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Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000–2017 - Special focus on inequalities

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
World Health Organization (WHO)
June 2019

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The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene presents updated national, regional and global estimates for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in households in its 2019 update report, Progress on Household Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene 2000–2017: Special focus on inequalities. The report shows that in 2017:

The population using safely managed drinking water services increased from 61 per cent to 71 per cent
The population using safely managed sanitation services increased from 28 per cent to 45 per cent
60 per cent of the global population had basic handwashing facilities with soap and water at home

The report also focuses on inequalities between and within countries and reveals populations most at risk of being left-behind.

Minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES (IFRC)
November 2018

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The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) Minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies (2018) is in its second edition. The first pilot version of the IFRC Minimum standard commitments to gender and diversity in emergency programming was published in 2015. The pilot version has been tested globally by Red Cross and Red Crescent staff, volunteers and management in low-, medium- and high-scale disasters and humanitarian crises. This edition is the result of three years of testing, revision and feedback from protection, gender and inclusion (PGI) and sectoral specialists. New chapters, such as cash-based interventions, have been added as well as a stronger focus on sexual and gender-based violence and disability inclusion to align with the commitments of the IFRC and its member National Societies. This edition is accompanied by the IFRC Protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies toolkit (2018–2019).

This guidance presents Red Cross and Red Crescent staff, members and volunteers with a set of minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion (PGI) in emergencies. It aims to ensure that the emergency programming of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and National Societies provides dignity, access, participation and safety for all people affected by disasters and crises.

It provides practical guidance on how to mainstream these four principles in all sectors, based on a consideration of gender, age, disability and other diversity factors. This includes limiting people’s exposure to the risks of violence and abuse and ensuring that emergency programmes “do no harm”.

The standards address protection, gender and inclusion concerns by providing practical ways to engage with all members of the community, respond to their differing needs and draw on their capacities in the most non-discriminatory and effective way. This helps to ensure that local perspectives guide assistance delivery. The standards also support incorporation of the seven Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

Advocating for investment in accessible and inclusive WASH

PRYOR, Wesley
et al
January 2018

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Factsheet summarizing the evidence for accessible and inclusive WASH based on the Case for Investment in Accessible and Inclusive WASH. A quick reference for WASH and Disability actors when advocating for investment in WASH that is accessible and inclusive of children and adults with disabilities. 

Factsheet based on Technical Paper TP/04/2018

Including children with disabilities in humanitarian action

UNICEF
July 2017

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"The purpose of Including Children with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action is to strengthen the inclusion of children and women with disabilities, and their families, in emergency preparedness, response and early recovery, and recovery and reconstruction. This series of booklets provides insight into the situation of children with disabilities in humanitarian contexts, highlights the ways in which they are excluded from humanitarian action, and offers practical actions and tips to better include children and adolescents with disabilities in all stages of humanitarian action. The booklets were created in response to UNICEF colleagues in the field expressing a need for a practical resource to guide their work. The information and recommendations are based on evidence and good practices gathered from literature and field staff experiences. The six booklets on how to include children and adolescents with disabilities in humanitarian programmes are as follows: 1) general guidance; 2) child protection; 3) education; 4) health and HIV/AIDS; 5) nutrition; 6) water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)".

General guidance available July 2017. Others to follow.

In addition to the PDF versions in English, Arabic and French, the guidance is also available in a range of accessible formats, including EPUB, a Braille-ready file and accessible HTML formats. 

The guidance was developed in collaboration with Handicap International.

 

Accessible formats:

DAISY [zip file]

EPUB [EPUB]

HTML [zip file]

Braille-ready 

 

 

Additional resources:

Checklist for including children with disabilities in preparedness [English] [French]

Checklist for including children with disabilities in response and early recovery [English] [French]

Checklist for including children with disabilities in recovery and reconstruction 

Humanitarian Hands on Tool (HHoT)

CBM
2017

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The CBM smartphone app 'Humanitarian Hands-on Tool' (HHoT) provides step-by-step guidance on how to implement an inclusive emergency response. With disability-inclusive humanitarian action broken down into individual task cards, which explain the basic 'how-to' details in simple language and images, this web-based tool and downloadable mobile app aims to become the ‘go-to’ field resource for all agencies planning humanitarian work that leaves no-one behind

