Resources search

GEM report summary on disabilities and education

UNESCO
2018

Expand view

In support of the run-up to the 2020 GEM Report on inclusion and education, this paper contains summarised content related to disabilities and education in previous Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Reports since 2010. Reports cited from 2010 and 2015 monitored countries in the Global South. The GEM Report started monitoring countries in the Global North from the 2016 Report onwards only.

 

Topics covered include: compliance monitoring; the role of civil society organisations; lack of data; marginalisation; data on primary school attendance; intersection with other disadvantages; different education related challenges; and ten education policies to counteract marginalisation.

Global education monitoring report, 2019: migration, displacement and education: building bridges, not walls

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
et al
2018

Expand view

“The 2019 GEM Report continues its assessment of progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4) on education and its ten targets, as well as other related education targets in the SDG agenda.


Its main focus is on the theme of migration and displacement. It presents evidence on the implications of different types of migration and displacement for education systems but also the impact that reforming education curricula and approaches to pedagogy and teacher preparation can have on addressing the challenges and opportunities posed by migration and displacement. It gives voice to experiences in host and home communities.


With the help of case studies, it illustrates approaches which work and could be scaled up. In this way, it aims to be a tool for practitioners. It will make the case for investing in education of good quality in rural areas suffering from depopulation and in slum areas suffering from large population inflows; in countries with high rates of emigration and those with high rates of immigration; in short-term refugee emergencies and in protracted crises. Its analysis, conclusions and recommendations advance the aims of SDG 4 and its call to leave no one behind.”

INCLUDE US! Good practices in the inclusion of persons with disabilities in Myanmar

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
2018

Expand view

In 2015, Humanity & Inclusion HI began the project: “Empowering persons with disabilities to contribute to equal access to basic social services and local policymaking processes in under-resourced areas of Ayeyarwady and Mandalay”. The project supported Disabled Peoples Organizations and other civil society groups to participate in the development of inclusive regional policies and programmes, and to promote good practices contributing to greater access to services for persons with disabilities. An aim was also to document, publish and disseminate these good practices throughout Myanmar, increasing awareness and understanding in order to sensitise people to disability inclusion and influence policy change. Rather than focusing on what is not working, this report seeks to shift attention to what has worked locally and how it could be replicated in other parts of the country, providing constructive, practical recommendations to decision-makers, service providers and other community groups in Myanmar. The report is related to two projects. The second is “Advocacy for Change: Fostering protection and rights of men and women with disabilities in Myanmar”. 

 

There are global recommendations. There are seven good practices:

  • Related to education:  Case Study I: Promoting Inclusion of children with disabilities in Middle Schools of Ayartaw. Case Study II: How the development of the teacher training promotes inclusion of all children in education
  • Related to economic life: Case Study III: How partnerships between private companies and organizations of people with disabilities can improve access to employment and vocational training
  • Related to social/community life: Case Study IV: Giving the Myanmar Deaf Community access to information.  Case Study V: How parental advocacy can make a difference
  • Related to political life: Case Study VI: Community advocacy in obtaining the National Registration Card. Case Study VII: Supporting people with disabilities to participate in Myanmar elections

 

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2018, Vol. 5 No. 1

2018

Expand view

Articles include:

  • Inclusive Education in the global South? A Colombian perspective: ‘When you look towards the past, you see children with disabilities, and if you look towards the future, what you see is diverse learners
  • Services for people with Communication Disabilities in Uganda: supporting a new Speech and Language Therapy profession
  • Frida Kahlo and Pendular Disability Identity: A Textual Examination of El Diario de Frida Kahlo
  • Health Information-Seeking Behaviour of Visually Impaired Persons in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria
  • Online Collective Identities for Autism: The Perspective of Brazilian Parents
  • Transnationalizing Disability Policy in Embedded Cultural-Cognitive Worldviews: the Case of Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Portrayal of Disabled People in the Kuwaiti Media

Inclusive education in the global South? A Colombian perspective: ‘When you look towards the past, you see children with disabilities, and if you look towards the future, what you see is diverse learners.’

KAMENOPOULOU, Leda
2018

Expand view

The findings of the research presented in this paper come in the aftermath of a momentous year for Colombia, a year that saw a historic peace deal signed between the government and the biggest left-wing guerrilla group (FARC) with the aim of bringing an over 50 year civil war to a long awaited conclusion. At a time when the Colombian people are being required to genuinely reflect on what inclusion means to them and how best they can achieve it within their deeply diverse society, I present findings from an ethnographic research that I conducted on inclusion in education focusing on the capital, Bogotá. The research foci were a) inclusive education in practice, b) teacher preparation for inclusive education, and c) local understanding of inclusive education. Findings include a local understanding of inclusive education as synonymous with disability, special teachers as synonymous with inclusive education in practice, and big gaps in teacher preparation for inclusive education. Based on these findings, I emphasise that inclusive education is a global North-created concept, which can acquire different meanings in global South contexts, and I argue that Colombia in particular needs time to make its own understanding of inclusive education a priority.

 

Disability and the Global South, 2018 Vol.5, No. 1

Inclusion for all: Research case study June 2018: Occupied Palestinian Territories

CAPPER, Sarah
El ZOKM, Norah
2018

Expand view

The Inclusion for All program, funded by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) and implemented by Save the Children and its partners, seeks to increase the access of children with disabilities (CwD) to quality education and to strengthen child rights in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). The program works with children, parents, teachers, counselors, and principals at 30 public, UNRWA, and private schools in the West Bank, Jerusalem, and Gaza, since 2015. In addition, the program supports full inclusion of CwD in education and child rights governance through extracurricular activities run by a host of partner organizations and promotes policies and mechanisms that support such inclusion and child rights. This review of the Inclusion for All program, completed between February and May 2018, utilizes previously-collected quantitative data, in addition to data from focus group discussions and interviews with children, parents, teachers, counselors, principals, policymakers, and program implementers and observations of program activities.

Disability gaps in educational attainment and literacy - The price of exclusion : disability and education.

MALE, Chata
WODON, Quentin
December 2017

Expand view

This note provides an analysis of gaps in educational opportunities for children with disabilities. It also measures the impact at the margin of exclusion related to various types of disabilities on education outcomes for children. Four main outcomes are considered: whether children ever enroll in school, whether they complete their primary education, whether they complete their secondary education, and whether they are literate. The analysis is implemented using the most recent census data available for a total of 19 countries.

Growing Together. Child participation through the project journey. Management of a children’s club by the children themselves

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
December 2017

Expand view

An overview is presented of a project in Bangladesh, Pakistan and Thailand to:

  • To support communities in raising socially and emotionally healthy kids in refugee/IDPs camps and in host communities.
  • To create opportunities for children with disabilities and other vulnerable children (0-12 years old) including children at risk of developmental delays/psychological distress in displacement contexts, to learn and develop safely while having fun.
  • Using “play” as key driver to learn and develop safely children’s potential while having fun.

The project was implemented using:

  • Existing HI tools (Personalized Social Support, Adapted Physical Activity, etc.)
  • Tools piloted in IKEA project (Blue Box, low-cost toy making, inclusive playgrounds, Ideas box)
  • Environmental Footprint Assessment across 3 project sites

Monitoring & evaluation was carried out using techniques including

  • Scopeo (Sc-ore O-f Pe-rceived O-utcomes) Kids
  • Participatory M&E approaches (digital story telling, child-child video interview etc) 

Presented at the People at the centre Seminar, Dec 2017 

 

Re-theorising inclusion and reframing inclusive practice in physical education

PENNEY, Dawn
JEANES, Ruth
O'CONNOR, Justen
ALFREY, Laura
2017

Expand view

Inclusion remains a key political agenda for education internationally and is a matter that teachers across subject communities and phases of education are challenged to respond to. In physical education specifically, research continues to highlight that current practice often reaffirms rather than challenges established inequities. This paper critically explores the understandings of inclusion that contribute to this situation and addresses the challenge of advancing inclusion in physical education from conceptual and pedagogical viewpoints. DeLuca’s [(2013). “Toward an Interdisciplinary Framework for Educational Inclusivity.” Canadian Journal of Education 36 (1): 305–348] conceptualisation of normative, integrative, dialogical and transgressive approaches to inclusion is employed as a basis for critical analysis of current practice and for thinking afresh about inclusive practice in physical education in relation to curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. Analysis informs the presentation of a set of principles that are designed to assist teachers and teacher educators to transform inclusive practice in physical education and in doing so, realise visions for physical education that are articulated in international policy guidelines and contemporary curriculum developments.

