This situational analysis (SITAN) addresses the question: “what is the current situation for persons with disabilities in Nepal?”. It has been prepared for the Disability Inclusive Development programme (which works on access to education, jobs, healthcare, and reduced stigma and discrimination for persons with disabilities in Bangladesh, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, and Tanzania), to better understand the current context, including COVID-19, and available evidence in Nepal. It will be helpful for anyone interested in disability inclusion in Nepal, especially in relation to stigma, employment, education, health, and humanitarian issues. This SITAN has been briefly updated from the April 2019 SITAN.
The intersection between age, gender and disability and the use of assistive technology (AT) by older people, in emergency response and as a tool for disaster risk reduction (DRR) is explored. The report shows that AT can have a positive impact on independence, vulnerability reduction and resilience building for older women and men in humanitarian crises. This report urges for sensitization and capacity building of humanitarian organizations for the inclusion and promotion of assistive product (AP) provision in humanitarian response and offers insight into key areas to enable AT provision to successfully meet the needs of older people.
The study employed primary research methods to gather both quantitative and qualitative information through a semi-structured survey with HelpAge programme beneficiaries in five countries: Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan. The survey incorporated the Washington Group short set of questions (WGQs), designed to identify people with functional difficulties in six core functional domains: mobility, vision, hearing, cognition, self-care and communication (Washington Group on Disability Statistics, 2016). The report also summarises secondary research including a literature review, information from rapid needs assessments carried out by HelpAge, and maps out relevant policy changes which have led to better recognition of the intersectionality and importance of AT for older men and women.
The aim of this study was to assess the association between anxiety and depression with physical and sensory functional difficulties, among adults living in five low and middle-income countries (LMICs).
A secondary data analysis was undertaken using population-based disability survey data from five LMICs, including two national surveys (Guatemala, Maldives) and 3 regional/district surveys (Nepal, India, Cameroon). 19,337 participants were sampled in total (range 1,617–7,604 in individual studies). Anxiety, depression, and physical and sensory functional difficulties were assessed using the Washington Group Extended Question Set on Functioning. Age-sex adjusted logistic regression analyses were undertaken to assess the association of anxiety and depression with hearing, visual or mobility functional difficulties.
The findings demonstrated an increased adjusted odds of severe depression and severe anxiety among adults with mobility, hearing and visual functional difficulties in all settings (with ORs ranging from 2.0 to 14.2) except for in relation to hearing loss in India, the Maldives and Cameroon, where no clear association was found. For all settings and types of functional difficulties, there was a stronger association with severe anxiety and depression than with moderate. Both India and Cameroon had higher reported prevalences of physical and sensory functional difficulties compared with Nepal and Guatemala, and weaker associations with anxiety and depression
A collection of stories from people with various disabilities across the globe sharing their experiences with the COVID-19 outbreak and pandemic risk reduction strategies implemented by their governments. Some stories are written by IDA and some are external.
- How absence of transport can be fatal: A Story from Uganda
- In Uganda, a Deaf man loses his leg after being shot during curfew
- Voices of Mexico: Disability and COVID-19 | Voces de Mexico: Discapacidad y COVID-19
- COVID-19 in Mexico: the experience of deafblind children told by their mothers (Espanōl)
- Reaching Persons with Deafblindness
- COVID-19 and The Forgotten People (Indonesia)
- When accessible information is far from a reality: Zimbabwe during COVID-19
- The experience of a blind woman in Kenya under COVID-19 outbreak
- Being a single mother of two persons with disabilities under COVID-19 (South Africa)
- Autistic students in South Africa: how has their life changed?
- The Story of Rose Rokiatou: COVID-19 Pandemic and Financial Vulnerability of Persons with Disability in Mali
- COVID-19 in Romania: Life-threatening situations reported
- COVID-19 in Nepal: What are the challenges for indigenous persons with disabilities?
- COVID-19 in India : Technology can be your best friend or worst enemy
A series of videos providing short reports from HI personnel on the potential impact of COVID-19 on people with disabilities living in already difficult situations.
This edition of the Disability inclusion helpdesk summarises the major announcements, events and reports published on 3rd December 2019, International Day of Persons with Disabilities.
Published at the same time as the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Guidelines on Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action, this report aims to support their uptake and promote learning by example. This report presents 39 short case studies on inclusive practices for persons with disabilities in humanitarian action and disaster risk reduction (DRR). It is designed for humanitarian stakeholders with limited experience of working with and for persons with disabilities, as well as for organizations of persons with disabilities (OPDs) planning to engage in humanitarian action and DRR. The report draws lessons from field practices, but does not provide technical guidance. The IASC Guidelines are the reference document to seek in-depth theoretical and technical information
The case studies focus on:
- Inclusive disaster risk reduction and preparedness
- Collecting and using disability disaggregated data for assessments and programming.
- Participation of persons with disabilities and their representative organizations in humanitarian response and recovery
- Removing barriers to access humanitarian assistance and protection.
