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Every learner matters: Unpacking the learning crisis for children with disabilities

et al
June 2019

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This paper was developed by the World Bank in partnership with Leonard Cheshire and Inclusion International. It is an attempt to add knowledge to the current understanding of the importance of learning achievements, with a focus on children with disabilities. While the premise is that inclusive education refers to the inclusion of all children, the focus of this paper is on children with disabilities.

The aim of the paper is to:

  • Provide an evidence-based review of educational participation of children with disabilities.
  • Establish a case for focusing on learning achievements for students with disabilities.
  • Take stock of current mechanisms of measurement of learning outcomes and review their inclusivity.
  • Explore evidence of practice and systems which promote disability-inclusive learning for all. 

Four case studies are provided - from Pakistan, South Africa, Canada and UK.

Social inclusion through early childhood education and care

LERO, Donna S
June 2002

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[From the introduction]: "This paper explores how childhood education and care [ECEC] services contribute to social inclusion in society.... The paper's main purpose is to examine the circumstances under which ECEC services contribute to ... social inclusion, and when they don't. The following section examines the key concepts upon which this is based. Then, applying a framework drawn from an international policy study, we consider the specific policy and program elements that enable ECEC services to contribute to social inclusion. Finally, we examine whether the current ECEC situation in Canada is constructed and supported in ways that contribute to social inclusion, what changes are needed to enable it to do so, some implications for practice and future policy directions."

Leave no child behind! Social exclusion and child development

May 2002

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Based on research in Vancouver, the paper shows how five specific developmental outcomes in young children are correllated with socio-economic factors. It argues that Canadian society systematically denies identifiable groups of children the opportunity for healthy development and that this ought to be recognized as an important form of social exclusion alongside others

Inclusive education Canada


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This Canadian inclusive education website is a hub for parents, teachers, and other education professionals to discuss and share ideas on best practice on inclusive education. This website features a news section and additional information on inclusive education in the form of reports, articles and other publications. It also has a promotion section which details events and other awareness raising activities


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