross-disability consensus on strategic recommendations to commonly advocate for the realisation of the rights of all learners to quality, inclusive education, including all learners with disabilities.

 

Through three technical workshops, which included exchanges with consultants, education sector stakeholders, inclusive education allies in particular the IDDC Inclusive Education Task Group, global, regional and national level OPDs, a consensus position was developed on how to best achieve SDG4 in compliance with UNCRPD Article 24.

 

The report calls for an inclusive education system where all learners with and without disabilities learn together with their peers in schools and classes in their community schools, receiving the support they need in inclusive facilities.

 

Representatives of four IDA members formed the technical task team to guide the initiative and its framing of inclusive and equitable quality education. The four members are Inclusion International, the International Federation of Hard of Hearing People, the World Blind Union and the World Federation of the Deaf. While this report is endorsed by the Alliance as a whole, examples used in this report reflect a perspective on the commonly agreed position as illustrated by the four IDA member organisations who engaged actively in the technical task team.

Learning support strategies for learners with neurodevelopmental disorders: Perspectives of recently qualified teachers

YORO, Amarachi J
FOURIE, Jean V
VAN DER MERWE, Martyn
February 2020

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Background: Inclusive education envisages the improvement of the quality of education for all learners. This further implies that schools must adjust all systems of teaching and learning to accommodate all learners regardless of their diverse needs. The reduction of educational inequalities through inclusive practices is aimed at supporting the accomplishment of academic outcomes for all. Learners presenting with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) place specific requirements on teachers, particularly when they find themselves in mainstream classrooms.

 

Objectives: This study focused on the learning support strategies used by recently qualified teachers in accommodating learners with NDDs in mainstream classrooms in the Gauteng province of South Africa.

 

Method: A qualitative approach was used to explore the support strategies used by recently qualified teachers in mainstream classrooms when dealing with learners with NDDs. Purposive sampling was used to select six recently qualified teachers from different mainstream classroom. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, observations and critical incident reports.

 

Results: The findings revealed that teachers employ a variety of support strategies such as cooperative learning, peer learning, ability grouping, extensive visual aids and curriculum differentiation in an attempt to support learners. The support provided by the teachers was evident in their performance as learners with NDD were able to learn and understand the lessons irrespective for their barrier to learning.

 

Conclusion: Contrary to literature findings that teachers do not support learners with diverse needs because of lack of skills, training and knowledge, this study revealed that recently qualified teachers employ a variety of support strategies to support learners with NDDs. However, it appeared that these support strategies were rather general teaching and learning strategies. More support strategies should be applied to help learners with NDD in the mainstream classroom.

 

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 9, 2020 

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2020, Vol. 7 No. 1

2020

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Articles include:

  • Decolonising inclusive education: an example from a research in Colombia
  • At the Margins of Society: Disability Rights and Inclusion in 1980s Singapore
  • Universal Notions of Development and Disability: Towards Whose Imagined Vision?
  • Decolonizing inclusive education: A collection of practical inclusive CDS- and DisCrit-informed teaching practices implemented in the global South

Activity bank for disabilities

EDUCATION ABOVE ALL INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT DIRECTORATE
2020

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Since the COVID-19 crisis has been particularly challenging for children with special needs, the Education Above All Innovation Development Directorate (IDD), in collaboration with experts in the field has developed the Activity Bank for Disabilities (ABD), an activity bank for children that require additional and specialized care, in order to support their continued development and learning.

The resources in the ABD have been developed for children with multiple needs. The domains and activities are meant to be chosen, customised and adapted by parents and caregivers depending on the learner needs and abilities. It is recommended that the activities are done under the constant supervision of the caregiver or parent.

Video Storybooks from eKitabu

eKitabu
2020

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eKitabu’s Studio KSL and Studio RSL create Kenyan Sign Language and Rwandan Sign Language videos and video storybooks to support accessible, early grade reading

State of the Education Report for India 2019: Children with disabilities

RAMCHAND, Mythili
et al
July 2019

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The past twenty years in India have seen significant legal and political commitments towards universalization of education and the right to education. This report documents the considerable effort undertaken in the country to protect the right to education of children with disabilities (CWD) and outlines what remains to be done to achieve its full realization. 