- Influencing coordination mechanisms and resource mobilization to be inclusive
The evidence presented in this report was identified in 2017-2018 through a desk review of publicly available reports and internal documents on projects implemented by CBM, HI and IDA members, as well as their partners and affiliate members. Field visits to Lebanon, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, and the Philippines conducted in 2018 also informed the case-study collection and documentation
Determinants of school achievement in Nepal among persons with and without disabilities as well as among each type of impairment were determined using data from a nationally representative disability inclusive survey collected in 2015. The individual level data used in this article comprise 2123 persons with and 2000 persons without disabilities.
Disability and Rehabilitation
This literature review outlines factors contributing to disability stigma in low- and middle-income countries. Overviews of disability stigma in the six Disability Inclusive Development (DID) programme countries – Bangladesh, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, and Tanzania – are presented next. The review then looks at the literature on interventions to reduce disability stigma. Interventions aimed at addressing disability stigma in developing countries have been aimed at the intrapersonal and familial level; the interpersonal level; and the structural level.
This report illustrates how rehabilitation contributes to achievement of several of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), improves global health, and promotes the realisation of human rights for all. The purpose of this report is to provide evidence to stakeholders upon which to build successful strategies to improve the availability of quality, coordinated, affordable, and user-centred rehabilitation. By situating disability and rehabilitation within global discourse and policy, it is intended to provide guidance on the implementation of effective rehabilitation-focused policy and practice, contributing to progress towards global development goals.
SDGs 1,3,4,5,8, 10 and 11 are considered
The report concludes with sets of specific recommendations for different stakeholders (states, donors and civil society, including disabled people’s organisations), which have the potential to strengthen rehabilitation services and improve the health and wellbeing of millions around the world. Included in annex are case studies of government donors and their progress towards meeting the recommendations set out in this report. These case studies are intended to serve as examples for stakeholders for how some of the recommendations have already been included within national policies and activities, where gaps exist and identify areas for improvement.
This study explores participation of people with disabilities in social protection programmes, with Tanahun District of Nepal as the study setting. This research uses mixed methods to assess coverage (through direct survey), how coverage varies amongst people with disabilities (e.g. by gender, impairment type), as well as challenges and facilitators to enrolling in or using relevant social protection programmes. This research benefits from a population-based study design and from the use of the Washington Group question sets
The European Journal of Development Research (2019) 31:929–956
Supporting people with disabilities into employment is important not only in providing income, but research in Nepal has shown positive life changes including increased confidence, social status, and acquiring new skills. This document provides a rapid review of the evidence of the types of interventions used to reduce barriers and support people with disabilities into employment, as well as the impact of training programmes on employment and/or livelihood outcomes (Section 4). Case studies are included in Section 5 and Annex 1 to give further details on key learnings.
Case studies outlined are
- Vocational training programme by Madhab Memorial Vocational Training Institute (MMVTI), Bangladesh
- Gaibandha Food Security Project (Bangladesh)
- Self-help groups (Nepal)
- EmployAble programme (Kenya, Rwanda and Ethiopia)
- Economic Empowerment of Youth with Disabilities (Rural Uganda)
- Access to Livelihoods Programme (India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Africa)
Papers included in this special issue are:
- The UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module—Accuracy, Inter-Rater Reliability and Cut-Off Level for Disability Disaggregation of Fiji’s Education Management Information System
- Disability and Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in Cameroon: A Mediation Analysis of the Role of Socioeconomic Factors
- Assessing the Impact of the Twin Track Socio-Economic Intervention on Reducing Leprosy-Related Stigma in Cirebon District, Indonesia
- Factors Influencing Disability Inclusion in General Eye Health Services in Bandung, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study
- Unmet Needs and Use of Assistive Products in Two Districts of Bangladesh: Findings from a Household Survey
- Analysis of Social Determinants of Health and Disability Scores in Leprosy-Affected Persons in Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
- Developing Behaviour Change Interventions for Improving Access to Health and Hygiene for People with Disabilities: Two Case Studies from Nepal and Malawi
- Intersections Between Systems Thinking and Market Shaping for Assistive Technology: The SMART (Systems-Market for Assistive and Related Technologies) Thinking Matrix
- Adverse Childhood Experiences in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: An Exploratory Case-File Study in Dutch Residential Care
- Risk of Exclusion in People with Disabilities in Spain: Determinants of Health and Poverty
- Implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Children and Youth with Cerebral Palsy: Global Initiatives Promoting Optimal Functioning
- Challenges in Accessing Health Care for People with Disability in the South Asian Context: A Review
- A Systematic Review of Access to Rehabilitation for People with Disabilities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
- A Systematic Review of Access to General Healthcare Services for People with Disabilities in Low and Middle Income Countries
This report evaluates existing policies and practices on how older people have been excluded from data in disaster preparedness and humanitarian responses in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.
In order to evaluate existing policies and practices in the collection of inclusion data, the research employed two main methods: a review of documents and a survey. The review of documents was conducted in three stages: a global literature review, followed by a policy review and a practice review. The survey analysed the responses of 72 respondents from 10 countries .
