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Chap. 2: Intervention Cost-Effectiveness: Overview of Main Messages

DT, Jamison
JG, Breman
AR, Measham
et al
September 2016

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"Although efficient spending on health has always been a desirable goal, it is particularly critical in the face of recent threats, such as HIV/AIDS and drug-resistant bacteria, as well as the problems presented by increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), that threaten to roll back the significant health gains achieved in the past two decades. This book is an opportunity to assess anew the costs associated with and the health gains attainable from specific interventions and thereby better inform the allocation of new health funding." 

Knowledge and perceptions of HIV-infected patients regarding HIV transmission and treatment in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Hoang, Dong
Dinh, An T
Groce, Nora
Sullivan, Lynn
March 2015

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Patient education concerning HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) medications is important for optimal outcomes. The authors assessed the knowledge and perceptions of HIV-infected patients in an ARV education program in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study population’s knowledge of HIV/AIDS and ARV medications, perceived stigmatization, and areas of knowledge deficits underscore the need for effective patient education programs addressing poorly understood issues around HIV/AIDS.

Including disability in HIV policy and programming : good practices drawn from country-based evidence : brief

MAC-SEING, Muriel
December 2014

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This brief is an introduction to the lessons learned document on good practices about the inclusion of disability in HIV policy and programming. Good practices and processes concerning the inclusion of disability issues in HIV policy and programming are highlighted, drawing on specific experiences in Senegal, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Cambodia and on lessons learned at international AIDS conferences

LL No 7 Brief 

"We are also dying of AIDS” : barriers to HIV services and treatment for persons with disabilities in Zambia

CHOPRA, Rashmi
July 2014

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This report documents the obstacles faced by people with disabilities in both the community and healthcare settings. These include pervasive stigma and discrimination, lack of access to inclusive HIV prevention education, obstacles to accessing voluntary testing and HIV treatment, and lack of appropriate support for adherence to antiretroviral treatment. The report also describes the sexual and intimate partner violence women and girls with disabilities face, and the need for the government and international donors to do more to ensure inclusive and accessible HIV services

 

Note : Accessible and easy read versions are available from the link above

Predictors of voluntary HIV counselling and testing services utilization among people with disabilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

ADEREMI, Toyin Janet
et al
June 2014

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“The study investigated HIV testing prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services among individuals with disabilities in Addis Ababa. The analysis was based on a survey of 209 men and 203 women with disabilities, aged 15–49, who had ever heard about HIV and AIDS in four sub-cities in Addis Ababa. HIV testing prevalence was 53.2%, with no significant difference between males and females. Comprehensive HIV knowledge, living with spouse, and religious affiliations positively predicted utilization of VCT services among participants. Living with both parents and having physical or mental/intellectual disabilities were negative predictors of VCT services utilization. More research on the predictors of utilization of VCT services by gender and urban/rural divides are needed among people with disabilities”

AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, Vol 26, Issue 10

World AIDS day 2012

ALAM, Mohammed Khorshed
2012

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This factsheet presents information about HIV and AIDS and ten related goals for 2015
The user has given permission for the uploaded document to be reproduced and made publicly available on the Source website

Left out twice : living with HIV/AIDS and disabilities

BARRIGA, Santhu Rau
July 2010

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This article documents the experiences and prejudices which women with HIV and Aids and disabilities face. These include the risk of sexual violence to disabled women, and the difficulty in persuading partners to consent to safe sex. The article concludes with suggestions as to how the link between HIV and disability can be better researched and funded. This article would be of interest to those who are interested in HIV and disability

Disability in national strategic plans on HIV and AIDS : a review on the national response to the interrelations of disability and HIV in eastern and southern Africa|Final report

GRANT, Kitty
STRODE, Ann
HANNASS-HANCOCK, Jill
December 2009

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This report examines national AIDS and HIV strategic plans (NSPs) in eastern and southern Africa and includes findings, discussions and best practice examples on the integration of disability throughout the countries. "Generally, the findings of the report show that less than 50% of the countries in Eastern and Southern Africa recognise disability as an issue of concern, or specifically recognise the vulnerability of people with disabilities to HIV and AIDS within their NSPs. Furthermore, it found that even where countries have recognised disability as an issue, there is limited specific guidance within the NSP on HIV-related service provision to meet the needs of people with disabilities. Only one country, South Africa, showed extensive integration of disability into the various focus areas of its NSP." The report concludes with recommendations and provides detailed appendices of national reports for each country surveyed

HIV/AIDS and disability : final report of the 4th international policy dialogue

HEALTH CANADA
2009

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This report documents the International Policy Dialogue which provided an "opportunity for participants to talk about the connections between HIV/AIDS and disability, and its significance to international development issues...Through panel presentations, plenary discussion and breakout sessions, participants discussed emerging issues on the intersectionality of HIV/AIDS and disability, and charted a way forward in terms of policy and programme development"

Another way to learn : case studies

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION
2007

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These case studies come from an initiative that supports non-formal education projects in Africa, South Asia, the Caribbean and Latin America. The long-term goal of these projects is to develop sustainable livelihoods for low-income, low-literate populations by addressing vulnerability to HIV and AIDS and drug misuse, a lack of education and social exclusion. Central to all of these projects are the creative and innovative methods used to communicate in a meaningful way, engage people and encourage their participation. The projects all focus on capacity building, empowerment, and creating learning opportunities. A DVD has been produced to accompany this publication

Culture, religion and adolescent reproductive and sexual health [whole issue]

June 2006

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This issue reflects on how cultural and religious attitudes affect the sexual behaviour of young people and on the role they play in HIV incidence in the Asia-Pacific region. It also looks at good practices in this area. Includes two research briefs on the role of sex and HIV educational programmes for the youth and on knowledge and sexual behaviour of adolescent in Pune. Contains an interview with Halida Hanum Akhter, the recipient of the 2006 United Nations Population Award, which presents her insights into popular culture and reproductive health.

Protecting children from sexual exploitation and sexual violence in disaster and emergency situations

DELANEY, Stephanie
March 2006

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"This manual, as the title suggests, is about how to protect children from sexual violence and sexual exploitation, specifically in disaster and emergency situations. It is not intended to be an academic report but instead is a practical guide that we hope will be of use to people working directly in the field. The aim is to provide fundamental information to assist personnel working in emergency situations in responding to protect children, in terms of what can be done before disaster strikes (which might be called ‘mitigation’ efforts), in the immediate aftermath (the ‘response’) and in the longer term reconstruction phase (sometimes called the ‘recovery’). We have also included recommended actions and key considerations to be taken into account in the event of sexual violence or sexual exploitation"

Use ICTs strategically

KUMAR, Manish
January 2005

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An interview with Maxine Olson, UNDP Resident Representative and UN Resident Co-ordinator in India, in which she discusses the social dimensions of the spread of HIV/AIDS in the South Asian region, various awareness projects and the contribution of ICTs

AIDS action

HEALTHLINK WORLDWIDE
2003

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Aimed at health workers, educators and community workers, these resources provide practical information on a wide range of care, support and prevention issues concerning HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a fully searchable format. The resources include training manuals, briefing papers and discussion guides (eg Men's sexual health matters, Steps to making sex safer, HIV and safe motherhood). Also included are the international editions of AIDS Action, a newsletter that was produced by Healthlink Worldwide between 1987 and 2001, and Dialogue on Diarrhoea, 1980-1995

Cross-generational and transactional sexual relations in sub-Saharan Africa : prevalance of behaviour and implications for negotiating safer sexual practices

LUKE, Nancy
KURZ, Kathleen
September 2002

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This paper is a literature and evidence survey of cross-generational and transactional sex in Africa. It examines the age and economic asymmetries in sexual relationships in an African context, prevalence of cross-generational and transactional sexual relationships, adolescent girls' and men's motivations and adolescent girls' negotiating power in relationships. It comes to the conclusion that adolescent girls have power when negotiating the start and end of relationships and they are strongly motivated to enter into cross-generational relationships for the material benefits and status that they bring. However, once they have entered the relaltionship the balance of power shifts to the man, especially in the context of gift-giving.
The paper also examines the evidence around cultural acceptance of cross-generational and transactional sexual relationships, violence and rape within the relationships, multiple relationships, and outcome of the relationships. The authors' recommendations are to: gather policy support for changing the social norm; mount programmatic responses; conduct research to investigate the success of programmatic responses, document the policy process, and fill other important information gaps

Sang Fan Wan Mai Youth Group : tiny steps by youth to battle the AIDS crisis

JANPENG, Jansuai
et al
July 2001

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Describes the development of a youth group in Thailand that engages in HIV/AIDS education through puppet shows, stage plays, youth training and workshops, youth camps, village broadcasting, small group discussions, sports and competitions, and radio shows. In all activities, they integrate information about HIV/AIDS and emphasize the participation of the community throughout the process. Some useful lessons are included in the final section, 'Turning from a risk group to a responsible body'. The report was prepared by the youth themselves, and was translated and published by UNDP-SEAHIV

Handbook for appropriate communication for behavior change. Culturally appropriate information/education/communication : elaboration and delivery

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION (UNESCO). Division of Cultural Policies and Intercultural Dialogue
2001

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This handbook is part of the UNESCO initiative on HIV and culture. It deals with building culturally appropriate information/education/communication (IEC) material and processes. It aims to tailor the content and pace of action to people's beliefs, value systems, capacity to mobilise, and to modify international and national strategies and policies, project design and field work accordingly. It gives a conceptual introduction to the issue and then presents the methodological research to be carried out (evaluation of the current activities, understanding, sensitising and mobilising cultural references and resources accordingly). It then identifies proposed target audiences and their specific characteristics. It concludes by proposing appropriate IEC models combining message elaboration and delivery

Heinemann HIV/AIDS teaching support site

Heinemann Publishers

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This site is a source of information and resources for children of both younger and older age groups. These books and resources are produced to support adults who are working in education, both inside and outside the classroom, to equip children to know and think about HIV and AIDS and how it affects people. There are fiction reviews, information books and curriculum material. Lower primary through to upper secondary levels are covered and aim to give children the knowledge, skills and values they need to tackle HIV and AIDS.
For younger children, there is a series of 3 books.
1. Go Away Dog by David Donald about a grumpy grandmother, a puppy and the importance of care and friendship in a time of sickness.
2. Respect and Care by Glynis Clacherty that looks at respect and care and co-operation amongst children as they confront sickness and loss.
3. Lerato’s Story by Glynis Clacherty which is a lively photo story about a young child who is HIV positive told through the eyes of her sister

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