The report is based on extensive research of national and international literature and attempts to provide comprehensive information on the current status of education of CWDs, evidence of achievements and continuing concerns. It extensively draws upon a series of thematic research studies between 2017 and 2018. 

The report has taken a participatory approach with contributions, in the form of case studies, from specialists and those working directly in the field. 

A snapshot of the chalkboard writing experiences of Bachelor of Education students with visual disabilities in South Africa

SUBRAYEN, Roshanthni
DHUNPATH, Rubby
July 2019

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Background: South African higher education policy frameworks highlight renewed interest in equity, access and participation imperatives for students with disabilities (SWDs). However, students with visual disabilities continue to face barriers in their teaching practice school placements.

 

Objectives: This article aims, firstly, to provide early insights into the barriers experienced by students with visual disabilities in their teaching practice school placements in under-resourced schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Secondly, it introduces learning communities and a teaching practice pre-placement booklet to enhance equity, access and participation in teaching practice school placements.

 

Method: This study adopted a qualitative methodology using semi-structured interviews to elicit data from two Bachelor of Education students with visual disabilities, who were part of a teaching practice learning community managed by the Disability Unit at the University. Thematic analysis was used, using Tinto’s Learning Community Model which generated valuable evidence to argue for institutional commitment to achieve equity, access and participation for students with visual disabilities.

 

Results: Through engagement with a teaching practice learning community and a teaching practice pre-placement booklet, two students with visual disabilities responded to and managed the chalkboard in ways that promoted teaching and learning in the classroom. These retention support trajectories provide evidence to support enhanced equity, access and participation. Given the stigma associated with disability and the need for equity at policy level, higher education institutions should seriously consider systemic mechanisms for access, participation and success outcomes in the teaching practice school placements of students with visual disabilities.

 

Conclusion: Barriers to participation signal the need for accessible teaching and learning strategies for use by students with visual disabilities in their teaching practice school placements. Teaching practice assessors should be alerted to contextual differences in resourced and under-resourced school settings and the diverse ways in which SWDs navigate these differences.

 

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

Every learner matters: Unpacking the learning crisis for children with disabilities

McCLAIN-NHLAPO, Charlotte
et al
June 2019

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This paper was developed by the World Bank in partnership with Leonard Cheshire and Inclusion International. It is an attempt to add knowledge to the current understanding of the importance of learning achievements, with a focus on children with disabilities. While the premise is that inclusive education refers to the inclusion of all children, the focus of this paper is on children with disabilities.

The aim of the paper is to:

  • Provide an evidence-based review of educational participation of children with disabilities.
  • Establish a case for focusing on learning achievements for students with disabilities.
  • Take stock of current mechanisms of measurement of learning outcomes and review their inclusivity.
  • Explore evidence of practice and systems which promote disability-inclusive learning for all. 

Four case studies are provided - from Pakistan, South Africa, Canada and UK.

Using the Washington Group Questions in humanitarian action (learning toolkit on disability data collection)

January 2019

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Humanity & Inclusion has created a learning toolkit to improve the collection of quality data on persons with disabilities and improve its use by humanitarian organisations.

 

Until now, existing guidance on the Washington Group Questions (WGQs) has been specific to national data collection efforts on persons with disabilities. To address the lack of guidance for humanitarian actors, Humanity & Inclusion (HI) is launching a learning toolkit on collecting data in humanitarian action, which includes an e-learning, a training pack for enumerators and various supporting resources that can all be found on the HI website.

 

Gathering evidence on the use of the WGQs in humanitarian action:

To respond to the need to collect, analyse and use data on persons with disabilities in humanitarian action, HI has been implementing a project, funded by the UK Department for International Development, to test and assess the use of the WGQs in humanitarian action. An action-research was carried out with over 30 humanitarian partners in Jordan, the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Philippines, with the evidence used to develop learning materials.

