"Country case studies were conducted in Uganda and Malawi to document and analyse experiences and perspectives on childhood TB integration into other programmes at country level and related health system requirements. The aim was to inform the broader thinking about integration of childhood TB services. The Uganda case study identified and described different approaches to integration and unpacked the integration process. The perspective on TB integration of different relevant health actors at national and district level are described. The case study used a health systems approach and focused on the community and primary levels of the health system, paying attention to factors related to children of different ages in a lifecycle approach. The methodology for the case study included document review, consultations with key health actors at national and district level, a facility visit and a participatory workshop at national level. An analytical framework approach was used to investigate the extent of integration of childhood TB interventions in multiple dimensions. An assessment tool for the case studies was developed, summarising the assessment questions by theme, combining a number of existing tools and frameworks on health care integration in general and childhood TB and iCCM benchmarks"
Health systems’ analysis is not an exact science in the sense that it is not a case of calculating an indicator and comparing that to a target that is set in stone. Instead, the analysis rests on describing elements of the existing system and critically assessing this on the basis of a clear understanding of health financing policy, the objectives associated with UHC, and relevant comparisons with and lessons from other countries. The paper attempts to provide guidance on how this can be done by highlighting the key issues that should be considered and some of the specific questions that should be addressed. It is not intended to provide a strict chapter-bychapter outline for a system assessment, but instead to foster and guide a systematic approach to the analysis of the health financing system. The health financing country diagnostic is written for Ministries of Health, advisors and others actors responsible for developing and implementing health financing policies, and provides step-by-step guidance on how to undertake a situation analysis of a country’s health financing system. Topics considered include: key contextual factors that influence health financing policy and attainment of policy goals; overview of health expenditure patterns; review of health financing arrangements; analysis UHC goals and intermediate objectives; and overall assessment - priorities for health financing reform.
This article analyses States' obligations with respect to rehabilitation of health under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Based on internationally accepted standards of human rights law interpretation and drawing extensively on current literature from the field of global health policy, the authors identify the range of governments legal obligations regarding health related rehabilitation across several key human right commitment areas, such as equality and nondiscrimination; progressive realization; international cooperation; participation in policymaking processes; the accessibility, availability, acceptability, and quality of rehabilitation services; privacy and confidentiality; and informed decision making and accountability.To support effective implementation of the Convention, governments need to focus their efforts on all these areas and devise appropriate measures to monitor compliance with human rights principles and standards in rehabilitation policy, service delivery, and organization. This study lays the foundations for a rights-based approach to rehabilitation offering a framework that may assist in the evaluation of national rehabilitation strategies, the development of appropriate indicators and the identification of gaps in the implementation of the Convention
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 96, Issue 1
Universal health coverage (UHC) for inclusive and sustainable development synthesises the experiences from 11 countries—Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam—in implementing policies and strategies to achieve and sustain UHC. These countries represent diverse geographic and economic conditions, but all have committed to UHC as a key national aspiration and are approaching it in different ways. The UHC policies for each country are examined around three common themes: (1) the political economy and policy process for adopting, achieving, and sustaining UHC; (2) health financing policies to enhance health coverage; and (3) human resources for health policies for achieving UHC. The path to UHC is specific to each country, but countries can benefit from experiences of others and avoid potential risks
This is a collection of articles on research, policy initiatives and case studies on the theme of access to services based upon exchanges during a seminar on access to services in Amman in December 2009. It was written by Handicap International staff, field partners and international experts. There are three sections: key concepts and references on access to services; challenging environments; and innovation to improve access. This resource would be useful for practitioners and policy makers interested in access to services for people with disabilities.
In 2005, the Member States of WHO adopted a resolution encouraging countries to develop health financing systems capable of achieving and/or maintaining universal coverage of health services – where all people have access to needed health services without the risk of severe financial consequences. In doing this, a major challenge for many countries will be to move away from out-of-pocket payments, which are often used as an important source of fund collection. Prepayment methods will need to be developed or expanded but, in addition to questions of revenue collection, specific attention will also have to be paid to pooling funds to spread risks and to enable their efficient and equitable use. Developing prepayment mechanisms may take time, depending on countries’ economic, social and political contexts. Specific rules for health financing policy will need to be developed and implementing organizations will need to be tailored to the level that countries can support and sustain. In this paper we propose a comprehensive framework focusing on health financing rules and organizations that can be used to support countries in developing their health financing systems in the search for universal coverage.
Staff costs dominate health services expenditure and ongoing shortages in the availability of health professionals present a real and direct threat to the continued delivery and development of health care services. Incentives, both financial and non-financial, provide one tool that governments and other employer bodies can use to develop and sustain a workforce with the skills and experience to deliver the required care. Financial incentives (wages and conditions, performance-linked payments and others) and nonfinancial incentives (career and professional development, workload management, flexible working arrangements, positive working arrangements and access to benefits and supports) are both discussed. The characteristics of an effective incentive scheme and the development of an incentive package are described.
This report looks at the challenges, policy implications and future potential of e-health. Includes brief regional profiles with essential country statistics. The report stresses that advances in ICT applications to health service delivery requires effort and commitment in six key areas: infrastructure, technology and tools, education and training, policy and standards, evaluation, and leadership
This paper reviews a model of health care delivery for the poorest, developed in Kenya. "It illustrates that a pro-poor health system can be developed if the true representatives of the poorest are enabled to participate in health care delivery, and good governance and proper systems are established...With the active involvement of the community in a mutually supportive manner, the utilisation of services and access to basic health care for the poorest can be improved"
This is a comprehensive, authoritative and independent review of the South African health system. It is published annually and the theme of this year's edition is the restructuring of the health care system: progress to date. It is made up of 21 chapters grouped into four themes: framework for transformation, human resources, priority programmes and support systems. The review acts as a barometer for assessing the transformation processes and their impact on provision of equitable health care to all in South Africa
This article describes the challenges of providing landmine victims and other disabled persons in developing countries with the support and services they need to recover. The author explains that a holistic approach to rehabilitative care is necessary and applies this principle to community-based rehabilitation
This is a comprehensive, authoritative and independent review of the South African health system. It is published annually and this year's edition is is made up of 17 chapters grouped into four themes: listening to voices, equity, information for health, accountability and transformation. The review acts as a barometer for assessing the transformation processes and their impact on provision of equitable health care to all in South Africa
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion