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Prevalence of HIV infection among people with disabilities : a population-based observational study in Yaounde, Cameroon (HandiVIH)

DE BEAUDROP, Pierre
et al
January 2017

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In the HandiVIH study, an estimation and a comparison of HIV prevalence and associated risk factors between people with and without disabilities. In this cross-sectional, population-based, observational study, two-phase random sampling was used to recruit adults with disabilities and a control group matched for age, sex, and residential location from households of the general population. The Washington Group Short Set of Questions on Disability was used to identify people with disabilities. An HIV test was administrated and a life-course history interview carried out with participants. The primary outcome was the prevalence of HIV among participants with and without disabilities. The study took place in Yaoundé, Cameroon, between Oct 2, 2014, and Nov 30, 2015. 

The Lancet HIV · January 2017 

DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30209-0

Chap. 2: Intervention Cost-Effectiveness: Overview of Main Messages

DT, Jamison
JG, Breman
AR, Measham
et al
September 2016

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"Although efficient spending on health has always been a desirable goal, it is particularly critical in the face of recent threats, such as HIV/AIDS and drug-resistant bacteria, as well as the problems presented by increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), that threaten to roll back the significant health gains achieved in the past two decades. This book is an opportunity to assess anew the costs associated with and the health gains attainable from specific interventions and thereby better inform the allocation of new health funding." 

Access to HIV and AIDS care: persons with disabilities still left behind

MAC-SEING, Muriel
October 2015

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This article presents disability-inclusive good practices, policy and program related opportunities. It highlights a series of facts and figures related to people with disabilities and HIV infection and the interaction between HIV and disability.  The article goes on to outline Handicap International’s proposal to “remove HIV-related barriers for persons with disabilities” in a two-track approach that includes decision makers, service providers, and service users. Finally, the article shares discussions of successful inclusive practices involving HIV and persons with disabilities in various communities around the world and the key challenges and opportunities to include disability into HIV and AIDS

Predictors of voluntary HIV counselling and testing services utilization among people with disabilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

ADEREMI, Toyin Janet
et al
June 2014

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“The study investigated HIV testing prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services among individuals with disabilities in Addis Ababa. The analysis was based on a survey of 209 men and 203 women with disabilities, aged 15–49, who had ever heard about HIV and AIDS in four sub-cities in Addis Ababa. HIV testing prevalence was 53.2%, with no significant difference between males and females. Comprehensive HIV knowledge, living with spouse, and religious affiliations positively predicted utilization of VCT services among participants. Living with both parents and having physical or mental/intellectual disabilities were negative predictors of VCT services utilization. More research on the predictors of utilization of VCT services by gender and urban/rural divides are needed among people with disabilities”

AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, Vol 26, Issue 10

Situation analysis of programs to meet the HIV prevention, care, and treatment needs of persons with disabilities in Ghana, Uganda, and Zambia

TUN, Waimar
et al
December 2013

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With growing recognition that persons with sensory (blindness and deafness), physical, and intellectual disabilities are at risk for HIV, it is crucial to understand the HIV programming needs of persons with disabilities and challenges to accessing HIV-related services. The HIVCore project, funded by the U. S. Agency for International Development, conducted a situation analysis in Ghana, Uganda, and Zambia with persons with disabilities and service providers to describe existing HIV services for persons with disabilities, identify factors affecting access to and use of HIV services, and identify opportunities and gaps for addressing HIV service needs of persons with disabilities. By identifying the needs and challenges in HIV programming for persons with disabilities and by identifying existing programs, the findings from this assessment can be used to guide the implementation of disability-inclusive programming.