For every child, a fair chance : the promise of equity

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
November 2015

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“UNICEF’s commitment to equity – giving a fair chance in life to every child, everywhere, especially the most disadvantaged – is built on the conviction that it is right in principle and evidence that it is right in practice. This report makes the case for closing persistent gaps in equity…” The report identifies a number of persistent gaps in equity for children, ranging from health to nutrition, to social inclusion. The report concludes by making recommendations to close gaps in equity worldwide as well as projecting progress in achieving equity by 2030

Guidelines for integrating gender-based violence interventions in humanitarian action: Reducing risk, promoting resilience and aiding recovery

WARD, Jean
LAFRENIERE, Julie
et al
2015

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The purpose of these Guidelines is to assist humanitarian actors and communities affected by armed conflict, natural disasters and other humanitarian emergencies to coordinate, plan, implement, monitor and evaluate essential actions for the prevention and mitigation of gender-based violence (GBV) across all sectors of humanitarian response. Part One presents an overview of GBV, provides an explanation for why GBV is a protection concern for all humanitarian actors and outlines recommendations for ensuring implementation of the Guidelines. Part Two provides a background to the ‘thematic areas’ in Part Three. It also introduces the guiding principles and approaches that are the foundation for all planning and implementation of GBV-related programming. Part Three constitutes the bulk of these Guidelines. It provides specific guidance, organized into thirteen thematic area sections: camp coordination and camp management; child protection; education; food security and agriculture; health; housing, land and property; humanitarian mine action; livelihoods; nutrition; protection; shelter, settlement and recovery; water, sanitation and hygiene; humanitarian operations support sectors. The importance of cross-sectoral coordination is highlighted in each section. It is also recommended that sector actors review the content of all thematic area sections. The Guidelines draw from many tools, standards, background materials and other resources developed by the United Nations, national and international non-governmental organizations, and academic sources. In each thematic area there is a list of resources specific to that area, and additional GBV-related resources are provided in Annex 1. The importance of indicators being disaggregated by sex, age, disability and other vulnerability factors is highlighted throughout.

Violence, gender and WASH : a practitioner’s toolkit

HOUSE, Sarah
et al
2014

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This online toolkit is intended to help water, sanitation and hygiene services (WASH) and associated practitioners better recognise the risks of violence linked to WASH and to encourage WASH practitioners to recognise their capacity to make WASH safer and more effective. It has been developed in response to an acknowledgement that although the lack of access to WASH is not the root cause of violence, it can lead to increased vulnerabilities to violence of varying forms.

 

The key toolkit documents are the four briefing notes and the associated checklists, however other materials in the toolsets, such as case studies, checklists, videos, training scenarios etc., are available and may be drawn on as required. This toolkit has been developed for use by WASH practitioners but will also be useful for gender based violence (GBV), gender, protection, health and education specialists working for organisations and governments that are providing access to these essential services, to help them better identify and acknowledge these risks and contribute to their reduction in practical ways.

 

Note: Documents in the toolkit can be opened or downloaded from the online links. The entire toolkit (except the videos) can be downloaded from the download options page. Once downloaded, hyperlinks will operate if the folders and documents remain in their existing positions.

Factsheet HIV and WASH

STOP AIDS
WaterAid
Catholic Agency For Overseas Development (CAFOD)
November 2013

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"This factsheet sets out to explain the connection between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and HIV and AIDS, and provides recommendations on how HIV interventions can integrate WASH into their programming"

Towards inclusive WASH : sharing evidence and experience from the field

WATERAID AUSTRALIA
July 2012

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"This publication is a record of efforts to achieve equity and inclusion in WASH programming around the world. It includes one keynote paper and 16 case studies from 13 countries. Within its pages there is a clear message that ‘business as usual’ is not sufficient to meet the water and sanitation rights of traditionally excluded or marginalised groups. The case studies are therefore a story of adaptation, of technology, of process and of policy, and innovation to try something new. Many of the case studies are accompanied by supporting materials, including research reports, survey tools and videos. The authors hope these materials will be of use to other practitioners who hope to build on the stories presented in this publication"
Note: full details of each case study are provided on the website

On the right track : good practices in realising the rights to water and sanitation

DE ALBUQUERQUE, Catarina
ROAF, Virginia
2012

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This book presents the discussion and analysis of existing practices in how rights to water and sanitation should be implemented to inspire policy- and decision makers, practitioners, activists and civil society in general to engage with the rights to water and sanitation to assist in the process of ensuring that everyone has access to safe drinking water and sanitation services for all daily personal and domestic purposes.