Childhood disability in Malaysia: a study of knowledge, attitudes and practices

MOORE, Katie
BEDFORD, Juliet
November 2017

Expand view

This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of society towards children with disabilities, the children themselves, and their peers in Malaysia. The study took place in Selangor, Kelantan, Sabah and Sarawak. There were 756 total respondents/participants including government ministries, community members, service providers, care givers and children and adolescents both with and without disabilities. 

Quality inclusive education for children with disabilities in Ethiopia

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL ETHIOPIA
2017

Expand view

Achieving education for all in Ethiopia will remain a distant aspiration if most of the 5 million children with special educational needs in the country cannot go to school. Since 2014, Handicap International have been supporting 49 schools to become places where everyone has a role to play in making schools more inclusive.

Inclusive education and accountability mechanisms. Paper commissioned for the 2017/8 Global Education Monitoring Report, Accountability in education: Meeting our commitments

ABU ALGHAIB, Ola
TROMP, Roseanne
October 2017

Expand view

"The adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and in particular Articles 24, 31 and 33, which requires countries to develop an inclusive education system for all children as well obliging them to implement and monitor the process, presents both a challenge and an opportunity to the countries of the world. This report discusses the advances that have been made in terms of the implementation of inclusive education system for people with disabilities, as well as the challenges that are still ahead. The UNCRPD requires ratifying countries to submit Country Reports on the implementation of the Convention to the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The present report is unique in that it is based on a thorough analysis of these Country Reports. In addition, it is based on a thorough review of literature about inclusive education for people with disabilities"

 

Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) study on children with disabilities

Royal Government of Bhutan, Ministry of Education
UNICEF Bhutan
October 2017

Expand view

Current research from Bhutan indicates that over 21 per cent of children aged 2–9 years have one or more disabilities. One of the challenges for Bhutan is to ensure that all children with special educational needs and disabilities receive appropriate education and social services. This study recognized the internationally acknowledged definition for children with disabilities (CWD). The term ‘children with disabilities’ in this study is used to refer to children up to the age of 18 who have “longterm physical, mental, intellectual, or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others” (Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Article 1). However, the intention of this study was to secure participants’ knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) based on their own understanding of the term.1 This project provides a data set and accompanying commentary that can stimulate discussion, whilst becoming a catalyst for further policy and practice developments for CWD. 

I Am EmployAble

BAART, Judith
MAARSE, Anneke
September 2017

Expand view

I am EmployAble walks the reader through the process of vocational training – from enrolment to training to employment – and provides tips based on experience, anecdotes and tools to inspire and support those working with and for disability inclusive technical and vocational training institutes.

The specific aim of this programme was to contribute to quality vocational training for young people with disabilities in Kenya, Rwanda and Ethiopia and create lasting linkages between technical and vocational training institutes and the labour market, thus facilitating decent and sustainable wage or selfemployment for young people with disabilities. This meant not just targeting the young people with disabilities themselves but also local training institutes and private sector actors, in order to work for systemic change.

Teachers’ Perceptions of Disabilities on the Island of Roatán, Honduras

SCHNEIDER, Cornelia
2017

Expand view

Purpose: Roatán, a small island in Honduras, is home to six ethnic groups. Due to financial constraints, many children have limited access to schooling. This article is a study on teachers’ perceptions of disabilities and students with disabilities and inclusive education on the island.

 

Method: Twenty seven teachers working in public and private schools, and schools funded by the World Bank, were interviewed in March-April of 2014 in order to explore cultural and social representations of disabilities on the island.