Differences in HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners in Nigeria

ADEEMI, Toyin
PILLAY, Basil
ESTERRHUIZEN, Tonya
February 2013

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"This study sought to compare the HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners (NDL) in Nigeria. Findings could help in the development of HIV interventions that are accessible to Nigerian learners with intellectual impairments"
Journal of the International AIDS Society, Vol 16

The balanced counseling strategy plus : a toolkit for family planning service providers working in high HIV/STI prevalence settings

POPULATION COUNCIL
2011

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"This "is an interactive, client-friendly approach for improving counseling on family planning and prevention, detection, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. The BCS+ was adapted from the Balanced Counseling Strategy, an evidence-based and well-researched tool for improving counseling on contraceptive methods. The BCS+ toolkit, developed and tested in Kenya and South Africa, provides the information and materials needed for health care facility providers to provide complete and high-quality family planning counseling to clients who live in areas with high rates of HIV and STIs.The BCS+ tools are generic and can be revised according to national and/or regional guidelines and different contexts
This second edition toolkit includes the following: * BCS+ Trainer’s Guide: Supervisors and others can use this to train health care facility directors and service providers on how to use the BCS+ for counseling family planning clients. * BCS+ User’s Guide: This guide focuses on how to implement the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus. It can be distributed during training or used on its own with the BCS+ job aids. * BCS+ job aids comprising: - BCS+ algorithm that summarizes the 19 steps needed to implement the BCS+ during a family planning counseling session. These steps are organized into four stages: pre-choice, method choice, post-choice, and STI/HIV counseling. - BCS+ counseling cards that the provider uses during a counseling session. There are 26 counseling cards, the first of which contains six questions that the service provider asks to rule out the possibility a client is pregnant. Each of the next 16 cards contains information about a different family planning method. The next 3 cards provide advice on pregnancy and the postpartum period. The last 6 cards provide essential information for counseling on preventing, detecting, and treating STIs and HIV. - BCS+ method brochures on each of the 16 methods represented by the counseling cards. The brochures provide counseling to clients on the method they have chosen and then are given to clients for later reference. This means clients do not have to rely on their recollection of what was discussed with the provider. - WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria Wheel (offsite link) guides providers through medical conditions and medications that may be contraindications to use of particular contraceptive methods. The BCS+ tools are generic and can be revised according to national and/or regional guidelines and different contexts"
A video describing use of the BCS+ toolkit in South Africa also is available. To obtain Microsoft Word versions of BCS+ files to modify or revise according to your local setting, please contact the publisher

HEARD’s disability and HIV library

HEALTH ECONOMICS AND HIV/AIDS RESEARCH DIVISION (HEARD)
June 2010

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This bibliography contains papers, reports and articles relating to the issue of HIV and AIDS and disability. "These papers reveal findings in relation to the impact of HIV/AIDS on people with disabilities, the disabling effects of HIV/AIDS, sexuality and disability, the attitude and stigma towards disability and interventions in different countries"

Sexual vulnerability and HIV seroprevalence among the deaf and hearing impaired in Cameroon

TOUKO, Adonis
et al
February 2010

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This article describes a study to investigate the prevalence of HIV in people who are hearing impaired among the population of Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, and assess their sexual vulnerability, through interviews and, in most cases, HIV testing. The research concludes that hearing impairment is a significant risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and that more research is needed into the impact of HIV and AIDS on people with disabilities, particularly those who are hearing impaired, in order to tackle this vulnerability

Community based HIV testing and HIV treatment as prevention

FREEMAN, Nell
June 2009

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"This Update explores community based HIV testing and counselling and the issues of using antiretroviral (ARV) treatment as prevention. "A ...WHO paper published in the Lancet [in 2009] explored, using mathematical modelling on the possible effects of wide uptake of HIV testing and immediate treatment for all those identified as HIV positive. This in some circles is called the ‘test and treat approach’ - that is population coverage of HIV testing and immediate treatment in order to reduce the incidence of HIV at a population level. "This update highlights two main areas: models of community based HIV testing exploring the evidence of what can work at large scale, and the mathematical modelling of treatment as prevention. "This update is informed by recent WHO discussions on these two areas"

