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10 health questions about the Caucasus and Central Asia


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This book highlights the essentials of health and health systems in eight countries in the region. It then compares these national data with the average data for three groups - their own, the 15 countries that were members of the European Union (EU) before 1 May 2004 and the 27 current EU Member States. Each chapter provides a concise overview of key health indicators in one of the eight countries, summarises the key features of the country's health system and describes the results of over a decade of health system reform

Study on social and health services general interest in the European Union

HUBER, Manfred
MAUCHER, Mathias
SAK, Barbara
June 2008

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This study seeks to improve the knowledge of both health operators and the European Commission of the situation of social and health services in the European Union. The aim is to improve the application and impact of Community rules on the development of these services. The European Commission will use this report to establish a monitoring and dialogue tool in the form of biennial reports

Evidence-based planning for sustainability of government reproductive health services

NEALE, Palena
HUE, Le Ngoc
KUDRATI, Mustafa
June 2008

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This training manual is to help prepare local government health teams to use evidence-based methods to develop long-term plans to strengthen their Reproductive Health programmes and to actively involve participants in the learning process. There is an insistence on the systematic use of local and national data, statistics, and policies to develop an appropriate response; and a recognition that because local governments in most countries develop plans in the context of competing priorities for a limited budget, plans are only as good as the local government health department’s ability to defend them

World health report 2008|Primary health care : now more than ever


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This report considers four sets of reforms that reflect a convergence between the values of primary health care, the expectations of citizens and the common health performance challenges that cut across all contexts. These include: universal coverage reforms, service delivery reforms, public policy reforms, and leadership reforms. "While universally applicable, these reforms do not constitute a blueprint or a manifesto for action. The details required to give them life in each country must be driven by specific conditions and contexts, drawing on the best available evidence"

Safeguarding the health sector in times of macroeconomic instability : policy lessons for low- and middle-income countries

NARAYANA, Delampady

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This publication presents the results of an international initiative to document the effects of how health systems in the developing world have responded to macroeconomic austerity and adjustment measures. Are these systems flexible and resilient to changes or are they rigid? In which circumstances and under which conditions do health systems respond favourably or unfavourably? What are the success stories? Country studies from Burkina Faso, Zimbabwe, India, Thailand, Mexico, and Colombia discuss lessons learned and identify policy measures for safeguarding the health sector

Informal pay and the quality of health care : lessons from Tanzania

September 2007

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This brief draws on a qualitative study among health workers in Tanzania to describe the nature of informal payments that are taking place in the health sector, and their potential impacts on access to and the quality of health care. Particular attention is devoted to the policy implications

Empowering civil society

June 2007

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This booklet looks at the role of civil society organisations (CSOs) in global health financing processes. It describes the strengths of these organisations as well as the challenges they are facing at the national and local level. The section also identifies technical support available to help civil society organisations act and participate effectively in the structures and processes of global financing

Developing human resources for health

June 2007

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This booklet ..."describes the dire shortage of human resources (HR) in the health systems of low and middle income countries and the special challenges posed by this crisis. It touches on ways of addressing shortages of qualified staff and gives several examples of how countries can use technical support to build stronger a health workforce"

Corruption in the health sector


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This resource presents some essential resources for anyone promoting anti-corruption in the health sector, or otherwise wanting to learn about the challenges of corruption in the health sector. It is a document-version of the web-based U4 Theme pages on corruption in the health sector

Strenthening service accountability and community participation in health sector reforms

MURTHY, Ranjani K
July 2005

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This policy brief focuses on the need for community participation in the design of policies, legislation and the allocation of budgets as well as the more expected areas of health programme management and service delivery. It is based on a review of community participation and sexual and reproductive health service accountability in World Bank-supported health sector reforms in Africa, Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean

Human resources for health : overcoming the crisis


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This report identifies strategies to strengthen the workforce of health systems. The Joint Learning Initiative was launched because many people believed that the most critical factor driving health system performance, the health worker, was neglected and overlooked

Health care systems in transition : Estonia

JESSE, Maris

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"The Health Care Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide an analytical description of a health care system and of reform initiatives in progress or under development. The HiTs are a key element of the work of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. HiTs seek to provide relevant comparative information to support policy-makers and analysts in the development of health care systems in Europe." Contents: 1. Introduction and historical background 2. Organizational structure and management 3. Health care financing and expenditure 4. Health care delivery system 5. Financial resource allocation 6. Health care reforms

Accountability and health systems : overview, framework and strategies

January 2003

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This paper lays the groundwork for investigating accountability as it relates to health systems reform. It reviews and synthesises the literature on accountability, noting areas of convergence and of ongoing debate, and looks at an analytic framework for accountability and health service delivery systems, the role of health sector actors in accountability, and accountability-strengthening strategies

Health and human rights readers

SHUFTAN, Claudio

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A compilation of a series of electronic bulletins on health and human rights issues. Calls for a politicised NGO sector and an empowered people's movement to redress the 'charity' model of development and move to an authentically rights-based approach

Corruption and the health sector

VIAN, Taryn
November 2002

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This paper describes important areas of vulnerability to corruption within the health sector and identifies approaches for prevention. Two areas of special focus include the supply of drugs and medical equipment, and informal economic activities of health providers

Programa de acción : e-Salud. Telemedicina


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The document describes the programme e-Salud, one of the components of the National Program of Health 2001-2006 of the Mexican Government. It details its objectives, main strategies, action points and the system of evaluation of the results. The programme aims to improve communication on health in Mexico (among the health system, health personnel and citizens). It also looks to strengthen health institutions, to build the capacity of the population to take responsibility for their health care and healthcare seeking, to extend choice in services, to protect against catastrophic medical expenses and to participate in the definition of the health national agenda, as well as to have mechanisms to respond to suggestions and demands. A diagnosis is made of the situation of health in Mexico, as well as of ICT initiatives in health carried out to extend health service coverage, especially to the poorest and marginalized sectors of the population, to facilitate the exchange of information in health sector, to support the promotion and protection of the health, and to carry out distance training for health personnel

Too poor to be sick : coping with the costs of illness in East Hararghe, Ethiopia


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Examines the effects of a decade of health sector reforms in Ethiopia. Identifies the high cost of drugs as the major barrier to healthcare for the vast majority. Findings include the fact that most people do not use the public healthcare system, largely due to drug shortages, which mean people buy drugs from private pharmacies. The potential of 'Special Phramacies' however, has been overstated, since they exclude the majority, contributing to a two-tier health system. Exemption mechanisms are weak or not working in most places, so do not protect the poor. Roughly one-third of households sacrifice other essential spending to seek treatment, contributing to further indebtedness. Recommendations include: the need to increase levels of public funding of the health sector (Ethiopia would have to spend 100-133 per cent of its total budget to meet World Bank and WHO minimum health funding targets). Invest more heavily in alternative sources of funding through a range of risk pooling and health insurance initiatives - particularly look at the feasibility of community health insurance schemes, possibly linked to local savings societies. Strengthen equity priorities within a national user fee policy, with a priority to strengthen exemption systems or differential charging, perhaps using livelihood based assessments of ability to pay



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