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A parrot on your shoulder : a guide for people starting to work with orphans and vulnerable children

INTERNATIONAL HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
2004

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This book is designed to help people who work with children initiate meaningful dialogue and engage them in a cheerful and positive manner. It considers issues around encouraging children’s participation, why it is important, and what to include when planning children’s participation. It discusses issues of safety in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and why, how and when to use games. It contains activities and ideas on how to include children in participatory processes

State of the world's children 2005 : childhood under threat

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2004

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The latest UNICEF report concentrates on the theme of the quality of a child’s life. There have been significant advances in the fulfillment of children’s rights to survival, health and education through the provision of essential goods and services, and a growing recognition of the need to create a protective environment to shield children from exploitation, abuse and violence since the Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1989. Worryingly, however, in several regions and countries some of these gains appear in danger of reversal from three key threats: poverty, armed conflict and HIV/AIDS. The rights of over 1 billion children are violated because they are severely underserved of at least one or more of the basic goods and services required to survive, grow and develop. Swift and decisive action is required to reduce the poverty that children experience, protect them from armed conflict and support those orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS

Matrix of five types of ECD HIV/AIDS interventions, suggested outcome indicators, and comments

WORLD BANK
2004

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This is a matrix of the five recommended types of Early Childhood Development (ECD) and HIV and AIDS interventions. It includes suggestions of delivery services to young children, education and support for families and caregivers, training and support of care providers, sensitisation through the mass media and community mobilisation. It provides indicators and comments for each of these categories and is a useful overview of the key interventions which could take place in this field

Promoting rights-based approaches : experiences and ideas from Asia and the Pacific

THEIS, Joachim
2004

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This book is a collection of experiences with rights-based approaches from Asia and the Pacific. Part One looks at rights-based programming, and provides a general overview of rights-based approaches and their history. This is followed by a review of experiences of different rights-based organisations. Part Two translates human rights principles and standards into practical ideas for education and HIV/AIDS programming and for organisational development and management. Part Three presents four examples of rights-based programmes: promoting children’s participation in Vietnam, the Child Friendly District initiative in Ho Chi Minh City, confronting discrimination in South Asia and strengthening accountability for children’s rights through mass media. Part Four presents experiences and experiments with tools for rights-based analysis, planning, monitoring and evaluation. There is also a section on web resources on rights-based approaches, which lists some of the major organisations that are promoting rights-based approaches to development and relief work

The development, implementation and evaluation of interventions for the care of orphans and vulnerable children in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe : a literature review of evidence-based interventions for home-based child-centred development

STREBEL, Anna
2004

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This short paper gives a literature review of many programmes aimed at supporting orphans and vulnerable groups in the southern Africa region. It is not an in-depth survey, but provides a compact and accessible guide to the many different community initiatives that have been undertaken. It finishes with a short section on the lessons to be learned from care programmes

Persons with disability : study commissioned by the Corporate Planning Unit of the City of Joburg as a component of the human development agenda

WHITEHEAD, Melissa
2004

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The aim of this research is to highlight problems with, and identify gaps in, the human development agenda as they relate to persons with disability in the City of Johannesburg. The research report also gives an overview of the methodologies applied.
The report is useful for organisations and persons who want to learn more about the situation of disabled persons in Johannesburg. Also it is of interest for researchers and organisations that are developing research methodology and policy

Improving nutrition and reproductive health : a review of UNICEF experience with the distribution of free infant formula for infants of HIV-infected mothers in Africa

WAGT, Arjan de
Clark, David
2004

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This review considers the experience of UNICEF with the distribution of free infant formula for infants of HIV infected mothers in Africa. UNICEF has provided, or is planning to provide, support to pregnant women in 54 countries, with HIV testing and counselling, improved health care, anti-retroviral drugs, and counselling on infant feeding options. After 1998, UNICEF decided to provide poorer HIV positive mothers with an alternative to breastfeeding by providing free formula. This paper presents the experiences with the procurement, distribution and use of free formula in PMTCT programmes. It further suggests conditions for the use of free formula

Defining orphaned and vulnerable children

SKINNER, D
et al
2004

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This research forms part of a broader project aimed at development and evaluation of interventions for orphaned and vulnerable children. The paper aims to provide a definitional framework and an understanding of orphans and vulnerability

Future forsaken : abuses against children affected by HIV/AIDS in India

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH (HRW)
2004

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This report documents abuses against India’s HIV/AIDS-affected children, including doctors refusing to treat or even touch HIV-positive children, schools expelling or segregating children because they or their parents are HIV-positive, and orphanages and other residential institutions rejecting HIV-positive children or denying that they house them. Children from families affected by AIDS may be denied an education, pushed onto the street, forced into the worst forms of child labour, or otherwise exploited, all of which puts them at greater risk of contracting HIV. This report calls on the Indian government to recognise their plight and to take immediate action to protect them from discrimination and exploitation

An information system and medical record to support HIV treatment in rural Haiti

FRASER, H S
et al
2004

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Recent studies have shown the feasibility of treating HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Lack of infrastructure, including information and communication systems, is considered a barrier to successful HIV treatment programmes. Internet based information systems offer a way to provide communication infrastructure in remote, resource-poor areas such as rural Haiti. A web based medical record system can be effectively used to track clinical outcomes, laboratory tests and drug supplies, and create reports for funding agencies. Development and evaluation of practical, low cost clinical information systems should be a priority in rolling out HIV treatment in developing countries

Early years children promote health : case studies on child-to-child and early childhood development

CHILD-TO-CHILD TRUST
2004

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This is a collection of case studies of child-to-child health promotion activities and experiences. The focus is on early years children, who have been shown to be capable of peer-to-peer support. Through their involvement in health and development, children are able to contribute to the development of their communities, learning skills and shaping their personalities. The case studies included describe the experiences of children involved in education, HIV/AIDS and Memory Work, and contributing to the creation of resource centres in emergency settings and learning centres for community development

Reproductive health strategy

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2004

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The strategy presented in this document is the World Health Organization's first global strategy on reproductive health. It was adopted by the 57th World Health Assembly (WHA) in May 2004. Three of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are directly related to reproductive and sexual health, namely, improving maternal health, reducing child mortality and combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. This strategy addresses five priority aspects of reproductive and sexual health: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combating sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, reproductive tract infections, cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health. This document is intended for policy-makers within governments, international agencies, professional associations, nongovernmental organisations and other institutions

Human resources for health : overcoming the crisis

JOINT LEARNING INITIATIVE
2004

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This report identifies strategies to strengthen the workforce of health systems. The Joint Learning Initiative was launched because many people believed that the most critical factor driving health system performance, the health worker, was neglected and overlooked

National monitoring and evaluation framework for the multi-sectoral response to HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia

HIV/AIDS PREVENTION AND CONTROL OFFICE (HAPCO)
December 2003

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In 1998 the Ethiopian government scaled up the response to HIV/AIDS by forging a multi-sectoral and multi-level partnership with various stakeholders. A national policy on HIV/AIDS was enacted in August 1998. This resulted in a Strategic Framework for the National Response to HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia for 2001-2005. This monitoring and evaluation framework was developed to strengthen the multi-sectoral response to HIV/AIDS, to systematically track progress and evaluate the effects of the national response, and to meet the international reporting requirements for funds secured to fight HIV/AIDS in the country. It covers basic monitoring and evaluation concepts, an implementation strategy, national level indicators and resource requirements

Conference 2003 : reproductive health from disaster to development

MATTHEWS, Julia
KRAUSE, Sandra
CHYNOWETH, Sarah
December 2003

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Provides the proceedings of the conference along with the presentations that were made. The presentations provide information on specific activities, projects or research, along with the methods used, the findings and the implications for future work (lessons learned)

HIV and childhood disability : a case-controlled study at a paediatric antiretroviral therapy centre in Lilongwe, Malawi

DEVENDRA, A
et al
December 2003

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This article presents a case-controlled study that estimated the prevalence of disabilities in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in Lilongwe, Malawi, examines types of disability and associated clinical and socio-demographic factors and identifies needs, opportunities and barriers for rehabilitation in Malawi. This study reveals the magnitude of disability among HIV-infected children and the large unmet need for rehabilitation services. It recommends that this expanding issue is investigated further to provide an evidence base for holistic care for disabled children living with HIV

PLoS ONE, Vol 8, No 12

UK AIDS aid : an analysis of DFID HIV/AIDS expenditure

JANJUA, Harinder
November 2003

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This report collates available evidence to determine how much the UK government is currently spending on HIV/AIDS in developing countries and countries in transition. It points out that a desire to see HIV/AIDS mainstreamed within development work is inconsistent with a desire for clear vertical budget lines. It makes recommendations for future campaign demands and for DFID's statements on its spending

Placental malaria increases mother to child HIV transmission

BRAHMBHATT, Heena
November 2003

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This news release from John Hopkins University contains reports that that placental malaria infection during pregnancy scientifically increases the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The study, funded by John Hopkins University, was carried out in Uganda where 40% of HIV positive women with placental malaria had HIV positive babies, compared to 15.4% of HIV positive women without malaria. Interventions to prevent malaria during pregnancy could potentially reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV

Using electronic communication to strengthen HIV/AIDS work

LEE, Sarah
November 2003

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Describes the various forms that electronic communications (also called information and communication technologies - ICTs) can have (for example email, databases, CD-ROMs etc) and their uses (advocacy, networking, discussions, fundraising). Lists the advantages and disadvantages of electronic communications, and includes a list of resources, articles and reports around ICTs and development

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