The aim of this study was to identify key governance issues that need to be addressed to facilitate the integration of mental health services into general health care in the six participating "Emerald" countries (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda). The study adopted a descriptive qualitative approach, using framework analysis. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a range of key informants, to ensure views were elicited on all the governance issues within the expanded framework. Key informants across the six countries included policy makers at the national level in the Department/Ministry of Health; provincial coordinators and planners in primary health care and mental health; and district-level managers of primary and mental health care services. A total of 141 key informants were interviewed across the six countries. Data were transcribed (and where necessary, translated into English) and analysed thematically using framework analysis, first at the country level, then synthesised at a cross-country level.
This document provides evidence-based, expert-informed recommendations and good practice statements to support health systems and stakeholders in strengthening and extending high-quality rehabilitation services so that they can better respond to the needs of populations. The recommendations are intended for government leaders and health policy-makers and are also relevant for sectors such as workforce and training. The recommendations and good practice statements may also be useful for people involved in rehabilitation research, service delivery, financing and assistive products, including professional organisations, academic institutions, civil society and nongovernmental and international organisations. The recommendations focus solely on rehabilitation in the context of health systems. They address the elements of service delivery and financing specifically. The recommendations were developed according to standard WHO procedures, detailed in the WHO handbook for guideline development
"Country case studies were conducted in Uganda and Malawi to document and analyse experiences and perspectives on childhood TB integration into other programmes at country level and related health system requirements. The aim was to inform the broader thinking about integration of childhood TB services. The Uganda case study identified and described different approaches to integration and unpacked the integration process. The perspective on TB integration of different relevant health actors at national and district level are described. The case study used a health systems approach and focused on the community and primary levels of the health system, paying attention to factors related to children of different ages in a lifecycle approach. The methodology for the case study included document review, consultations with key health actors at national and district level, a facility visit and a participatory workshop at national level. An analytical framework approach was used to investigate the extent of integration of childhood TB interventions in multiple dimensions. An assessment tool for the case studies was developed, summarising the assessment questions by theme, combining a number of existing tools and frameworks on health care integration in general and childhood TB and iCCM benchmarks"
"Country case studies were conducted in Uganda and Malawi in order to document and analyse experiences and perspectives on childhood TB integration into other programmes at country level and related health system requirements. The aim was to inform the broader thinking about integration of childhood TB services. The Malawi case study identified and described different approaches to integration and unpacked the integration process. The perspective on TB integration of different relevant health actors at national and district level are described. The case study used a health systems approach and focused on the community and primary levels of the health system, paying attention to factors related to children of different ages in a lifecycle approach. The method for the case study included document review, consultations with key health actors at national and district level, a facility visit and a participatory workshop at national level. An analytical framework approach was used to investigate the extent of integration of childhood TB interventions in multiple dimensions. An assessment tool for the case studies was developed, summarising the assessment questions by theme, combining a number of existing tools and frameworks on health care integration in general and childhood TB and benchmarks for integrated community case management (iCCM)"
A self-learning e-learning course on health financing for universal health coverage is available. It is a foundation course which targets participants of various levels of experience and expertise. The modules are: overview; revenue raising; pooling revenues; purchasing; benefit package design; and summary.
This report was presented to Member States at the World Health Assembly in May 2016 and is to be read in conjunction with A69/38: Draft global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030. Report by the Secretariat. The vision of this work and report is to "Accelerate progress towards universal health coverage and the UN Sustainable Development Goals by ensuring equitable access to health workers within strengthened health systems". Objectives are "To optimise performance, quality and impact of the health workforce through evidence-informed policies on human resources for health, contributing to healthy lives and well-being, effective universal health coverage, resilience and strengthened health systems at all levels", "To align investment in human resources for health with the current and future needs of the population and of health systems, taking account of labour market dynamics and education policies; to address shortages and improve distribution of health workers, so as to enable maximum improvements in health outcomes, social welfare, employment creation and economic growth", "To build the capacity of institutions at sub-national, national, regional and global levels for effective public policy stewardship, leadership and governance of actions on human resources for health" and "to strengthen data on human resources for health, for monitoring and ensuring accountability for the implementation of national and regional strategies, and the global strategy". Global milestones by 2020 and 2030, policy options of Member States, responsibilities of the WHO Secretariat and recommendations to other stakeholders and international partners are discussed for each objective.
"This report takes stock of the main public financing for health trends over the past fifteen years in the African region, and highlights opportunities for accelerated progress toward universal health coverage (UHC) based on better-informed budget planning and utilization decisions. The report presents new evidence on the critical role played by domestic public financial management systems on the level, effectiveness and quality of public spending on health in Africa. It argues that these systems should be reconsidered if countries are to move towards UHC. Country experience in reforming public finance systems to support progress towards UHC indicates that success depends on more than simply increasing the level of public budgets. Rather, it requires appropriately targeted health budget allocations, complete execution of health’s public budgets, and improved efficiency in the use of public resources for health.
