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Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2019, Vol. 6 No. 2

2019

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Articles included are:

  • A comparison of disability rights in employment: Exploring the potential of the UNCRPD in Uganda and the United States
  • Reimagining personal and collective experiences of disability in Africa
  • Social participation and inclusion of ex-combatants with disabilities in Colombia
  • ‘Inclusive education’ in India largely exclusive of children with a disability
  • Participation, agency and disability in Brazil: transforming psychological practices into public policy from a human rights perspective

Creating an inclusive school environment

DOUGLAS, Susan
Ed
2019

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This publication draws together research and learning from around the world, in papers which highlight the need for inclusive education and some of the steps being taken to implement it. 

The settings brought to life here reveal the work of teachers, leaders and policy makers in geographically and culturally diverse situations. In each of the chapters we see the challenges they face and the significant efforts they make to ensure access to, and engagement with, a quality education for all children. The collection includes 15 case studies:

 

Special educational needs and disability section:

  • Teaching for All: mainstreaming inclusive education in South Africa
  • Successful inclusive education starts with teachers: what have we learned? A multi-country case study
  • Teaching English as a second language to the visually impaired in disadvantaged contexts: a case study from Chiapas, Mexico
  • The Theatre of the Classroom

Displaced populations section

  • Teaching on the run: safe learning spaces for internally displaced persons
  • Developing resilience through English language teaching in youth centres across Iraq
  • Capacity building for inclusive classrooms: the Living Together training
  • Integrating Syrian refugee children and their parents into Lebanese early education systems

Gender and inclusion in the classroom section

  • A gender equality and social inclusion approach to teaching and learning: lessons from the Girls’ Education Challenge
  • Teacher development and gender equality in five Nigerian states
  • Creating gender-inclusive schools in Turkey: the ETCEP project in action
  • Education, English language, and girls’ development: exploring gender-responsive policies and practices in Nepal

Minority ethnic groups in the classroom

  • Social inclusion and the role of English language education: making a transition from school to higher education in India
  • Storytelling for diverse voices
  • Inclusive education in marginalised contexts: the San and Ovahimba learners in Namibia

 

Summary of Iraq national report on Sustainable Development Goals & the CRPD

AL-EZZAWI, Hashem Khalil
ALKhafaji, Mowafaq
2019

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This report was prepared by a team composed of disabilities experts, academics, representatives of disabilities organizations and other concerned organizations, and volunteers with disabilities. A common methodology was developed with friendly organizations and associations operating in the Kurdistan Region, in accordance with the UN Convention and sustainable development goals, as follows

 

1- Forming a steering committee consist of the Iraqi gathering of Iraqi Disabled Organizations (IGDO) and other relevant organizations

2- Reviewing national legislations, laws, regulations and strategies related directly and indirectly to the rights of persons with disabilities and their compatibility with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

3- Making sure that the report addresses all types of disabilities and covers all services, activities and areas without exception.

4- Making all the required efforts to insure that monitoring process includes positive and negative records concerning rights realization and sustainability.

5- Conducting a field survey of all activities of organizations of persons with disabilities.

6- Identifying gaps related to the rights of persons with disabilities.

7- Organizing a number of focus groups for different types of disabilities.

8- Providing the database of (IGDO) with data and information on persons with disabilities.

9- Conducting field visits to institutions and centers working in the area of disabilities.

10 - Making Interviews with experts, activists, representatives of governmental and international institutions and civil society organizations working in the field of disabilities in Iraq.

 

Research was carried out into progress in relation to eight of the SDGs (1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11, 16 and 17)

Uzbekistan: Case for inclusion

NAM, Galina
2019

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The inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream education has become an important agenda for many developing countries. The Uzbekistan government has also attempted to provide equal educational opportunities to this previously excluded group of children. Despite these efforts, however, many children with disabilities remain segregated. The total number of children with disabilities under 16 years old in the country is 97,000 (Uzbek Society of Disabled People, 2014). The majority of them either study at specialised educational institutions, or receive home-based education. Those who are placed at specialised institutions are often deprived of resources and services necessary to receive adequate education (UNICEF, 2013). While limited by the lack of reliable empirical data and research, this article aims to present the current situation in the development of inclusive education in Uzbekistan. It outlines the major legislative documents intended to support inclusive education and identifies some of the current obstacles to inclusive education practices.

