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Digital Inclusion: a white paper

HOOGERWERF, Evert-Jan
MAVROU, Katerina
et al
2016

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This white paper will provide the reader with insight into the role technology plays for the full participation of persons with disabilities and older people in the digital society. The authors consider equal opportunities to participate in all realms of life a human right. The paper will help the reader to understand what the barriers to full digital inclusion for these groups are, how changing scenarios in society should lead to the definition of new goals and how these goals could be reached. 

This white paper looks forward and challenges the reader to identify strategies to tackle the digital divide. In the first section, it analyses trends and policy objectives as defined by the international community in 6 different areas relevant to the digital divide:

Disability and participation

Education

Employment

Health and social care

Technology

(Social) Media 

The writing of this white paper is the result of a three-year long project funded by the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme. The ENTELIS project has brought together various organisations from different European countries and beyond and has resulted in the establishment of a sustainable network, supported by three European umbrella organisations: EASPD (European Association of Service Providers to Persons with Disabilities), AAATE (Association for the Advancement of Assistive Technology in Europe) and EVBB (European Association of Vocational Training Institutes). For them supporting the network means creating an opportunity for their member organisations and other interested stakeholders to actively engage with technology and technology users with disabilities in education, vocational training and person centred support services. Their common understanding is that ICT and AT can empower people with disabilities, lead to more fulfilled lives and a more inclusive society but that this can only be reached if there is effective collaboration between sectors. Their expectation is that the network will empower their member organisations in making this become reality and this document and in particular the roadmap contained in there might provide good guidance for that. 

 

Disability-inclusive education handbook for teachers

SPRUNT, Beth
McALEER, Jennifer
STEELE, Megan
DAVETA, Mereoni
QELENI, Merelesita
NALIVA, Litea
2015

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The Disability-Inclusive Education Handbook for Teachers is a resource that was developed in Fiji to enable teachers to improve the inclusiveness of their schools and classrooms so that children with specific educational needs benefit from a quality education alongside other children.

It contains general information about creating an inclusive school, information about a range of different types of disabilities, case studies and a selection of reproducible resources in the appendices. It is hoped this provides a balance between general information to make the school a place of quality education and participation for all children, along with a degree of specific information on common impairments and approaches that may help in working with students with these impairments.

What are the impacts of approaches to increase the accessibility to education for people with a disability across developed and developing countries and what is known about the cost-effectiveness of different approaches?

BAKHSHI, Parul
KETT, Maria
OLIVER, Kathryn
June 2013

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This study presents a mapping of existing evidence that provides information about the impact of initiatives that provide education for children with disabilities, and also identifies any studies that provide an analysis about the cost-effectiveness of existing initiatives. It is useful for policymakers, researchers, practitioners, parents of children with disabilities and the children themselves

Inclusive education

CORPS, Hannah
September 2012

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This policy brief provides an overview of Handicap International’s 2012 policy paper on inclusive education which explains Handicap International’s current work on inclusive education and offers perspectives for the period 2011-2015
PP Brief No 8

Inclusive education (background paper)

CORPS, Hannah
CERALLI, Gilles
BOISSEAU, Sandra
July 2012

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"This policy paper explains Handicap International’s current work on inclusive education and offers perspectives for the period 2011-2015. The primary aim is to provide readers with a deeper understanding of the topic and sufficient knowledge to undertake concrete, positive actions towards inclusion. This policy paper draws upon Handicap International’s experience in the field of education since 1998 and prior to that, its experience of working with former development partner Action Nord Sud (ANS) 2. It takes into account the outcomes of baseline field assessments, meetings with partners and donors, feedback from educational professionals, decision-makers and policymakers, and importantly, the views of children with disabilities and their families"
PP No 8

Policy paper : making inclusive education a reality

MYERS, Juliette
BAGREE, Sunit
July 2011

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This paper describes the role of inclusive education and the differences with integrated and special educations, emphasising that inclusive education being the system that should be preferred. It provides information about international rights and policies documents that support an international commitment to the education of children and highlights the key challenges and solutions of inclusive education, as well as the duties of national governments and international donors

Education for children with disabilities in India : a background paper for GMR 2010

SINGAL, Nidhi
2009

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This paper critically examines the Sarva Shisksha Abhiyan (SSA) on the education of children in disabilities in India. Given statistical evidence, the author suggests that the National Action Plan for Inclusion for Education of the Children and Persons with disabilities (2005) is a challenge to implement, and that guidance and enforcement mechanisms for achieving its vision are weak. The paper calls for greater supply of learning aids in rural areas, recommends strengthening teacher training and encourages more effective measurement of disability educational support systems. This paper is useful for anyone interested in the education for children with disabilities in India
2010/ED/EFA/MRT/PI/21

