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Strengthening mental health system governance in six low- and middle-income countries in Africa and South Asia: challenges, needs and potential strategies

PETERSEN, Inge
et al
February 2017

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The aim of this study was to identify key governance issues that need to be addressed to facilitate the integration of mental health services into general health care in the six participating "Emerald" countries (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda).  The study adopted a descriptive qualitative approach, using framework analysis. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a range of key informants, to ensure views were elicited on all the governance issues within the expanded framework. Key informants across the six countries included policy makers at the national level in the Department/Ministry of Health; provincial coordinators and planners in primary health care and mental health; and district-level managers of primary and mental health care services. A total of 141 key informants were interviewed across the six countries. Data were transcribed (and where necessary, translated into English) and analysed thematically using framework analysis, first at the country level, then synthesised at a cross-country level.

Integration of childhood tuberculosis into maternal and child health, HIV and nutrition services: A case study from Uganda

VERKUIJL, Sabine
et al
September 2016

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"Country case studies were conducted in Uganda and Malawi to document and analyse experiences and perspectives on childhood TB integration into other programmes at country level and related health system requirements. The aim was to inform the broader thinking about integration of childhood TB services. The Uganda case study identified and described different approaches to integration and unpacked the integration process. The perspective on TB integration of different relevant health actors at national and district level are described. The case study used a health systems approach and focused on the community and primary levels of the health system, paying attention to factors related to children of different ages in a lifecycle approach. The methodology for the case study included document review, consultations with key health actors at national and district level, a facility visit and a participatory workshop at national level. An analytical framework approach was used to investigate the extent of integration of childhood TB interventions in multiple dimensions. An assessment tool for the case studies was developed, summarising the assessment questions by theme, combining a number of existing tools and frameworks on health care integration in general and childhood TB and iCCM benchmarks"

Integration of childhood TB into maternal and child health, HIV and nutrition services. A case study from Malawi.

VERKUIJL, Sabine
et al
September 2016

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"Country case studies were conducted in Uganda and Malawi in order to document and analyse experiences and perspectives on childhood TB integration into other programmes at country level and related health system requirements. The aim was to inform the broader thinking about integration of childhood TB services. The Malawi case study identified and described different approaches to integration and unpacked the integration process. The perspective on TB integration of different relevant health actors at national and district level are described. The case study used a health systems approach and focused on the community and primary levels of the health system, paying attention to factors related to children of different ages in a lifecycle approach. The method for the case study included document review, consultations with key health actors at national and district level, a facility visit and a participatory workshop at national level. An analytical framework approach was used to investigate the extent of integration of childhood TB interventions in multiple dimensions. An assessment tool for the case studies was developed, summarising the assessment questions by theme, combining a number of existing tools and frameworks on health care integration in general and childhood TB and benchmarks for integrated community case management (iCCM)"

Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030. DRAFT for the 69th World Health Assembly

World Health Organisation (WHO)
May 2016

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This report was presented to Member States at the World Health Assembly in May 2016 and is to be read in conjunction with A69/38: Draft global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030. Report by the Secretariat. The vision of this work and report is to "Accelerate progress towards universal health coverage and the UN Sustainable Development Goals by ensuring equitable access to health workers within strengthened health systems". Objectives are "To optimise performance, quality and impact of the health workforce through evidence-informed policies on human resources for health, contributing to healthy lives and well-being, effective universal health coverage, resilience and strengthened health systems at all levels",  "To align investment in human resources for health with the current and future needs of the population and of health systems, taking account of labour market dynamics and education policies; to address shortages and improve distribution of health workers, so as to enable maximum improvements in health outcomes, social welfare, employment creation and economic growth", "To build the capacity of institutions at sub-national, national, regional and global levels for effective public policy stewardship, leadership and governance of actions on human resources for health" and "to strengthen data on human resources for health, for monitoring and ensuring accountability for the implementation of national and regional strategies, and the global strategy".  Global milestones by 2020 and 2030, policy options of Member States, responsibilities of the WHO Secretariat and recommendations to other stakeholders and international partners are discussed for each objective.

 

Universal health coverage for inclusive and sustainable development. A synthesis of 11 country case studies.

MAEDA, Akiko
ARAUJO, Edson
CASHIN, Cheryl
HARRIS, Joseph
IKEGAMI, Naoki
REICH, Michael R.
et al
2014

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Universal health coverage (UHC) for inclusive and sustainable development synthesises the experiences from 11 countries—Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam—in implementing policies and strategies to achieve and sustain UHC. These countries represent diverse geographic and economic conditions, but all have committed to UHC as a key national aspiration and are approaching it in different ways. The UHC policies for each country are examined around three common themes: (1) the political economy and policy process for adopting, achieving, and sustaining UHC; (2) health financing policies to enhance health coverage; and (3) human resources for health policies for achieving UHC. The path to UHC is specific to each country, but countries can benefit from experiences of others and avoid potential risks

Universal coverage of health services: tailoring its implementation

CARRIN, Guy
MATHAUER, Inke
XU, Ke
EVANS, David
2008

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In 2005, the Member States of WHO adopted a resolution encouraging countries to develop health financing systems capable of achieving and/or maintaining universal coverage of health services – where all people have access to needed health services without the risk of severe financial consequences. In doing this, a major challenge for many countries will be to move away from out-of-pocket payments, which are often used as an important source of fund collection. Prepayment methods will need to be developed or expanded but, in addition to questions of revenue collection, specific attention will also have to be paid to pooling funds to spread risks and to enable their efficient and equitable use. Developing prepayment mechanisms may take time, depending on countries’ economic, social and political contexts. Specific rules for health financing policy will need to be developed and implementing organizations will need to be tailored to the level that countries can support and sustain. In this paper we propose a comprehensive framework focusing on health financing rules and organizations that can be used to support countries in developing their health financing systems in the search for universal coverage.

Planning and budgeting to deliver services for mental health : mental health policy and service guidance package

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2003

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The purpose of this module is to set out a clear and rational model for assessing the needs of local populations for mental health care and for planning services accordingly. The module aims to provide countries with a set of planning and budgeting tools that can assist with the delivery of mental health services in local areas. It presents a pragmatic approach to service planning, making use of the best available information and taking account of the views of all relevant stakeholders

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