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Disability and HIV

UNAIDS
August 2017

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This report highlights existing key evidence on the relationship between disability and HIV. It discusses the concrete steps needed for a person-centred, disability-inclusive HIV response that allows for increased participation of people with disabilities and integrates rehabilitation within the continuum of HIV care. Globally, it is estimated that 1 billion people (15% of the world’s population) have a disability. Of those aged over 15 years, approximately 110–190 million (2.2–3.8%) experience significant disabilities. Disability is increasing in prevalence due to ageing populations, trauma, accidents and the increase in chronic health conditions, including HIV. Persistent discrimination against and exclusion of people with disabilities, in particular women and girls with disabilities, increases their vulnerability, including their risk of HIV infection.
 

Disability and HIV

UNAIDS
January 2017

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This report highlights existing key evidence on the relationship between disability and HIV. It discusses the concrete steps needed for a person-centred, disability-inclusive HIV response that allows for increased participation of people with disabilities and integrates rehabilitation within the continuum of HIV care.

Strengthening communities to integrate persons with disabilities in the HIV and AIDS response in Rwanda

DELEU, Marijke
May 2013

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"This document aims to capture some of the key lessons learned from Handicap International’s New Partnership Initiative project in Rwanda, which started in 2008 with the objective to integrate persons with disabilities in HIV and Sexual Violence (SV) prevention efforts and service provision generally. It is the result of qualitative, multi-stakeholder study about how change occurred within the project and how the experience could be modelled for adaptation or replication in Rwanda or other contexts"
SD/LL 08

UNAIDS strategy for integrating disability into AIDS programmes

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
2012

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The purpose of this report is to "increases awareness of the structural barriers that people with disabilities experience in accessing good-quality services. The strategy promotes broad action to achieve universal access to HIV prevention for people with disabilities through full integration into all aspects of the HIV response"
Issues brief JC2362

Disability in national strategic plans on HIV and AIDS : a review on the national response to the interrelations of disability and HIV in eastern and southern Africa|Final report

GRANT, Kitty
STRODE, Ann
HANNASS-HANCOCK, Jill
December 2009

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This report examines national AIDS and HIV strategic plans (NSPs) in eastern and southern Africa and includes findings, discussions and best practice examples on the integration of disability throughout the countries. "Generally, the findings of the report show that less than 50% of the countries in Eastern and Southern Africa recognise disability as an issue of concern, or specifically recognise the vulnerability of people with disabilities to HIV and AIDS within their NSPs. Furthermore, it found that even where countries have recognised disability as an issue, there is limited specific guidance within the NSP on HIV-related service provision to meet the needs of people with disabilities. Only one country, South Africa, showed extensive integration of disability into the various focus areas of its NSP." The report concludes with recommendations and provides detailed appendices of national reports for each country surveyed

Advancing the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of people living with HIV : a guidance package

THE GLOBAL NETWORK OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (GNP+)
et al
May 2009

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This resource examines the sexual and reproductive health benefit of reforms in diverse sectors. It makes 12 recommendations which highlight changes that must be made in health services, in the policy and legal arena, and in advocacy efforts. People living with HIV developed this guidance package to help policymakers, programme managers, health professionals, donors, and advocates better understand the specific steps that should be taken to support their sexual and reproductive health and rights

Task shifting : rational redistribution of tasks among health workforce teams : global recommendations and guidelines

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2008

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These guidelines and 22 recommendations are designed to support for countries that face a high HIV burden and acute shortages within the health workforce. Task shifting involves the rational redistribution of tasks among health workforce teams. Specific tasks are moved, where appropriate, from highly qualified health workers to health workers with shorter training and fewer qualifications in order to make more efficient use of the available human resources for health. The key elements that must be in place if the approach is to prove safe, efficient, effective, equitable and sustainable, cover the need for consultation, situation analysis and national endorsement, and for an enabling regulatory framework. They specify the quality assurance mechanisms, including standardised training, supportive supervision, and certification and assessment, that will be important to ensure quality of care

Missing the target #5 : improving AIDS drug access and advancing health care for all

INTERNATIONAL TREATMENT PREPAREDNESS COALITION (ITPC)
December 2007

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This report documents how the mobilisation around AIDS is driving health systems advancement in China, Dominican Republic, Zimbabwe, Russia, Kenya, India, Cameroon, Zambia and Cambodia, and it highlights the need for improvements in broader systems of care and services to meet the needs of people living with HIV & AIDS and the communities in which they live. It also considers ARV procurement, registration and stock-outs in Argentina, Belize, Cambodia, China, Dominican Republic, India, Malawi, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Russia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Barriers to services for children with HIV positive parents

LOUDON, Mark
et al
July 2007

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This is a national overview of a study on barriers to services in the education, health and social welfare fields, encountered by children affected by HIV & AIDS in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Nagaland and Tamil Nadu, particularly those services which are or should be provided by state governments. The study identifies actions which can be taken by relevant departments in the state governments to overcome these barriers

Helping a forgotten minority : disability and HIV/AIDS in Zambia

DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID)
June 2007

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This article and case study demonstrate work being done in Zambia to ensure that the needs of people with disabilities are met by HIV and AIDS services, so that they have full access to the treatment, care and support available. Provisions include sign language training for HIV and AIDS counsellors, making mobility aids and hearing aids available to those who need them, as well as improving food security and encouraging a sustainable livelihoods approach. This would be of interest to anyone looking at mainstreaming disability in the provision of HIV and AIDS services