 

Development of a learning toolkit for humanitarian actors:

In addition to the findings of the action-research, HI gathered inputs from over 30 humanitarian organisations working in 22 countries to inform the design of the learning toolkit. Specific focus was given to the development of open source materials that would be accessible with screen readers, on mobile phones, and in hard to reach locations. The content was then informed by selected subject matter experts in inclusive humanitarian action and data collection.

 

What is included in the toolkit?

An e-learning on Collecting Data for the Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action – The Application of the WGQs providing an entry point for humanitarian actors who would like to understand how to plan for and use the WGQs.

A Training Pack for enumerators giving guidance, session plans and activities to deliver training on using the WGQs (developed in collaboration with RedR UK).

Supporting resources providing practical guidance on the application of the WGQs in humanitarian contexts.

 

Who is this for?

The toolkit is tailored to a full range of humanitarian actors who would like to understand how to use the WGQs in their own work and organisations. The content has also been designed to provide technical guidance for programme and technical staff: with a practical focus on different topics relevant for the use of the WGQs –from the human rights based approach that underpins them, to their planning, use and the analysis of the data produced.

 

Where is the Toolkit available?

The e-learning is available now on disasterready.com and on Kayaconnect.org (accessible for mobile phones and tablets). Organisations interested in hosting the e-learning are welcome to contact the project team members. Toolkit resources and more information about the project are available for download in the project webpage.

Universal design for learning to help all children read: Promoting literacy for learners with disabilities (First Edition)

HAYES, Anne
TURNBULL, Ann
MORAN, Norma
November 2018

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Providing evidence-based research and information on effective teaching techniques, the toolkit offers information on how to teach early literacy skills to students with different categories of disabilities, including how to best apply these theoretical approaches in practice in Low- and Moderate- Income Country (LMIC) settings. Although the toolkit provides information on multiple aspects of literacy (grammar, spelling and writing), the techniques and interventions focus on the concept of reading as taught in the early years of primary school.

 

Specifically, the toolkit describes:

  • the phases of literacy for students with disabilities
  • supports and services that can be used to gain literacy skills
  • specific instructional techniques using the framework of UDL (Universal Design for Learning)
  • suggestions to monitor students’ progress
  • funding practices and suggestions for a phased approach to move towards inclusive education
  • a self-reflection checklist that covers many of the items in the toolkit to help educational systems recognize possible gaps and areas for improvement

Learning From Experience: Guidelines for locally sourced and cost-effective strategies for hygiene at home for people with high support needs.

World Vision/CBM Australia
May 2018

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This learning resource is the result of a partnership between World Vision Australia and CBM Australia that aims to improve inclusion of people with disabilities in World Vision’s Water, Hygiene and Sanitation (WASH) initiatives, including in Sri Lanka. The guidelines are based on experiences and observations from World Vision’s implementation of the Rural Integrated WASH 3 (RIWASH 3) project in Jaffna District, Northern Province, funded by the Australian Government’s Civil Society WASH Fund 2. The four year project commenced in 2014. It aimed to improve the ability of WASH actors to sustain services, increase adoption of improved hygiene practices, and increase equitable use of water and sanitation facilities of target communities within 11 Grama Niladari Divisions (GNDs) in Jaffna District.

To support disability inclusion within the project, World Vision partnered with CBM Australia. CBM Australia has focused on building capacities of partners for disability
inclusion, fostering connections with local Disabled People’s Organisations, and providing technical guidance on disability inclusion within planned activities. World Vision also partnered with the Northern Province Consortium of the Organizations for the Differently Abled (NPCODA) for disability assessment, technical support and capacity building on inclusion of people with disabilities in the project.

HYGIENE AT HOME FOR PEOPLE WITH HIGH SUPPORT NEEDS
This document is one of two developed in the Jaffna District and describes strategies that used to assist households and individuals in hygiene tasks at home. The strategies were designed to be low cost and were developed using locally available materials and skills in the Jaffna District of Sri Lanka.

NOTE: The development of this learning resource was funded by the Australian Government's Civil Society WASH Fund 2.

