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Pre-Primary and Primary Inclusive Education for Tanzania (PPPIET) – Foundation Phase : Report on Participatory Research to Inform Design of New Inclusive Education Model in Tanzania

JUDGE, Emma
June 2020

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The Disability Inclusive Development (DID) consortium, a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded initiative, is working together on the Pre-Primary and Primary Inclusive Education in Tanzania (PPPIET) programme whose ultimate goal is to foster quality sustainable inclusive education for all children with disabilities at scale across Tanzania in mainstream pre-primary and primary government schools. To achieve this, it aims to support collective, coordinated systems change by establishing an agreed common model of basic inclusive pre-primary and primary education in mainstream government schools, and galvanising significant progress in spreading its systematic implementation for all children with disabilities across Tanzania. 

 

This task requires the cooperation of government, civil society and Disabled People’s Organisations (DPOs) to achieve real change.  No single organisation or government department can achieve inclusive education on its own. Pooling the skills and resources and exchanging learnings to achieve quality inclusive education of children can help all involved. Working together will build collective commitment and action, not just amongst DID consortium members but also across government, donors, education actors and the private sector. 

 

Part of this process was to conduct a participatory field research to gather evidence on the current provision of support services needed for inclusive education and identify gaps that need to be filled in the future. The exercise also served to identify key challenges that need addressing to facilitate the removal of legal, policy, systemic, physical, communication and language, social, financial and attitudinal barriers. The findings from the research were intended to identify the priority components that need addressing in the design of an inclusive education design model and the drivers of accountability, i.e. the agencies/stakeholders responsible for implementing the required system changes.

 

Summary of key findings

The Government of Tanzania has continually demonstrated its support and commitment to inclusive education evidenced by the many comprehensive policies for inclusive education, including the National Inclusive Education Strategy (NSIE) 2018 – 2021.  Through these policies, it is actively working to improve the educational environment but the journey is long and requires significant system changes for the policies to be effectively implemented, which needs collaboration, cooperation, planning, and strategic resourcing across multiple ministries, NGOs, DPOs, and the private sector. 

 

To achieve inclusive education, a rights-based approach to education needs to be adopted, focusing on identifying and removing the barriers to access and quality learning for every child, including appropriate infrastructure changes in schools, changing attitudes, and providing additional support to girls and boys with disabilities through learning support assistants.  There also needs to be a fundamental shift towards child-centred pedagogy in teacher training and curriculum development to meet the needs of all learners, including having a mandatory module on inclusive education in all teacher training curricula.  Over time, this will help develop teachers’ confidence and positive attitudes towards teaching children with disabilities and achieve impact at scale.  Strengthening the capacities of all teachers, improving classroom management, increasing awareness about inclusive education for all stakeholders, and improving access to screening and early identification, health, rehabilitation services, and affordable assistive devices are all contributing factors to achieving inclusive education in Tanzania.

 

Systems change to improve learning and support for children with disabilities takes time and requires a significant investment of resources and budget allocation by government and service providers.  However, inclusive education can be cost-effective compared with the cost of segregation and special schools, particularly where ministries work together to ensure a more ‘strategic allocation of existing funds, promoting universal design and co-operation agreements among multiple ministries’.   Developing partnerships with the private sector to improve the physical infrastructure of schools and access to affordable assistive devices can also help reduce the cost of inclusion.

 

Inclusive education is a cross-cutting issue that requires the commitment and accountability of multiple stakeholders across government ministries to ensure its effective implementation.  This includes the MOEST, MOHCDGEC, MOFP, the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) and the President's Office, Regional Administration and Local Government (PORALG). 

 

It is anticipated that to achieve successful implementation and scaling up of the model design for inclusive education, there will need to be a systematic and phased approach to implementing the recommendations in this report over the short, medium and long term.  It is acknowledged that this process will take considerable time to implement and can only be successfully achieved over a period of years with the support and increased understanding of all stakeholders.  There is no quick-fix solution to inclusive education.  It requires changing long-established systems and adjusting services, including health and education, training, and attitudes.  There is also no financial short cut. 

 

However, while some recommendations require significant investment, others can be achieved in the current context without significant monetary investment.  For example, changing the curriculum for all teacher training to ensure inclusive education is included as a standard module will help transform the approach of teachers and the inclusion of children with disabilities in learning.  Raising awareness of inclusive education for all stakeholders, including policy-makers and implementers will also help increase understanding of the long-term system changes required and reduce stigma and discrimination.  Inclusive education can only be achieved in an inclusive society and it needs collective effort from the government, parents, community, and all stakeholders for effective implementation.

What an inclusive, equitable, quality education means to us : report of the International Disability Alliance

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY ALLIANCE (IDA)
March 2020

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This report is the result of a process aimed at building a cross-disability consensus on strategic recommendations to commonly advocate for the realisation of the rights of all learners to quality, inclusive education, including all learners with disabilities.

 

Through three technical workshops, which included exchanges with consultants, education sector stakeholders, inclusive education allies in particular the IDDC Inclusive Education Task Group, global, regional and national level OPDs, a consensus position was developed on how to best achieve SDG4 in compliance with UNCRPD Article 24.

 

The report calls for an inclusive education system where all learners with and without disabilities learn together with their peers in schools and classes in their community schools, receiving the support they need in inclusive facilities.

 

Representatives of four IDA members formed the technical task team to guide the initiative and its framing of inclusive and equitable quality education. The four members are Inclusion International, the International Federation of Hard of Hearing People, the World Blind Union and the World Federation of the Deaf. While this report is endorsed by the Alliance as a whole, examples used in this report reflect a perspective on the commonly agreed position as illustrated by the four IDA member organisations who engaged actively in the technical task team.

Good practice report on inclusive education and employment for people with disabilities in Bangladesh

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL (HI)
2017

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This report is the output of a project titled “Advocating for Change for Persons with disabilities in South and South-east Asia” which was implemented by Handicap International for the period January 2013 – June 2014. In Bangladesh, the project supported Disabled People’s Organisations (DPOs) in 17 districts across the country, developing their capacity to advocate for rights of people with disabilities in education and employment. This report has been compiled to showcase good practices collected by DPOs and to promote practical recommendations, based on local evidence, on how to include people with disabilities in employment and education systems in Bangladesh. The Making it Work methodology was used as part of this project.

This report includes the 11 validated good practices including

  • to ensure access of people with disabilities to waged employment n factories
  • to ensure waged employment of people with disabilities though the Chamber of Commerce and Industries
  • to ensure access to start up capital for people with disabilities
  • to use local initiative to create educational opportunities for children with disabilities
  • to ensure access of students with disabilities to secondary education through social mobilisation by school authorities
  • to ensure access of children with disabilities to inclusive primary education
  • to ensure physical accessibility for children with disabilities in high schools
  • to ensure free of cost High School education for children with disabilities

How CBM Australia supports engagement with government for disability inclusion and prevention

CBM AUSTRALIA
March 2016

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CBM Australia engages both directly and indirectly with governments. Indirectly, CBM Australia supports other organisations, for instance disabled people’s organisations or civil society organisations to engage with governments. This report looks at the different ways that CBM partners seek influence government and promote sustainability. It considers the different roles and relevance of activism, advocacy, service delivery and advisory approaches.

 

The cases in this report were identified and gathered through semi-structured interviews with CBM’s Program Officers, Technical Advisors, regional/country office and project staff in-country, as well as drawing on reports and evaluations. The report starts with a section explaining the four different approaches to working with government, followed by a brief introduction to each approach, highlighting what CBM are doing and the key lessons learned. Each section is followed by case studies giving more detailed insight into how CBM are engaging, key achievements, challenges and the lessons learned. Fifteen case studies covering key projects from CBM Australia’s International Programs and the Inclusive Development Team are described in this report.

Disability under occupation : at the congruence between conflict, religion, & society in Palestine

RASHID, Omar
January 2015

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A dissertation on the Palestinian experience of disability under Israeli territorial occupation. The following key research questions were considered under this dissertation. "First, to locate the perceptions of disability among the disabled in the occupied territories of Palestine, in light of their religious affiliation. Second, to investigate the realities of the disabled within Palestine; and third, to enquire as to whether there had been any differences in the perceptions of disabilities and the realities of those who were injured in conflict, and those who were born with impairment" These questions were answered through a hybrid-methods system of research, with a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods being used

 

Dissertation submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Birmingham

The user has given permission for the original dissertation document to be uploaded to be reproduced and made publicly available on the Source website

Inclusive Tanzania network : access to education and political participation of persons with disabilities