The report is composed of three sections. The first section is articulated around three policy highlights: aligning budget resources and health priorities; closing the gap between health budget allocation and expenditure; and maximizing UHC performance with the money available. Section 2 is dedicated to providing detailed health financing information on countries, and includes 48 country profiles focused on key health financing trends. The last section includes information on progress towards the development of health financing strategies in the region, as well as regional and country benchmarks on key health financing indicators"
The analytical and policy challenges that face health systems in seeking to allocate resources efficiently and fairly are discussed. A critical appraisal framework is employed, which is useful both to researchers conducting studies and to decision-makers assessing them. Practical examples are provided throughout to aid learning and understanding. A key part of evidence-based decision making is the analysis of all the relevant evidence to make informed decisions and policy.
This paper is a thematic 10-year literature review of the impact of community based rehabilitation. “The review covered the period from 2002 to 2012, and the CBR Matrix was utilised to provide structure for the evidence. Seven studies that investigated the impact of CBR interventions in developing countries were included. A modified harvest plot was used to summarise the strength and nature of evidence provided in relation to the CBR Matrix. Quantitative studies tended to focus on the Health domain, while qualitative studies generally focused on the Social and Empowerment domains. No evidence of CBR impact was found in the Education domain, and very little evidence was found pertaining to Livelihood. Overall, the evidence base related to the impact of CBR remains limited, both in terms of quantity and robustness of design”
Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development (DCID), Vol 26, No 2
The WHO global disability action plan 2014-2021 is a significant step towards achieving health and well-being and human rights for people with disabilities. The action plan was endorsed by WHO Member States in 2014 and calls for them to remove barriers and improve access to health services and programmes; strengthen and extend rehabilitation, assistive devices and support services, and community-based rehabilitation; and enhance collection of relevant and internationally comparable data on disability, and research on disability and related services. Achieving the objectives of the action plan better enables people with disabilities to fulfil their aspirations in all aspects of life.
Universal health coverage (UHC) for inclusive and sustainable development synthesises the experiences from 11 countries—Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam—in implementing policies and strategies to achieve and sustain UHC. These countries represent diverse geographic and economic conditions, but all have committed to UHC as a key national aspiration and are approaching it in different ways. The UHC policies for each country are examined around three common themes: (1) the political economy and policy process for adopting, achieving, and sustaining UHC; (2) health financing policies to enhance health coverage; and (3) human resources for health policies for achieving UHC. The path to UHC is specific to each country, but countries can benefit from experiences of others and avoid potential risks
This paper reports on the implementation and the results of a earthquake disability project in Pakistan that aimed to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities and their families in areas affected by the October 8, 2005 earthquake, by ensuring better mobility, improved physical and mental health, increased participation in social and economic life and strengthened empowerment. This study was designed to assess the key factors affecting the implementation and outcomes of this project, the outcomes, the risk to development outcome as well as the bank and borrower performance
Report No ICR00001584
This article puts forward the argument that evidence for better health outcomes involves a two-step process: getting the right sort of evidence - evidence that is convincing and is for low- and middle-income countries - and getting this evidence used - through access to reliable evidence (such as the Cochrane Library) to getting evidence into policy and practice
In this video two Ugandan nurses speak of what inspired them to take up nursing and how much they enjoy it, but also the challenges they face in terms of staff shortages and conditions. The video also highlights how the Ministry of Health and the Uganda Nurses and Midwives Council, based in Kampala, are using data to support the country's health workers and improve health care in the districts
This brief reviews how the Capacity Project addressed gender discrimination and inequality in human resources for health (HRH) through its institutional mechanisms, approaches and tools as well as in country-level implementation. The public health workforce in developing countries is predominantly female. Addressing gender discrimination and inequality in human resources for health (HRH) policy and planning, workforce development and workplace support is essential in tackling the complex challenges of improving access to services, by positively influencing HRH recruitment, retention and productivity
This report, produced by the Lancet and University College London Institute for Global Health Commission, focuses on managing the health effects of climate change. It says that climate change is the biggest global-health threat of the 21st century. The commission reviewed the likely health impacts of climate change on human societies - and documented ways to reverse those impacts. It concluded that there is a need for policymakers, practitioners and the public to act urgently on the human health effects of climate change
"There is a lack of evidence to inform policy development on the reasons why health professionals migrate. Few studies have sought to empirically determine factors influencing the intention to migrate and none have explored the relationship between factors. This paper reports on the first international attempt to investigate the migration intentions of pharmacy students and identify migration factors and their relationships"
Healthy public policy is an explicit concern for health promotion and development and requires the commitment of a number of partners from different sectors. This conference reviewed the evidence and examined concrete examples of the health impacts that stem from public policies in non-health sectors. It also sought discussion and agreement on tangible policy recommendations on establishing, strengthening, and sustaining mechanisms in mainstreaming health into all public policies at all levels
"Without access to and appropriate use of quality medicines, health systems lose their ability to meet health care needs. The pharmacy workforce crisis threatens the ability of many countries to deliver health services, however little information or studies have been published in this area. The International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) has sought to address this crisis by gathering global baseline data on pharmacy workforce and developing evidence-based background papers to serve as an advocacy tool at country, regional and global levels"
This was a key note speech summarises the World Health Organization (WHO) Executive Board's resolutions on social determinants of health and primary health care based health systems. There are six general themes: values; measurement and monitoring; walking the talk in the health care sector; beyond the health care sector; the global frontier; and leadership and leadership capacity. The speech written and delivered by the Assistant Director General of WHO
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion