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Prevalence of HIV infection among people with disabilities : a population-based observational study in Yaounde, Cameroon (HandiVIH)

DE BEAUDROP, Pierre
et al
January 2017

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In the HandiVIH study, an estimation and a comparison of HIV prevalence and associated risk factors between people with and without disabilities. In this cross-sectional, population-based, observational study, two-phase random sampling was used to recruit adults with disabilities and a control group matched for age, sex, and residential location from households of the general population. The Washington Group Short Set of Questions on Disability was used to identify people with disabilities. An HIV test was administrated and a life-course history interview carried out with participants. The primary outcome was the prevalence of HIV among participants with and without disabilities. The study took place in Yaoundé, Cameroon, between Oct 2, 2014, and Nov 30, 2015. 

The Lancet HIV · January 2017 

DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30209-0

Access to HIV and AIDS care: persons with disabilities still left behind

MAC-SEING, Muriel
October 2015

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This article presents disability-inclusive good practices, policy and program related opportunities. It highlights a series of facts and figures related to people with disabilities and HIV infection and the interaction between HIV and disability.  The article goes on to outline Handicap International’s proposal to “remove HIV-related barriers for persons with disabilities” in a two-track approach that includes decision makers, service providers, and service users. Finally, the article shares discussions of successful inclusive practices involving HIV and persons with disabilities in various communities around the world and the key challenges and opportunities to include disability into HIV and AIDS

Predictors of voluntary HIV counselling and testing services utilization among people with disabilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

ADEREMI, Toyin Janet
et al
June 2014

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“The study investigated HIV testing prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services among individuals with disabilities in Addis Ababa. The analysis was based on a survey of 209 men and 203 women with disabilities, aged 15–49, who had ever heard about HIV and AIDS in four sub-cities in Addis Ababa. HIV testing prevalence was 53.2%, with no significant difference between males and females. Comprehensive HIV knowledge, living with spouse, and religious affiliations positively predicted utilization of VCT services among participants. Living with both parents and having physical or mental/intellectual disabilities were negative predictors of VCT services utilization. More research on the predictors of utilization of VCT services by gender and urban/rural divides are needed among people with disabilities”

AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, Vol 26, Issue 10

Situation analysis of programs to meet the HIV prevention, care, and treatment needs of persons with disabilities in Ghana, Uganda, and Zambia

TUN, Waimar
et al
December 2013

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With growing recognition that persons with sensory (blindness and deafness), physical, and intellectual disabilities are at risk for HIV, it is crucial to understand the HIV programming needs of persons with disabilities and challenges to accessing HIV-related services. The HIVCore project, funded by the U. S. Agency for International Development, conducted a situation analysis in Ghana, Uganda, and Zambia with persons with disabilities and service providers to describe existing HIV services for persons with disabilities, identify factors affecting access to and use of HIV services, and identify opportunities and gaps for addressing HIV service needs of persons with disabilities. By identifying the needs and challenges in HIV programming for persons with disabilities and by identifying existing programs, the findings from this assessment can be used to guide the implementation of disability-inclusive programming.

Differences in HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners in Nigeria

ADEEMI, Toyin
PILLAY, Basil
ESTERRHUIZEN, Tonya
February 2013

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"This study sought to compare the HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners (NDL) in Nigeria. Findings could help in the development of HIV interventions that are accessible to Nigerian learners with intellectual impairments"
Journal of the International AIDS Society, Vol 16

Sexual vulnerability and HIV seroprevalence among the deaf and hearing impaired in Cameroon

TOUKO, Adonis
et al
February 2010

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This article describes a study to investigate the prevalence of HIV in people who are hearing impaired among the population of Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, and assess their sexual vulnerability, through interviews and, in most cases, HIV testing. The research concludes that hearing impairment is a significant risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and that more research is needed into the impact of HIV and AIDS on people with disabilities, particularly those who are hearing impaired, in order to tackle this vulnerability

'The forgotten' HIV and disability in Tanzania

TANZANIA COMMISSION FOR AIDS (TACAIDS)
2009

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This is the report of a study into HIV and disability in Tanzania. it assesses the impact of HIV and AIDS on people with disabilities; evaluates disabled people's access to information, testing and services; and makes recommendations for overcoming barriers and obstacles to improve access to HIV services. Qualitative and quantitative information was collected from people with disabilities, disabled people's organisations and HIV organisations in four districts close to Dar es Salaam. This report would be particularly relevant to those with an interest in HIV and disability in Tanzania

Improving the education response to HIV and AIDS : Lessons of partner efforts in coordination, harmonisation, alignment, information sharing and monitoring in Jamaica, Kenya, Thailand and Zambia

VISSER-VALFREY, Muriel
March 2008

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This report presents the overall findings from case study exercises carried out in Jamaica, Kenya, Thailand and Zambia to examine the quality, effectiveness and coordination of the education sector's response to the HIV epidemic. The report also makes recommendations for improving coordination across agencies in support of country-level and global actions. The case studies were carried out by the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team on Education