 

Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development, Vol 30, No 1 (2019)

A preliminary report of the audiological profile of hearing impaired pupils in inclusive schools in Lagos State, Nigeria

ASOEGWU, Chinyere Nkiruka
OGBAN, Loretta
NWAWOLO, Clement
2019

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Purpose: The programme to enrol hearing impaired pupils in inclusive schools in Lagos State, Nigeria, has been endorsed recently and is at a transitional phase. The study assessed the audiological profile of the enrolled pupils with hearing impairment.

Methods: After a random selection of 7 designated inclusive primary schools in Lagos State, a two-stage study was conducted. First, a questionnaire documenting audiological history was administered to the pupils with hearing impairment. This was followed by pure tone audiometry.

Results: Study participants were between 4 and 26 years of age (mean 12.8±4.1). About 158 (96.9%) of them had bilateral profound hearing loss. Method of communication for 132 (81%) was by sign language, followed by lip reading for 56(34.4%).

Conclusion: Severity of hearing impairment was profound among this category of enrolled students. Most of them had probably been transferred from schools for the Deaf to inclusive schools. Less severe degrees of hearing impairment may have been detected if audiological assessment had been mandatory for all the school children.

 

Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development, [S.l.], v. 30, n. 2, p. 95-103, Oct. 2019

Leaving No One Behind: A Nordic movement for change

Kroglund, Andrew
January 2019

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This report assesses the policies of the Nordic country governments on international disability issues following the Global Disability Summit in London, July 2018. The SDGs requirement for new focus on inclusion is highlighted and the report aims to strengthen the cooperation between civil society organisations and government in order to fulfill the ambitious 2030 agenda

Enabling Education Review Issue 8 - 2019: Family involvement in inclusive education

CORCORAN, Su
LEWIS, Ingrid
Eds
2019

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Articles in this issue include:

Working together to advocate for our children in Trinidad and Tobago

The inclusion of deaf children in Malaysia: parental support and advocacy

Family-mediated intervention to support inclusion in Bulgaria

Creating inclusivity and diversity through a parent support group in Kolkata, India 

The positive impact of family involvement in inclusive education, Tetouan, Morocco

‘Inclusive education’ in India largely exclusive of children with a disability

GRILLS, Nathan
DEVABHAKTULA, Jacob
BUTCHER, Nicole
AROKIARAJ, Sarojitha
DAS Prottoy Kumar
ANDERSON, Pam
2019

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Exclusion of children with a disability from education negatively affects national economic growth. Education is important for children with a disability to acquire skills that allow them to gain employment, and thus address a key driver of poverty. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 to better understand the relationship between disability, education and health among children in India. Across 17 states in India, the study sample included 39,723 households with a child aged 0-59 months (163,400 individual cases in total), based on randomised cluster sampling methodology. Key outcomes of interest were school attendance, completion of early childhood education and highest level of education. The study found one percent prevalence of disability, nearly double among boys (1.38%) compared to girls (0.77%), and linked disability to lower level access to education and highest level of education. This study confirms the negative relationship between disability and educational exposure among children, and highlights that India’s efforts to make education a fundamental right of every child have not yet translated to benefits for children with a disability. There remains a pressing need for well-designed longitudinal studies that capture the barriers and protective factors of school attendance at every transition between stages of schooling in children with a disability.

