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Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000–2017 - Special focus on inequalities

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
World Health Organization (WHO)
June 2019

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The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene presents updated national, regional and global estimates for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in households in its 2019 update report, Progress on Household Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene 2000–2017: Special focus on inequalities. The report shows that in 2017:

The population using safely managed drinking water services increased from 61 per cent to 71 per cent
The population using safely managed sanitation services increased from 28 per cent to 45 per cent
60 per cent of the global population had basic handwashing facilities with soap and water at home

The report also focuses on inequalities between and within countries and reveals populations most at risk of being left-behind.

For every child, a fair chance : the promise of equity

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
November 2015

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“UNICEF’s commitment to equity – giving a fair chance in life to every child, everywhere, especially the most disadvantaged – is built on the conviction that it is right in principle and evidence that it is right in practice. This report makes the case for closing persistent gaps in equity…” The report identifies a number of persistent gaps in equity for children, ranging from health to nutrition, to social inclusion. The report concludes by making recommendations to close gaps in equity worldwide as well as projecting progress in achieving equity by 2030

Guidelines for integrating gender-based violence interventions in humanitarian action: Reducing risk, promoting resilience and aiding recovery

WARD, Jean
LAFRENIERE, Julie
et al
2015

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The purpose of these Guidelines is to assist humanitarian actors and communities affected by armed conflict, natural disasters and other humanitarian emergencies to coordinate, plan, implement, monitor and evaluate essential actions for the prevention and mitigation of gender-based violence (GBV) across all sectors of humanitarian response. Part One presents an overview of GBV, provides an explanation for why GBV is a protection concern for all humanitarian actors and outlines recommendations for ensuring implementation of the Guidelines. Part Two provides a background to the ‘thematic areas’ in Part Three. It also introduces the guiding principles and approaches that are the foundation for all planning and implementation of GBV-related programming. Part Three constitutes the bulk of these Guidelines. It provides specific guidance, organized into thirteen thematic area sections: camp coordination and camp management; child protection; education; food security and agriculture; health; housing, land and property; humanitarian mine action; livelihoods; nutrition; protection; shelter, settlement and recovery; water, sanitation and hygiene; humanitarian operations support sectors. The importance of cross-sectoral coordination is highlighted in each section. It is also recommended that sector actors review the content of all thematic area sections. The Guidelines draw from many tools, standards, background materials and other resources developed by the United Nations, national and international non-governmental organizations, and academic sources. In each thematic area there is a list of resources specific to that area, and additional GBV-related resources are provided in Annex 1. The importance of indicators being disaggregated by sex, age, disability and other vulnerability factors is highlighted throughout.

Violence, gender and WASH : a practitioner’s toolkit

HOUSE, Sarah
et al
2014

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This online toolkit is intended to help water, sanitation and hygiene services (WASH) and associated practitioners better recognise the risks of violence linked to WASH and to encourage WASH practitioners to recognise their capacity to make WASH safer and more effective. It has been developed in response to an acknowledgement that although the lack of access to WASH is not the root cause of violence, it can lead to increased vulnerabilities to violence of varying forms.

 

The key toolkit documents are the four briefing notes and the associated checklists, however other materials in the toolsets, such as case studies, checklists, videos, training scenarios etc., are available and may be drawn on as required. This toolkit has been developed for use by WASH practitioners but will also be useful for gender based violence (GBV), gender, protection, health and education specialists working for organisations and governments that are providing access to these essential services, to help them better identify and acknowledge these risks and contribute to their reduction in practical ways.

 

Note: Documents in the toolkit can be opened or downloaded from the online links. The entire toolkit (except the videos) can be downloaded from the download options page. Once downloaded, hyperlinks will operate if the folders and documents remain in their existing positions.

Mainstreaming disability and ageing in water, sanitation and hygiene sector

JONES, Hazel
September 2013

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This report presents the findings of a desk study that provided an overview of the current state of disability and ageing issues in WASH, from the perspective of the WASH sector. Both disabled and older people were looked at together, because many frail older people, although they may reject the label ‘disabled’, experience impairments that limit their daily activities, which result in them facing similar kinds of barriers to accessing WASH

Like a death sentence : abuses against persons with mental disabilities in Ghana

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
2012

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"Focusing on the southern parts of the country, this report examines the experiences of persons with mental disabilities in Ghana in the three main environments in which they receive care: the broader community, the country’s three public psychiatric hospitals, and residential prayer camps...Human Rights Watch found that persons with mental disabilities in Ghana often experience a range of human rights abuses in the prayer camps and hospitals that Human Rights Watch researchers visited. These patients are ostensibly sent to these institutions by their family members, police, or their communities for help. Abuses are taking place despite the fact that Ghana has ratified a number of international human rights treaties, including the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), which was ratified in July 2012. These abuses include denial of food and medicine, inadequate shelter, involuntary medical treatment, and physical abuse amounting to cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment"
The report is available in pdf, easy to read and html formats

Global forum on sanitation and hygiene : insights on leadership, action and change

WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION COLLABORATION COUNCIL (WSSCC)
2012

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This report presents a comprehensive work of reference, primarily targeted at WSSCC members, sanitation and hygiene practitioners and policymakers. It seeks to further complement and build upon the Forum report which provides a broad overview of events and key “take-home” messages.  This report is centred upon the key themes of the Forum: leadership, equity and inclusion, behaviour change, accelerating change and partnerships

Stigma and the realization of the human rights to water and sanitation, report of the special rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation

DE ALBUQUERQUE, Catarina
2012

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This document presents the link between stigma and the human rights framework as it relates to water and sanitation. The report outlines that stigma, as a deeply entrenched social and cultural phenomenon, lies at the root of many human rights violations and results in entire population groups being disadvantaged and excluded. The link between stigma and explicitly water, sanitation and hygiene is detailed, and stigma is then placed within the human rights framework considering human dignity, the human rights to water, sanitation, non-discrimination and equality, the prohibition of degrading treatment and the right to privacy. The report acknowledges that States cannot fully realise the human rights to water and sanitation without addressing stigma as a root cause of discrimination and other human rights violations

A/HRC/21/42

What the global report on disability means for the WASH sector

WILBUR, Jane
August 2011

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"This report gives an overview of the information relevant to the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector in the world’s first report on disability. It also highlights how WaterAid is addressing the recommendations in the report, as well as where we could develop our approaches further"

Principles and practices for the inclusion of disabled people in access to safe sanitation : a case study from Ethiopia

WILBUR, Jane
October 2010

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This report describes a formative evaluation of WaterAid’s pilot project in Butajira, Ethiopia. Using research methodologies such as a literature review, case studies, participant observation and semi-structured interviews, the findings present that WaterAid applied the charity model within its intervention and had limited impact on societal discrimination. The report concludes by recommending nine key principles for development organisations to mainstream inclusive development. This report would be useful to people interested in the inclusion of disabled people in access to safe sanitation

Water, sanitation and disability in rural West Africa : enhancing access and use of wash facilities|A summary report of the Mali water and disabilities study

NORMAN, Ray
Ed
March 2010

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"This report provides a summary of activities and findings of the study. It is also intended to serve as a practical guide for WASH practitioners who seek to develop community WASH programs that are inclusive of disabled people in the West African region. The report provides a review of specific issues facing the disabled, details of the design and development of low-cost assistive technologies, as well as guidelines for engaging the disabled and the communities where they live"

Equity and inclusion : a rights based approach

GOSLING, Louisa
January 2010

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This policy report provides a practical understanding of equity and inclusion aimed to reach out to people who are excluded and marginalised by improving access to safe water, hygiene and sanitation (WASH) in the world’s poorest communities. The purpose of this framework is to help implement WaterAid’s policy on equity and inclusion. The policy is divided into the following three sections: WaterAid’s position and approach; standards and indicators for equity and inclusion; and an explanation of terms and examples. This document is useful for people interested in international NGO policies on WASH equity and inclusion

Menstrual hygiene in South Asia : a neglected issue for WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) programmes

MAHON, Thérèse
FERNANDES, Maria
2010

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This report explores the reasons why menstral hygiene is not generally included in WASH initiatives, and the social and health impact of this neglect on women and girls. Examples are provided of successful approaches integrating menstral hygiene in WASH programmes in the South Asian region. This report is interesting for development practitioners interested in integrating menstral hygiene into WASH programmes

The sustainability and impact of school sanitation, water and hygiene education in Kenya

NJUGUNA, Vincent
et al
2009

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This report details a study that investigated the impact and sustainability of school interventions for water, sanitation and hygiene education (WASH) in three districts in Kenya. The key findings of the study are: that sufficient taps for handwashing in toilets result in increased handwashing and cleaner toilets, and toilets that are clean and provide privacy are better used by children

Right to water and sanitation : moving towards a constitutional guarantee|Visioning and strategy planning meeting report

PILLAI, Meera
2009

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This report explores the right to water and sanitation in India and the different responsibilities and actions among the stakeholders. Based on a workshop, it highlights lessons learned from other rights based approaches, water and sanitation rights in the Indian context and steps for future action. This report is useful for practitioners and policy makers interested in the right to water and sanitation in India

Sustainability and equity aspects of total sanitation programmes : a study of recent WaterAid supported programmes in three countries global synthesis report

EVANS, Barbara
et al
2009

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This report is a synthesis of three individual country studies on Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) activities in WaterAid programmes in Bangladesh, Nepal and Nigeria. The studies examined whether CLTS had led to sustainable and equitable sanitation behaviour change. The study explored whether achieving open-defecation-free (ODF) status is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the entire community to use and maintain hygienic latrines in the long-term. Also, where possible, the study explored the additional factors that enhance the probability that ODF status will translate into entrenched behaviour change, as well as the capacity of communities to move onwards up the ‘sanitation ladder’

Going to scale with community-led total sanitation : reflections on experience, issues and ways forward

CHAMBERS, Robert
2009

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Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is a revolutionary approach in which communities are facilitated to conduct their own appraisal and analysis of open defecation and take their own action to become open defecation-free. This report presents CLTS approaches in six countries which differ organisationally with contrasting combinations of NGOs, projects and governments. Practical elements in strategies for going to scale have included: training and facilitating; starting in favourable conditions; conducting campaigns and encouraging competition; recruiting and committing teams and full-time facilitators and trainers; organising workshops and cross-visits; supporting and sponsoring Natural Leaders and community consultants and inspiring and empowering children

 

Practice Paper, Vol 2009, No 1

Report on piloting of appropriate sanitation options for differently abled people (DAP)

DUSHTHA SHASTHYA KENDRA (DSK)
July 2008

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This report describes the implementation of a pilot project in urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh, that introduced appropriate and user-friendly sanitation options for differently abled people (DAP) including pregnant women, disabled and older people. The report outlines the project which focused upon adapting existing communal facilities to include DAP. It would be useful for people interested in inclusive water, sanitation and hygiene in Bangladesh.
The project was implemented by WaterAid Bangladesh's partner Dushtha Shasthya Kendra (DSK) in collaboration with Action on Disability and Development (ADD)

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