'Emancipatory’ disability research and special educational needs

BARNES, Colin
SHELDON, Alison
2007

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This chapter describes the emergence of a radical new approach to researching disability and highlights both its potential and the challenges it poses for research in 'special' education
Chapter 17 in Florian L. (ed.) 2007: The Sage Handbook of Special Education, London: Sage, pp. 233-246

Family village school

2006

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USA-based site on inclusive and special education. A card catalogue with specific diagnoses and general information on disability can be found in the library section. Projects and Research section has documents on inclusive education

Mainstreaming disability in development programs of African countries : promoting inclusive education

RICHLER, Diane
December 2005

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This is an edited version of a paper presented at the African Decade Partners' meeting. It provides a comprehensive overview of the debate around inclusive education, highlighting key issues, problematic aspects and challenges. Inclusive education is often less expensive than special education, has a greater impact on the learning process and contributes to greater job satisfaction for teachers and to a better learning environment in schools. Disability, however, needs to be seen positively as diversity, which needs to be recognised in the classroom, while additional costs need to be taken into account and adequately resourced to support educational institutions and educators

Inclusive education

SOURCE INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SUPPORT CENTRE
2005

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This Key list highlights essential information resources on inclusive education. Over recent years, approaches in education for disabled children have moved from special needs education toward inclusive education, reflecting a change from the medical to the social model of disability, as well as a growing human rights focus in the disability field. In 1994, the Salamanca Statement declared that schools should accept all children regardless of disability or special educational need. Ten years on, there are many differing views about how to implement inclusive education. For some practitioners the concept of inclusive education has been widened to encompass other issues as well as disability, such as gender, ethnicity and HIV status, while for others the concern is to ensure that segregated education continues for some groups of children. The resources in this Key list include practical guides, case-studies, guidance materials for managers, and resources for parents

Special needs in the classroom : a teacher education guide

AINSCOW, Mel
2004

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An updated version of UNESCO's training pack developed in the early 1990s for teachers learning about inclusion. It has been used in over 50 countries and has been adapted to different countries' contexts. This guide is a source of ideas for educators wishing to improve teachers’ skills in dealing with pupil diversity in mainstream schools. It offers advice on teacher education methods, including accounts of initiatives already undertaken in various parts of the world. The book emphasises the importance of teacher development, both pre-service and in-service, and demonstrates how pupil diversity in mainstream schools can be a positive influence on the life of the school

Inclusive education : achieving education for all by including those with disabilities and special education needs

PETERS, Susan J
2003

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This report approaches inclusive education from a holistic perspective. It takes into consideration policy aspects, the philosophy behind education in general and the historic developments in the fields of education and special needs education.
The report highlights best practice examples and lessons from the north and the south. It also describes the different international frameworks, the economic and policy implications of education for all.
It concludes that inclusive education requires decentralisation, the allocation of sufficient financial resources, accessibility and participation and must be set into the general Human Rights framework

Education, poverty and disability in developing countries

JONSSON, Ture
WIMAN, Ronald
June 2001

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This technical note offers an economic argument in favour of inclusive education, and shows that the incremental benefits of educating a child with disabilities outweigh the incremental costs. It supports a change from special education to mainstreaming and indicates some intervention options to improve the enrolment of children with disabilities in regular schools

Inclusive ECCD : a fair start for all children

EVANS, Judith L
1998

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"The basic thesis we will explore in this article is that quality ECCD programmes provide a model that can be used for the development of inclusive programmes for children of all ages. It is particularly important that these programmes be developed for children from birth onwards, as many of the biological and environmental conditions that result in children having special needs can be ameliorated through early attention. In our discussion on inclusive ECCD programmes, we offer a brief description of the history of attention to those who are differently-abled for the purposes of understanding how we have arrived at the concept of inclusion. Then we define principles of programming for inclusive ECCD programmes, and we identify some of the issues related to creating inclusive early childhood programmes, and, finally, we determine what we need to be working toward"
The Coordinators' Notebook, No 22

The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
Ministry of Education and Science, Spain
1994

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The World conference on special needs education: access and quality launched the concept of inclusive education. The Salamanca statement is a major international policy document, outlining the global consensus on the needs for educational reform and the policies and strategies needed to include disabled children in the education system

Journal of research in special educational needs (JORSEN)

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JORSEN is an electronic journal which disseminates research on special educational needs. JORSEN aims to publish original research, literature reviews and theoretical papers on meeting special educational needs, create a forum for researchers to reflect on, and share ideas regarding, issues of particular importance to them such as methodology, research design and ethical issues, and reach a wide multi-disciplinary national and international audience through online publication
Three times a year

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