Facilitating HIV testing and disclosure with children and adolescents

INDIA HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
June 2009

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This report looks at the challenges in facilitating testing and disclosure for children in 0-6, 7-14 and 15-18 age groups. The report is based on operations research conducted by India HIV/AIDS Alliance in Andhra Pradesh and Manipur. This operations research was aimed at understanding current challenges with facilitating testing and disclosure for children, and to provide possible short to medium term solutions. Three broad objectives of the study were: * Identifying challenges and factors that prevent the community from seeking HIV testing of their children * Understanding issues related to disclosure of HIV status to children, and the social impact related to disclosure faced by parents and children * Using the study findings in formulating practical solutions to address these issues, and to come up with practical recommendations on building links between policy and practice

Breaking barriers : facilitating HIV testing and disclosure for children and adolescents

INDIA HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
2009

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This policy brief is based on operations research conducted by India HIV/AIDS Alliance in Andhra Pradesh which explored the challenges that faced facilitating HIV testing and disclosure for children in 0-6, 7-14 and 15-18 age groups. The aim of the research was to understand current challenges and to provide possible short to medium term solutions, thereby strengthening child-centric care and support to children living with and affected by HIV. The briefing also outlines recommendations and key actions for improving HIV testing and disclosure with children and adolescents

'The forgotten' HIV and disability in Tanzania

TANZANIA COMMISSION FOR AIDS (TACAIDS)
2009

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This is the report of a study into HIV and disability in Tanzania. it assesses the impact of HIV and AIDS on people with disabilities; evaluates disabled people's access to information, testing and services; and makes recommendations for overcoming barriers and obstacles to improve access to HIV services. Qualitative and quantitative information was collected from people with disabilities, disabled people's organisations and HIV organisations in four districts close to Dar es Salaam. This report would be particularly relevant to those with an interest in HIV and disability in Tanzania

Integrating gender into HIV/AIDS programmes in the health sector : tool to improve responsiveness to women’s needs

AMIN, Avni
et al
2009

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The purpose of this operational tool is to: raise awareness of how gender inequalities affect women’s access to and experience of HIV and AIDS programmes and services; and offer practical actions on how to address or integrate gender into specific types of HIV and AIDS programmes and services. The vulnerability of women, their risk of HIV infection and the impact of the epidemic on them are heightened by many factors, including: the low status accorded to women in many societies, their lack of rights, their lack of access to and control over economic resources, the violence perpetrated against them, the norms related to women’s sexuality, and women’s lack of access to information about HIV. This tool is primary aimed at primarily programme managers and health-care providers involved in setting up, implementing or evaluating HIV and AIDS programmes

Preventing HIV/AIDS among persons with disabilities : a handbook for policy makers, healthcare providers and care givers of people with disabilities

IVOM, Damian O
2009

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This handbook highlights the factors responsible for the spread of HIV, methods of preventing it within persons with disabilities and how they can be reached and integrated into HIV and AIDS programmes and activities, so as to cause a reduction within its communities and in the general population. It is premised on the fact that many programmes and activities on HIV and AIDS in developing countries especially Sub-Saharan Africa have not realised the need to include persons with disabilities

Improving the education response to HIV and AIDS : Lessons of partner efforts in coordination, harmonisation, alignment, information sharing and monitoring in Jamaica, Kenya, Thailand and Zambia

VISSER-VALFREY, Muriel
March 2008

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This report presents the overall findings from case study exercises carried out in Jamaica, Kenya, Thailand and Zambia to examine the quality, effectiveness and coordination of the education sector's response to the HIV epidemic. The report also makes recommendations for improving coordination across agencies in support of country-level and global actions. The case studies were carried out by the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team on Education

HIV/AIDS in Haiti : key findings of the mortality, morbidity, and utilization of services survey : EMMUS-iv 2005-2006

MEASURE DHS (Demographic Health Surveys)
2008

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This report presents survey findings on HIV prevalence in Haiti and other related results, including knowledge of HIV and AIDS, attitudes toward people living with HIV, and sexual behaviour. The survey was undertaken by the Mortality, Morbidity, and Utilization of Services Assessment Survey (EMMUS-IV) [Enquête Mortalité, Morbidité et Utilisation des Services] conducted between October 2005 and June 2006. The French version of this report follows the English version

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