Standard school eye health guidelines for low and middle-income countries

GILBERT, Clare
MINTO, Hasan
MORJARIA, Priya
KHAN, Imran
February 2018

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The purpose of these best practice guidelines is to provide direction to those planning and implementing eye health initiatives for schools, including policy makers, health care and educational authorities, health planners, eye care delivery organizations and professionals, in partnership with teachers, parents and children. In situations where resources for eye health are limited, decisions need to be made to ensure that programs not only address public health problems but are also implemented in a way that is effective, efficient and, wherever possible, sustainable. Systems for monitoring and plans for evaluation should also be developed at the outset. These practice guidelines provide an excellent learning resource for a module on school eye health that can be incorporated in optometry and ophthalmology residency curricula.  A section highlights some of the challenges in current school eye health initiatives and provides a framework in which school eye health is integrated into school health programs. Case studies are provided to emphasise the integrated approach and a 15-step approach, from situation analysis to monitoring and evaluation, is suggested. Practical recommendations for implementation are provided, including information on the equipment and technology required

 

This evidence-based document is based on best practice guidelines initially developed through a joint collaboration between Sightsavers International, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Brien Holden Vision Institute

Livret de formation sur l'approche personnalise - Centree sur la personne a destination de professionel-le-s de services sociaux

CHANTRY, Nadine
RELANDEAU, Audrey
January 2018

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Ce Livret de Formation sur « l’approche personnalisée - centrée sur la personne » à destination des professionnel-le-s des services sociaux est le produit d’une formation réalisée par Humanité & Inclusion (nouveau nom de Handicap International - HI) en Algérie, dans le cadre du projet « L’éducation des enfants en situation de handicap au cœur des dynamiques de développement territorial au Maghreb ». Cette formation avait pour objectif de renforcer les capacités du personnel de la Direction de l’Action Sociale de la Solidarité de la ville d’Oran à accueillir et accompagner les personnes handicapées. Ce livret propose de questionner les postures et la qualité de la relation entre un professionnel de service social et un usager, et ce dans un objectif d’autonomisation de la personne accompagnée. Elle permet aussi une introduction au processus d’accompagnement social personnalisé. Il se compose d’une fiche pédagogique, d’un agenda détaillé et son contenu qualitatif, avec des propositions d’animations et des outils nécessaires à l’animation de cette formation.

Services for people with communication disabilities in Uganda: supporting a new speech and language therapy professional

MARSHALL, Julie
WICKENDEN, Mary
2018

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Services for people with communication disability (PWCD), including speech and language therapists (SLTs), are scarce in countries of the global South. A SLT degree programme was established at Makerere University, Uganda, in 2008. In 2011, an innovative project was set up to provide in-service training and mentoring for graduates and staff of the programme. This paper describes the project and its evaluation over three years. Three types of input: direct training, face-to-face individual and group meetings, and remote mentoring, were provided to 26 participants and evaluated using written and verbal methods. The first two types of input were evaluated mainly positively, while remote mentoring received more mixed evaluations. Less positive evaluations were linked to factors including resourcing, cultural perceptions about professional roles and services, work patterns, power/status, engagement, perceptions of help-seeking, community recognition of the needs for services for PWCD. Findings suggest that participatory approaches, flexibility, reflexivity and open discussion with participants around support and work challenges, are important. Power gradients between white Northern ‘experts’ and relatively inexperienced East African SLTs, contributed to some challenges. Structural issues about degree programme structures and statutory bodies, provide lessons about the development of new services and professions in low-income settings. 

 

Disability and the Global South, 2018 Vol.5, No. 1

Employment outcomes of skills training in South Asian countries: An evidence summary

ILAVARASAN, P Vigneswara
KUMAR, Arpan K
ASWANI, Reema
November 2017

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This evidence summary of systematic reviews provides insights for policy makers surrounding the impact of training programmes on employment outcomes. There are 11 studies included in this summary focusing on technical and vocational education and training (TVET), rehabilitation and counselling, personality development (including leadership training, stress management and communication skills training) and entrepreneurship training programmes.

 

The target groups covered in the included studies are diverse including people with disabilities, health workers, women and enterprises as a whole. The final studies comprise of one study each from 2011 and 2017; two studies each from 2013, 2015 and 2016; and three studies from 2014. The focus of this evidence is on low and middle income South Asian countries namely: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka

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