LIGHT FOR THE WORLD
Ed
October 2014

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MTAJU - Inclusive Tanzania was a pilot project aiming to empower persons with disabilities through inclusive education and political participation that ran from November 2005 to December 2010. MTAJU is a network of Tanzanian Disabled People’s Organizations (DPOs) and Pro Disability Organizations (PDOs), who campaign together for an inclusive society where people with disabilities enjoy the same rights as other citizens. The project's main aims were the legal, political and social establishment of the right to education of children with disabilities and the right to political participation of persons with disabilities. This short learning guide is based on the full project report and highlights the key lessons learned by the project team. This guide would be very useful for anyone interested in the access to education for children with disabilities and the participation of disabled people in public and political life in Africa in particular and the global south in general

Learning Guide, 2/2014

Inclusion in education : towards equality for students with disability

COLOGON, Kathy
2013

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All children in Australia have the right to an inclusive education. However, there are many barriers to the realisation of this right in the lived experience of children and families. Current efforts towards upholding the rights of all children are impeded by a lack of understanding of inclusive education and misappropriation of the term. Additional barriers include negative and discriminatory attitudes and practices, lack of support to facilitate inclusive education, and inadequate education and professional development for teachers and other professionals. Critical to addressing all of these barriers is recognising and disestablishing ableism in Australia.

This paper draws from recent research in addressing gaps in current understanding to provide a firm basis from which to inform research based policy development. Taking a rights-based approach, the paper focuses on developing a clear understanding of inclusive education and identifying strategies to enhance the education of all children in Australia

Position paper on deaf education in Rwanda

RWANDA NATIONAL UNION OF THE DEAF (RNUD)
January 2013

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As part of the Rwanda National Union of the Deaf (RNUD)'s advocacy strategy to improve the quality of life for Deaf communities in Rwanda, this position paper provides detailed information and concrete solutions and ideas for the way forward

Good practices in the inclusion of persons with disabilities in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China : how to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities are promoted and respected?

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
November 2012

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The report is a collection of good practices of inclusion of people with disabilities in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, compiled through the ‘Support to DPOs’ project. Making It Work methodology was used to collect good practice of social integration and participation by people with disabilities; good practice in terms of working methods to ensure partner ownership and long term sustainability; and good practice in terms of process, such as participative working methods to ensure the long-term ‘real’ inclusion of persons with disabilities. The target of the report is the Disability Working Committee, the key Government body in decision making on disability issues. The report considers 13 case studies on such topics as DPO activity, inclusive education, community participation, rehabilitation and livelihoods. For each case study, influencing factors (positive and negative) are identified, and possible improvements and recommendations for replication suggested. This collection of good practices gives a diverse range of possible actions for the enhanced inclusion of persons with disabilities; combining access to services (early education, mainstream education, and rehabilitation), arts and culture, awareness-raising, and active participation in political and social life

Participatory evaluation report : mainstreaming disability in emergency response and local development

BARI, Nazmul
April 2012

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“The project “Mainstreaming Disability in Emergency Response and Local Development” implemented by CHEF International, Pakistan, supported by Light for the World was evaluated in March 2012. The evaluation attempted to understand the local context within which the project was implemented to enable a better reflection of learning including the project’s achievements, its ripple effects, limitations, barriers, and then to identify future directions”

Disability rights or disabling rights? CRPD alternative report

HUNGARIAN DISABILITY CAUCUS
August 2010

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This report, prepared by a collaborative network of disabled peoples organizations and their allies, is the parallel civil society report submitted along with the governments report as specified by article 35 of the CRPD. The civil society organisations provide an analysis of the present situation of people with disabilities according to the articles of the CRPD and make recommendations to the Hungarian government to enable evidence based legislative and policy planning. This resource is useful for people interested in the situation of people with disabilities in Hungary

Inclusive education in Pakistan : experiences and lessons learned from the ENGAGE project

CACERES, Susan
et al
March 2010

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The purpose of the American Institutes for Research (AIR) project, Engaging with Disabled People’s Organizations (DPOs) in Development Cooperation (ENGAGE), was to increase the participation of DPOs and people with disabilities in the planning and implementation of development efforts. This brief describes the work of the ENGAGE Project in Pakistan to address the issue of increasing access and participation to quality learning environments for children with disabilities

Learning from each other

Mawer, Richard
1995

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The starting point is that integration in schools is positive for disabled children. It provides pointers on how integrated education initiatives can happen. These are under the headings selection, preparation, training, support and implementation

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