 

Disability and the Global South, 2019, Vol.6, No. 2

Decolonizing schools: Women organizing, disability advocacy, and land in Sāmoa

ANESI, Julianne
2019

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In the 1970s and 1980s, Sāmoan women organizers established Aoga Fiamalamalama and Loto Taumafai, two educational institutions, in the independent state of Sāmoa. This article examines these schools’ support of students labelled as ma’i (sick), specifically those with intellectual and physical disabilities. Through oral histories and archival research, I show the vital role performed by the women organizers in changing the educational system by drawing attention to the exclusion of disabled students. I focus on the collective labor of Sāmoan women and their influence in decolonizing schools. In this regard, the women organizers used Sāmoan concepts of fa’a Sāmoa (culture), fanua (land), and tautua (service) as ways to redefine the commitment of the education system. This is a story about daring to reimagine indigenous disabled bodies and their futures through knowledge systems, theory, and literature.

 

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2019, Vol. 6 No. 1

Education of children with disabilities in Nepal

HUNT, Paula Frederica
POUDAYL, Niraj
2019

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This baseline report highlights the extent to which education of children with disabilities in Nepal has been considered, documented, and studied, the scope of the available information (and gaps in data collection), the perceived importance of the subject, the main trends, and the most relevant stakeholders. It includes a scan of legislation and policy pieces, reports, journal articles and grey literature, all within the identified scope of interest – education of children with disabilities in Nepal

Funding and inclusion in higher education institutions for students with disabilities

CHIWANDIRE, Desiree
VINCENT, Louise
2019

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Background: Historically, challenges faced by students with disabilities (SWDs) in accessing higher education institutions (HEIs) were attributed to limited public funding. The introduction of progressive funding models such as disability scholarships served to widen access to, and participation in, higher education for SWDs. However, recent years have seen these advances threatened by funding cuts and privatisation in higher education.

 

Objectives: In this article, the funding mechanisms of selected developed and developing democratic countries including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and India are described in order to gain an insight into how such mechanisms enhance access, equal participation, retention, success and equality of outcome for SWDs. The countries selected are often spoken about as exemplars of best practices in relation to widening access and opportunities for SWDs through government mandated funding mechanisms. Method: A critical literature review of the sample countries’ funding mechanisms governing SWDs in higher education and other relevant government documents; secondary academic literature on disability funding; online sources including University World News, University Affairs, newspaper articles, newsletters, literature from bodies such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Disabled World and Parliamentary Monitoring Group. Data were analysed using a theoretically derived directed qualitative content analysis.

 

Results: Barriers which place SWDs at a substantial educational disadvantage compared to their non-disabled peers include bureaucratisation of application processes, cuts in disability funding, means-test requirements, minimal scholarships for supporting part-time and distance learning for SWDs and inadequate financial support to meet the day-to-day costs that arise as a result of disability.

 

Conclusion: Although the steady increase of SWDs accessing HEIs of the sampled countries have been attributed to supportive disability funding policies, notable is the fact that these students are still confronted by insurmountable disability funding-oriented barriers. Thus, we recommend the need for these HEIs to address these challenges as a matter of urgency if they are to respect the rights of SWDs as well as provide them with an enabling environment to succeed academically.

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

Current access and recruitment practices in nursing education institutions in KwaZulu-Natal: A case study of student nurses with disabilities

MOODLEY, Selvarani
MCHUNU, Gugu
2019

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Background: While institutions of higher education may have increased access and accommodation for students with disabilities, institutions primarily providing nurse training in South Africa do not mirror the same practice.

 

Objectives: Notwithstanding the integration of disability policies enacted in South Africa in 2010, a majority of people with disabilities are still excluded from the activities of society equally applicable to nursing education. This article describes the current access and recruitment practices for student nurses with disabilities (SNWDs) in nursing education institutions in KwaZulu-Natal to provide baseline data, which is largely absent in nursing institutions.

 

Method: A concurrent mixed-method design using a multiple embedded case study approach was employed. This article presented phase 1 of the study, a quantitative survey of all private nursing education institutions (n = 27), complemented by individual, in-depth interviews with SNWDs (n = 10). Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS version 24, with a response rate of 78% (n = 21), whereas qualitative data were analysed using content analysis.

 

Results: The findings revealed that the majority of private NEIs lack policy guidelines for recruiting SNWDs; however, other means of guidance is sought, for example, using the technical assistance. While NEIs were willing to recruit SNWDs, access to clinical sites, lectures, support systems and reasonable accommodation was challenging.