Repositioning postnatal care in a high HIV environment : Swaziland

WARREN, Charlotte
et al
2008

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This report arose from recognition of the need to provide better care and follow up of mothers and infants in the postnatal period in order to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in Swaziland. The objectives of the study were to determine if changes to the guidelines on postnatal care would result in improvements to provision of of maternal and newborn care in the postnatal period, increase utilization of postnatal care services among all postpartum (PP) women, and improve the care and follow up of HIV-positive postpartum women and their infants. The study confirmed that the introduction of an improved postnatal package with revised timing and content provided key components of maternal, newborn, and HIV care, and increased the utilization of services among postpartum women and their infants. An assessment of the quality of care during client-provider interactions for all postpartum women demonstrated a fourfold increase in the proportion that included all aspects of care: maternal and newborn health, counseling for HIV, family planning, and improved provider-client relationships

Early infant diagnosis of HIV through dried blood spot testing

PATHFINDER INTERNATIONAL / KENYA
October 2007

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Until recently the test used to diagnose HIV in babies under one-year has required sophisticated and expensive equipment. A new test has now been developed - dried blood spot testing which can be used to diagnose HIV as early as six weeks after a baby is born and has the advantage of being easy to prepare in a resource-limited setting and shipped to testing facilities without refrigeration. If a baby is given prophylactic antibiotics, such as cotrimoxazole, soon after birth and Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) as soon as is medically indicated, it has a good chance of surviving childhood and living a long, healthy life

Voluntary counselling and testing : a gateway to linking HIV and sexual and reproductive health

INTERNATIONAL PLANNED PARENTHOOD FEDERATION (IPPF)
July 2007

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This publication identifies approaches and issues to Voluntary Counselling and Testing by drawing on the experiences of three sexual and reproductive health organisations in Cambodia, Uganda and Nepal. While the settings and client profiles of each organisation differ, the human rights based approach towards testing and counselling emerges clearly from these case studies. This publication includes an overview of the different types of HIV testing and highlights some of the different and, at times, conflicting views on the essential elements of HIV testing, and on the means by which universal access to HIV testing should be achieved

Our future : sexuality and life skills education for young people. Grades 8 - 9

INTERNATIONAL HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
April 2007

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To help support young people, the Government of Zambia has a comprehensive strategy for sexual and reproductive health and HIV education in and out of school. This is the first in a series of three books which focus on young people of different ages. Each book contains learning activities and illustrations, which engage young people in understanding themselves and their world. They reflect on the virtues and skills needed to develop caring and loving relationships, make good decisions, solve problems and seek help. The topics and activities are designed to fit into the national curriculum or to be used in extra curricula activities in or out of school. The books are accompanied by a Teachers’ Guide

Mainstreaming blindness issues into HIV & AIDS training programs : organisational guide

AFRICAN UNION OF THE BLIND (AFUB)
2007

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This comprehensive resource provides a set of criteria for mainstreaming the training of blind and visually impaired people on HIV & AIDS education. It is based on the meetings and workshops conducted at the Institutional Development Program (IDP) 4th Africa forum, with the aim of ensuring the inclusion and participation of blind and visually impaired individuals in HIV & AIDS education programmes. This ends with a set of tips for facilitators working in disabled peoples organisations and HIV & AIDS services and organisations

Changing children's lives : experiences from memory work in Africa

HEALTHLINK WORLDWIDE
2007

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This publication aims to share learning from the memory work that Healthlink Worldwide and six other NGOs across sub-Saharan Africa have developed in response to the HIV epidemic. The focus is on learning and analysis in the theory and practice of memory work as well as demonstrating its effectiveness as an HIV response. It is aimed at international and national level policy makers who design and support HIV initiatives, as well as practitioners, who implement responses to the HIV epidemic directly at a local and national level

Kenya follow-up consultation report : target revision toward universal access to prevention, treatment, care and support by 2010

December 2006

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The consultation to select core targets, and to make revisions and updates to the existing Universal Access roadmap for Kenya became necessary following further guidance on country-level target setting subsequent to the initial consultation. The main revision consultation on 7 December brought together 36 participants representing the government, NGOs and specific interest/at-risk groups, UN and bilateral development partners. The work focused on prioritising core targets, as well as revising a set of targets deemed critical for Kenya . All the proposed core indicators, as well as most of the recommended indicators, have been incorporated in the M&E framework

Normalising testing : normalising AIDS

CAMERON, Edwin
June 2006

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This is an abridged version of a speech made as a tribute to Ronald Louw Memorial Campaign at the launch of a campaign called 'Get Tested, Get Treated'. It suggests that stigma, discrimination and unnecessary suffering can be combatted by supporting the normalisation of AIDS, which in turn would encourage earlier diagnosis. The author calls for the re-medicalisation of the diagnosis of HIV, and advocates for routine HIV testing as long as three conditions are met: i) ART is avalable; ii) diagnosis of positive status doesn't lead to discrimination; iii) confidentiality is guaranteed. This brief article makes a valuable contribution to the debate around HIV testing, stigma and issues of confidentiality

Addressing violence against women in HIV testing and counselling

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2006

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This is a summary and recommendations from an international consultation co-convened by the WHO departments of Gender, Women and Health (GWH) and of HIV & AIDS to identify and review promising strategies or good practices to support women who may fear or experience violence as a consequence of HIV testing and/or HIV status disclosure; and develop recommendations to guide programmes and policies related to HIV testing and counselling, in light of current strategies to expand access to these and related services

Social relationships and adolescents’ HIV counseling and testing decisions in Zambia

DENISON, Julie
et al
2006

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Families can play an important role in young peoples' decision-making about getting tested for HIV. To encourage youth to seek voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) and ensure that they receive follow-up care, programme managers need to implement communication strategies that promote discussion about VCT within families and strengthen referral systems to better link HIV-positive youth with care services

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