Living on the outside : key findings and recommendations on the nature and impact of HIV/AIDS-related stigma

HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT NETWORKS (HDNET)
AIDS-CARE-WATCH CAMPAIGN
2006

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This publication presents an overview of discussions, evidence and proposals contributed to the Stigma-AIDS eForurm by both experts and people living with HIV and AIDS, and moderated by Health and Development Networks (HDNet). Three major areas are covered: HIV stigma and place, including the work place, health care services and religious settings; HIV stigma and people living with HIV/AIDS, addressing self-stigma and injection drug users; HIV stigma and society, with a focus on the role of the media. Each topic includes a brief commentary and sets out specific recommendations. It is aimed at individuals, organisations and policy makers willing to learn about practical approaches to reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma

HIV risk exposure in young children : a study of 2-9 year olds served by public health facilities in the Free State, South Africa

SHISANA, Olive
MEHTAR, Shaheen
2005

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South Africa has, until now, focused its HIV prevention efforts on youth and adults, and now needs to expand its focus to include children. Much is already known about mother to child transmission, which is the dominant mode of HIV transmission among children. However, little investigation has been done into the potential for horizontal transmission of HIV on the population below reproductive age. This report focuses on children aged 2-9 years and, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, presents evidence on the potential for HIV transmission in dental, maternity and paediatric service in public health facilities. A new finding concerns the practice of shared breastfeeding

Challenges faced by people with disabilities (PWD'S) in utilizing HIV/AIDS communication and related health services in Uganda

OPOLOT, Samson James
et al
January 2005

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This qualitative study was designed to explore the experiences of people with disabilities in accessing information about HIV in Uganda. The results show that Uganda’s health care system is ill equipped to meet the needs of people with disabilities, especially with regards to language and mobility services. This particularly impacts women and children with disabilities. There is an extensive list of recommendations as to how these issues could be addressed. This study would be of interest to professionals working in the field of health care and/or with people with disabilities in Uganda

Knowledge, personal risk and experiences of HIV/AIDS among people with disabilities in Swaziland

YOUSAFZAI, Aisha K
et al
September 2004

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"The aim of this study was to explore whether disabled and non-disabled young adults in Swaziland have similar perceptions of HIV/AIDS similarly. A qualitative study using focus-group discussions was conducted. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 56 non-disabled adults (aged 16-29 years) and four focus groups were conducted with a total of 32 adults with either a physical or hearing disability (aged 18-32 years). The focus-group schedule explored knowledge about HIV/AIDS, personal risk and experiences of health-seeking practices. Information and awareness about HIV/AIDS was good in both rural and urban areas among the non-disabled participants, who obtained their information from a wide range of sources. In contrast, participants with disability, who obtained information about HIV/AIDS from a limited range of sources, lacked knowledge about HIV/AIDS and were misinformed about modes of transmission...Further research is necessary to enable HIV/AIDS programmes to address the specific needs of people with disabilities"
International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, Vol 27, Issue 3

Connecting to care : addressing the unmet need in HIV

AIDS ACTION FOUNDATION
2004

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This CD-ROM holds a workbook is about connecting people to medical care and health services in the United States of America. 17 methodologies from 9 different areas of the United States are described in this workbook. These are selected from a wide range of settings, including community based organisations, clinics, and housing services. All the methologies described address one central question: how does the activity help reconnect HIV positive people, who know their status, to healthcare? Although based on the context of health and social services available in the United States, some methods and activites might be of interest to people in low-resource settings

Service delivery model on access to care and antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES (IFRCRCS)
2004

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The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies has developed a service model for the provision of ART in collaboration with governments and other potential partners. The model presented in this publication is based on the findings from seven African countries and from a review of the literature. The core issues determining the design of the approach include: holistic intervention; continuum of care; use of existing medical care structure; partnership (concerted efforts); phased approach; sustainability; advocacy; National Society entry point; focus on vulnerable groups; capacity building; and effective mechanism for mobilizing resources. The model reflects the IFRC belief that ART can be administered effectively only when it is part of a comprehensive intervention, and that some interventions like voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), community mobilization, treatment literacy and affordability of drugs are preconditions for beginning ART. In addition, nutritional and psychosocial support is vital. Information, education and communication (IEC), patient management with ART, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), post-exposure prophylaxis, and procurement and distribution of essential drugs in a sustainable manner are the other critical components of a holistic intervention. Continuing to build the capacity of the implementing institutions and a sound management structure that promotes administrative efficiency are also important.

Reproductive health services in KwaZulu Natal Province, South Africa : a situation analysis study focusing on HIV/AIDS services

SEARLE, Catherine
et al
July 2003

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Summary of a study in KwaZulu Natal that used situation analysis methodology, first used in reproductive health research to cover important HIV & AIDS-related issues, including: the availability and quality of voluntary counselling and testing services; the extent of integration of family planning, antenatal care, and sexually transmitted infection services with HIV prevention; and the extent of condom promotion and other HIV prevention strategies

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