 

Conclusion: Private NEIs are providing an inclusive education to all students including those with disabilities; however, they still have a long way to go in meeting the needs of SNWDs with regards to support and accommodation.

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

Inclusive education in resource-constrained environments: good practice examples and learning from implementation, Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Research Report No. 3

LEE, Harri
MYERS, Juliette
January 2019

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This rapid review addresses the query: What are recent examples of good practice in providing inclusive education in resource constrained environments, in terms of:

  • enrolling children with disabilities into mainstream schools
  • creating inclusive environments in schools, for example through teacher training, whole school approaches and awareness raising
  • identifying learning needs for children with disabilities, with a particular focus on intellectual disabilities
  • use of specialist education resources (eg. teachers, resource centres) to support mainstream schools

 

Case studies presented include:

  • DFID’s Girls Education Challenge – How disability disaggregated data can generate knowledge and help ensure education is more inclusive to girls with disabilities
  • Education for All in Bombali District, Sierra Leone
  • Supporting transition from primary to secondary for girls with disabilities in Kenya (2014-2022)
  • CBM’s experience providing inclusive education in Nicaragua
  • ADD International Tanzania

Realisation of sustainable development goals by, for and with persons with disabilities: UN flagship report on disability and development 2018

UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS (UNDESA)
December 2018

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This report represents the first UN systemwide effort to examine disability and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development at the global level. The report reviews data, policies and programmes and identifies good practices; and uses the evidence it reviewed to outline recommended actions to promote the realization of the SDGs for persons with disabilities. Over 200 experts from UN agencies and International Financial Institutions, Member States and civil society, including research institutions and organizations of persons with disabilities, contributed to this report. The report covers new areas for which no global research was previously available, for example, the role of access to energy to enable persons with disabilities to use assistive technology. It also contains the first global compilation and analysis of internationally comparable data using the Washington Group on Disability Statistics short set of questions. Reviews of legislation from 193 UN Member States were conducted and analysed for this report to highlight good practices and to assess the current status of discriminatory laws on voting, election for office, right to marry and others

DFID’s strategy for disability inclusive development 2018-23

December 2018

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The UK Department for International Development (DFID)'s vision is a world where all people with disabilities, women, men, girls and boys, in all stages of their lives, are engaged, empowered and able to exercise and enjoy their rights on an equal basis with others, contributing to poverty reduction, peace and stability. A world where no-one is left behind.

Over the next five years DFID will prioritise four strategic pillars for action: (i) inclusive education, (ii) social protection, (iii) economic empowerment, and (iv) humanitarian action. To complement this focus DFID are adopting three cross-cutting areas, vital to disability inclusion, which will be consistently and systematically addressed in all of their work: (v) tackling stigma and discrimination; (vi) empowering girls and women with disabilities; and (vii) access to appropriate assistive technology.

DFID have introduced a new set of standards for all DFID business units to meet. The standards require all country offices and departments to; review their leadership and culture, engage with people with disabilities, influence others, adapt programming and improve data and evidence.

Investigating barriers teachers face in the implementation of inclusive education in high schools in Gege branch, Swaziland

ZWANE, Sifiso L.
MALALE, Matome M.
2018

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Background: The kingdom of Swaziland is a signatory to policies on universal education that ensure high quality basic education for all. Education for All is a commitment to provide equal opportunities for all children and the youth as provided for in the country’s constitution of 2005. The tone for the introduction of inclusive education in Swaziland was inevitably set by the new constitution of 2005. Since then several policies have been produced by the government, all aimed at providing equal education opportunities to all children in the country. These policies include the Swaziland National Children’s Policy (2009), Poverty Reduction Strategy and Action Plan (2006) and Draft Inclusive Education Policy (2008). The Education for All Policy (2010) is the policy that upon implementation became a stimulus for the introduction of inclusive education into mainstream schools; as a result, all teachers in the country’s schools were expected to be competent enough to teach learners with a wide range of educational needs. However, in-service teachers received inadequate staff development and training ahead of the implementation of inclusive education and a majority of teachers were not professionally developed for inclusive education, as pre-service students at tertiary training level.

