Health systems’ analysis is not an exact science in the sense that it is not a case of calculating an indicator and comparing that to a target that is set in stone. Instead, the analysis rests on describing elements of the existing system and critically assessing this on the basis of a clear understanding of health financing policy, the objectives associated with UHC, and relevant comparisons with and lessons from other countries. The paper attempts to provide guidance on how this can be done by highlighting the key issues that should be considered and some of the specific questions that should be addressed. It is not intended to provide a strict chapter-bychapter outline for a system assessment, but instead to foster and guide a systematic approach to the analysis of the health financing system. The health financing country diagnostic is written for Ministries of Health, advisors and others actors responsible for developing and implementing health financing policies, and provides step-by-step guidance on how to undertake a situation analysis of a country’s health financing system. Topics considered include: key contextual factors that influence health financing policy and attainment of policy goals; overview of health expenditure patterns; review of health financing arrangements; analysis UHC goals and intermediate objectives; and overall assessment - priorities for health financing reform.
Universal health coverage (UHC) for inclusive and sustainable development synthesises the experiences from 11 countries—Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam—in implementing policies and strategies to achieve and sustain UHC. These countries represent diverse geographic and economic conditions, but all have committed to UHC as a key national aspiration and are approaching it in different ways. The UHC policies for each country are examined around three common themes: (1) the political economy and policy process for adopting, achieving, and sustaining UHC; (2) health financing policies to enhance health coverage; and (3) human resources for health policies for achieving UHC. The path to UHC is specific to each country, but countries can benefit from experiences of others and avoid potential risks
Staff costs dominate health services expenditure and ongoing shortages in the availability of health professionals present a real and direct threat to the continued delivery and development of health care services. Incentives, both financial and non-financial, provide one tool that governments and other employer bodies can use to develop and sustain a workforce with the skills and experience to deliver the required care. Financial incentives (wages and conditions, performance-linked payments and others) and nonfinancial incentives (career and professional development, workload management, flexible working arrangements, positive working arrangements and access to benefits and supports) are both discussed. The characteristics of an effective incentive scheme and the development of an incentive package are described.
The purpose of this module is to set out a clear and rational model for assessing the needs of local populations for mental health care and for planning services accordingly. The module aims to provide countries with a set of planning and budgeting tools that can assist with the delivery of mental health services in local areas. It presents a pragmatic approach to service planning, making use of the best available information and taking account of the views of all relevant stakeholders
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