The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and stigma of leprosy amongst the community members living in Dhanusha and Parsa districts of Southern Central Nepal. A total of 423 individuals were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in Dhanusha and Parsa districts. Data was analyzed using both descriptive (frequency, percentage, median) and statistical inferences.
This publication draws together research and learning from around the world, in papers which highlight the need for inclusive education and some of the steps being taken to implement it.
The settings brought to life here reveal the work of teachers, leaders and policy makers in geographically and culturally diverse situations. In each of the chapters we see the challenges they face and the significant efforts they make to ensure access to, and engagement with, a quality education for all children. The collection includes 15 case studies:
Special educational needs and disability section:
- Teaching for All: mainstreaming inclusive education in South Africa
- Successful inclusive education starts with teachers: what have we learned? A multi-country case study
- Teaching English as a second language to the visually impaired in disadvantaged contexts: a case study from Chiapas, Mexico
- The Theatre of the Classroom
Displaced populations section
- Teaching on the run: safe learning spaces for internally displaced persons
- Developing resilience through English language teaching in youth centres across Iraq
- Capacity building for inclusive classrooms: the Living Together training
- Integrating Syrian refugee children and their parents into Lebanese early education systems
Gender and inclusion in the classroom section
- A gender equality and social inclusion approach to teaching and learning: lessons from the Girls’ Education Challenge
- Teacher development and gender equality in five Nigerian states
- Creating gender-inclusive schools in Turkey: the ETCEP project in action
- Education, English language, and girls’ development: exploring gender-responsive policies and practices in Nepal
Minority ethnic groups in the classroom
- Social inclusion and the role of English language education: making a transition from school to higher education in India
- Storytelling for diverse voices
- Inclusive education in marginalised contexts: the San and Ovahimba learners in Namibia
DRPI AWARE (Disability Rights Promotion International Asian Workplace Approach that Respects Equality): Roadmap to Work is aimed at individuals and organizations committed to the employment rights of persons with disabilities. DRPI AWARE is a collaborative six year project promoting access to opportunities in the labour force for people with disabilities. With an evidence-based understanding of the reasons for the under-employment, unemployment, and precarious employment, DRPI AWARE works with employers to increase job opportunities for people with disabilities in Dhaka (Bangladesh), Kathmandu (Nepal) and Hyderabad (India). The DRPI AWARE project team is sharing this model because it has been tested and used in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh with significant success. It represents a new way forward for realizing the employment rights of people with disabilities and ensuring jobs for people with disabilities. The model can be used as a guide by others who are designing new, or revamping existing, employment projects, strategies, schemes, programs, and inclusive employment practices. This manual provides lessons learned and the outcomes of the DRPI AWARE project and proposes a model for building an inclusive employment ecosystem. It calls for a new way of thinking about disability and of how to ensure a larbour market that equally welcomes all, including those with disabilities.
This baseline report highlights the extent to which education of children with disabilities in Nepal has been considered, documented, and studied, the scope of the available information (and gaps in data collection), the perceived importance of the subject, the main trends, and the most relevant stakeholders. It includes a scan of legislation and policy pieces, reports, journal articles and grey literature, all within the identified scope of interest – education of children with disabilities in Nepal
This study reviews the attitudes and behaviours in rural Nepalese society towards women with disabilities, their pregnancy, childbirth and motherhood. Society often perceives people with disabilities as different from the norm, and women with disabilities are frequently considered to be doubly discriminated against. Studies show that negative perceptions held in many societies undervalue women with disabilities and that there is discomfort with questions of their control over pregnancy, childbirth and motherhood, thus limiting their sexual and reproductive rights. Public attitudes towards women with disabilities have a significant impact on their life experiences, opportunities and help-seeking behaviours. Numerous studies in the global literature concentrate on attitudes towards persons with disabilities, however there have been few studies in Nepal and fewer still specifically on women.
A qualitative approach, with six focus group discussions among Dalit and non-Dalit women without disabilities and female community health volunteers on their views and understandings about sexual and reproductive health among women with disabilities, and 17 face-to-face semi-structured interviews with women with physical and sensory disabilities who have had the experience of pregnancy and childbirth was conducted in Rupandehi district in 2015. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English before being analysed thematically.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 19, 20 (2019)
In Nepal, the Accessible Physical Infrastructure and Communication Services directive for People with Disability 2013, is a key legal measure taken by the government for promoting accessibility. To supplement the government’s initiation in achieving the goal of making inclusive society for all, National Federation of the Disabled – Nepal (NFDN), in partnership with CBM, carried out accessibility audit of 150 public infrastructures as a model initiative. This included government buildings, public parks and open spaces, roads and streets, corporate sectors, commercial sectors and other infrastructures within Kathmandu valley and identified the remedial actions needed to make these sectors accessible for all including Persons with disabilities. To achieve this, a set of comprehensive audit tools and checklists were developed. The Kathmandu district, Lalitpur District and Bhaktapur District were assessed.
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