 

Results: The findings show that many of the teachers’ representations can be analysed under the lens of different models of disability - the medical model, the social model, and a religious-moral model. Inclusive education is perceived less as a means of including children with disabilities in the regular classroom, and more as a method of creating institutions to take care of their needs.

 

Conclusion: There is a strong intersection of poverty, post-colonialism and disability which makes working under an inclusive lens very difficult for teachers. The cultural norms influence ideas of normalcy and disabilities, and the blame is on parents for having children with disabilities.

A guide for ensuring equity and inclusion in education

UNESCO
July 2017

Expand view

This guide is intended to support countries in embedding inclusion and equity in educational policy. It supports Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4 on education calls for inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all by 2030. The guide is intended for use primarily by key government education policy-makers working with key stakeholders. The guide provides an assessment framework that can serve to: review how well equity and inclusion currently figure in existing policies; decide which actions are needed to improve policies and their implementation towards equitable and inclusive education systems; and monitor progress. The guide includes evidence that informs the assessment framework, examples of initiatives that are contributing to more inclusive and equitable education systems in different parts of the world, and recommendations for further reading. 

Ensuring the right to equitable and inclusive quality education : Results of the ninth consultation of member states on the implementation of the UNESCO convention and recommendation against discrimination in education

UNESCO
July 2017

Expand view

The specific purpose of this report is to present the measures taken by Members States who have submitted monitoring country reports. It aims to summarize the information provided by Members States in response to the reporting guidelines, highlighting the results of the Consultation and the measures taken with a view to achieving the right to education in the context of the Sustainable Development Agenda and, in particular, SDG4.  There were 67 reports from Member States: 13 from Western European and North American States; 18 from East European States; 13 from Latin American and Caribbean States; 10 from Asian and Pacific States; 8 from African States; and 5 from Arab States. A section is presented on students with special needs.

Enhancing reading abilities of learners with intellectual impairments through computer technology

MOSITO, Cina P.
WARNICK, Albert M.
ESAMBE, Emmanuel E.
2017

Expand view

Background: Developments in the teaching of children with disabilities support pedagogy that emphasises learners’ strengths as opposed to their assumed deficiencies. Educators and mediators who advocate this view continually strive for tools and methodologies that enhance learner participation in academic environments. Computer technology is one of the tools recognised for its potential to enrich learning experiences of learners with an intellectual impairment.


Objectives: We sought to assess the influence of text-to-speech stories on the reading ability of intellectually challenged learners.

 

Method: A qualitative action research study that involves learners at a special school in Cape Town, South Africa. Pre- and post-test data of the reading performance of learners are analysed with a focus on how they demonstrate change.

 

Results: Although no claims can be made about the explicit influence on reading performance, computer-assisted learning has the potential in isolating reading processes that classroom-based interventions can address. In addition, computers enhance motivation and enthusiasm to learn.

 

Conclusion: A need for education based on inclusion and positive differentiation remains the key driver in any educational interventions.

What do I think about inclusive education? It depends on who is asking. Experimental evidence for a social desirability bias in attitudes towards inclusion

LÜKE, Timo
GROSCHE, Michael
2017

Expand view

Recently, research has focused on attitudes towards inclusive education, and the majority of studies use questionnaires to measure this vital variable. In two consecutive experiments, we showed that attitudes towards inclusive education are not stable but instead are significantly influenced by social context. We manipulated information on the organisation conducting a survey regarding attitudes of participants towards inclusive education. The results show that the attitude of the organisation conducting the survey – as perceived by the participant – outperforms well- documented variables (e.g. sex, age, and contact to a person with disability) in predicting the attitudes of the participant towards inclusion. This one variable explains as much variance as all other predictors combined. We argue that social desirability is a neglected issue in research on attitudes towards inclusive education. Our findings challenge the validity of numerous studies on this topic because they show a positive bias in the attitudes of participants when they were surveyed by a university. Thus, we outline the first steps to reduce social desirability-induced validity problems in research on attitudes towards inclusion.

Pages

E-bulletin