 

The practices were taken from submissions, consultations and meetings with a range of actors and have been organised into four main types: State actions and the legal and institutional frameworks that promote the realisation of the rights to water and sanitation; financing for the sector; non-State stakeholder practices to promote and protect the rights to water and sanitation; and practices that demonstrate how States and other actors can be held accountable through the monitoring of  water and sanitation services

Water and sanitation for all in low-income countries

JONES, Hazel
FISHER, Julie
REED, R.A
2012

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Drawing on examples from Africa and Asia, this paper describes water and sanitation in low-income countries, explaining the barriers that prevent access for vulnerable users and gives an overview of inclusive design for latrines and water points

 

Proceedings of the ICE, Municipal Engineer, Vol 165, Issue 3

Stigma and the realization of the human rights to water and sanitation, report of the special rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation

DE ALBUQUERQUE, Catarina
2012

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This document presents the link between stigma and the human rights framework as it relates to water and sanitation. The report outlines that stigma, as a deeply entrenched social and cultural phenomenon, lies at the root of many human rights violations and results in entire population groups being disadvantaged and excluded. The link between stigma and explicitly water, sanitation and hygiene is detailed, and stigma is then placed within the human rights framework considering human dignity, the human rights to water, sanitation, non-discrimination and equality, the prohibition of degrading treatment and the right to privacy. The report acknowledges that States cannot fully realise the human rights to water and sanitation without addressing stigma as a root cause of discrimination and other human rights violations

A/HRC/21/42

Menstrual hygiene matters : a resource for improving menstrual hygiene round the world

HOUSE, Sarah
MAHON, Therese
CAVILL, Sue
2012

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This resource provides a comprehensive resource on menstrual hygiene that supports the development of context-specific information for improving practices for women and girls in lower- and middle-income countries. The resource presents a synthesis of good practices and guidance considering a range of contexts and situations for women and girls around the world, and encourages increased engagement in advocacy . It is divided into modules, each with its own toolkit, focusing on various aspects of menstrual hygiene. Readers can choose the sections most relevant to them and follow the recommendations and cross references for more information. 

 

This resource is for use by all professionals who are concerned with improving the lives of girls and women. It will be of particular use to WASH sector professionals, as well as those from other sectors, including health, sexual and reproductive health and rights, education, community development, protection and gender

Global forum on sanitation and hygiene : insights on leadership, action and change

WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION COLLABORATION COUNCIL (WSSCC)
2012

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This report presents a comprehensive work of reference, primarily targeted at WSSCC members, sanitation and hygiene practitioners and policymakers. It seeks to further complement and build upon the Forum report which provides a broad overview of events and key “take-home” messages.  This report is centred upon the key themes of the Forum: leadership, equity and inclusion, behaviour change, accelerating change and partnerships

Water discourse, ableism and disabled people : what makes one part of a discourse?

WOLBRING, Gregor
November 2011

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This article discusses how disabled people are not mentioned and addressed within high level policy documents about access to clean water and sanitation and other water related problems. The article suggests that certain forms of ableism are responsible for the invisibility of disabled people in various water discourses
Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics, Vol 21, No 6

Water, sanitation and hygiene for schoolchildren in emergencies : a guidebook for teachers

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
November 2011

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"WASH in Schools aims to support the provision of safe drinking water and improved sanitation facilities, and promotes lifelong health for children and their families...This guidebook is a resource for those involved in teaching and working with children in emergency preparedness, during an emergency and throughout the recovery period. It provides simple strategies for use and adaptation with all children and families to ensure a smooth and healthy transition to a healthy and accessible learning environment...The guidebook provides the information needed to ensure that every child knows about water, sanitation and hygiene. It is not a technical book about installing taps and building toilets. Instead it provides guidance on safe WASH behaviours that help children, families and teachers stay healthy and avoid life threatening diseases. Every emergency and child-friendly space or school is different, so the suggestions and ideas provided should be adapted to suit the local situation"
Note: a book of flashcards is available as a companion to the guidebook. Although this guidebook’s pictures were created for the Africa region, flashcard sets for Asia and Latin America are also available from the website

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