 

Objectives: This study investigated barriers in the implementation of inclusive education at high schools in the Gege branch, Swaziland, with a view to finding lasting solutions to inform research and government policy.

 

Method: This research is a qualitative interpretive case study based on selected schools in the Gege branch of schools. Data was obtained through semi-structured research interviews and document analysis. It was processed and analysed through data coding, unitising, categorising and emergence of themes, which became the findings of the study.

 

Results: Lack of facilities in the governments’ schools and teachers’ incompetence in identifying learners facing learning challenges in their classrooms are some barriers to inclusivity.

 

Conclusion: The study concludes that there is a need for the Ministry of Education and Training to craft an inclusive curriculum in line with the inclusive policy in order to cater for the diverse educational needs of all learners in mainstream schools. It is thought that instituting a vibrant in-service and pre-service teacher training programme by the Ministry of Education and Training will increase teachers’ capacity to a level where teaching in inclusive classrooms does not negatively affect their competence.

Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP): a cultural validation and investigation of its perceived usefulness in the context of the Swedish preschool

LUNDQVIST, Johanna
LARSDOTTER BODIN, Ulrika
2018

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The Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP) is a structured observation instrument. It has been developed to support high-quality early childhood inclusion of children with special educational needs and disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the cultural validity of the instrument in Swedish preschools and to investigate its perceived usefulness in a Swedish preschool context. Ten special educators, who conducted professional dialogues with preschool teachers and other preschool staff members in a Swedish municipality, were enrolled. The instrument was compared with the Swedish national curriculum for the preschool, and the perceptions of special educators were collected by way of dialogue seminar method. Thematic analyses were conducted. The results of the study show that the instrument, with few exceptions, is valid in Sweden, and that the instrument can be useful for special educators conducting professional dialogues about early childhood inclusion with preschool teachers and other preschool staff members. The study has relevance for those who work with early childhood inclusion in Sweden as well as elsewhere, and for those who plan to validate the instrument and investigate its perceived usefulness in a context pertinent to them. High-quality inclusion is on the agenda in many nations, and a Sustainable Development Goal.

My right is our future the transformative power of disability-inclusive education. 03 Series on disability-inclusive development

CBM International
November 2018

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This publication explores the challenges of disability-inclusive education systems and provides practical support suggestions that can better meet both the general and specific learning needs of all children, including those with disabilities. It recognises that inclusive education is a complex process and aims to help governmental and non-governmental actors to navigate the most suitable pathways to change.

Topics include: Individual and systemic approaches; non-negotiable commitments; collaboration; long-term process; understanding and awareness; stakeholder empowerment and engagement; Innovation: accessibility and reasonable accommodation; Innovation: teachers and teacher education; Innovation: transition and lifelong learning; and organising inclusive education systems

15 case studies are provided

Universal design for learning to help all children read: Promoting literacy for learners with disabilities (First Edition)

HAYES, Anne
TURNBULL, Ann
MORAN, Norma
November 2018

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Providing evidence-based research and information on effective teaching techniques, the toolkit offers information on how to teach early literacy skills to students with different categories of disabilities, including how to best apply these theoretical approaches in practice in Low- and Moderate- Income Country (LMIC) settings. Although the toolkit provides information on multiple aspects of literacy (grammar, spelling and writing), the techniques and interventions focus on the concept of reading as taught in the early years of primary school.

 

Specifically, the toolkit describes:

  • the phases of literacy for students with disabilities
  • supports and services that can be used to gain literacy skills
  • specific instructional techniques using the framework of UDL (Universal Design for Learning)
  • suggestions to monitor students’ progress
  • funding practices and suggestions for a phased approach to move towards inclusive education
  • a self-reflection checklist that covers many of the items in the toolkit to help educational systems recognize possible gaps and areas for improvement

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