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Human resources for health : overcoming the crisis

JOINT LEARNING INITIATIVE
2004

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This report identifies strategies to strengthen the workforce of health systems. The Joint Learning Initiative was launched because many people believed that the most critical factor driving health system performance, the health worker, was neglected and overlooked

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in adults : a guide for trainers

HORIZONS. Population Council
2004

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Successful HIV therapy requires 95% adherence. As antiretrovirals are becoming more widely available and an increasing number of ARV programmes are launched in developing countries, HIV patients need to be helped to strictly follow a treatment plan. This manual, one of the first adherence training tools developed in Africa, has been designed for health professionals in the province of Mombasa, but can be adapted to other contexts. It consists of four modules, each including Power Point presentations, suggested activities and additional informative material. Module 1 provides basic information on adherence, highlighting the consequences of non-adherence. Module 2 deals with all aspects of patient preparation for adherence and module 3 aims to provide trainees with specific skills in preparatory counseling for patients prior initiating ARV treatment. Finally, module 4 is designed to help health care providers assist patients during treatment

Health care systems in transition : Estonia

JESSE, Maris
EUROPEAN OBSERVATORY ON HEALTH SYSTEMS AND POLICIES
2004

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"The Health Care Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide an analytical description of a health care system and of reform initiatives in progress or under development. The HiTs are a key element of the work of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. HiTs seek to provide relevant comparative information to support policy-makers and analysts in the development of health care systems in Europe." Contents: 1. Introduction and historical background 2. Organizational structure and management 3. Health care financing and expenditure 4. Health care delivery system 5. Financial resource allocation 6. Health care reforms

Knowledge and utilization of information technology among health care professionals and students in Ile-Ife, Nigeria : a case study of a university teaching hospital

BELLO, I S
et al
2004

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The study was designed to assess the knowledge and utilization pattern of information technology among health care professionals and medical students in a university teaching hospital in Nigeria. Self-structured pretested questionnaires that probe into the knowledge, attitudes and utilization of computers and IT were administered to a randomly selected group of 180 health care professionals and medical students. Only 26% of the respondents possess a computer, and only a small percentage of the respondents demonstrated good knowledge of computers and IT

Making pregnancy safer : the critical role of the skilled attendant|a joint statement by WHO, ICM and FIGO

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO), DEPARTEMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND RESEARCH
INTERNATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF MIDWIVES (ICM)
INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS (FIGO)
2004

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This statement advocates for skilled care during pregnancy, childbirth and the immediate postnatal period. The statement defines clearly who is a skilled attendant, what skills she/he should have and how she/he should be trained and supported

Accountability and health systems : overview, framework and strategies

BRINKERHOFF, Derick
January 2003

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This paper lays the groundwork for investigating accountability as it relates to health systems reform. It reviews and synthesises the literature on accountability, noting areas of convergence and of ongoing debate, and looks at an analytic framework for accountability and health service delivery systems, the role of health sector actors in accountability, and accountability-strengthening strategies

South African health review 2002

Health Systems Trust (HST)
2003

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This is a comprehensive, authoritative and independent review of the South African health system. It is published annually and the theme of this year's edition is the restructuring of the health care system: progress to date. It is made up of 21 chapters grouped into four themes: framework for transformation, human resources, priority programmes and support systems. The review acts as a barometer for assessing the transformation processes and their impact on provision of equitable health care to all in South Africa

Corruption and the health sector

VIAN, Taryn
November 2002

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This paper describes important areas of vulnerability to corruption within the health sector and identifies approaches for prevention. Two areas of special focus include the supply of drugs and medical equipment, and informal economic activities of health providers

Improving transparency in pharmaceutical systems : strengthening critical decision points against corruption

COHEN, Jillian Clare
CERCONE,James A.
MACAYA, Roman
October 2002

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This is a diagnostic framework and methodology to evaluate a pharmaceutical system’s vulnerability to corruption and to determine which corrupt practices can have a major impact on the system’s ultimate efficiency. While developed in the context of the health systems of Latin America and the Caribbean (and implemented in a pilot study in Costa Rica), the methodology can be modified with ease so that it is applicable to other regions

South African health review 2001

HEALTH SYSTEMS TRUST (HST)
March 2002

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This is a comprehensive, authoritative and independent review of the South African health system. It is published annually and this year's edition is is made up of 17 chapters grouped into four themes: listening to voices, equity, information for health, accountability and transformation. The review acts as a barometer for assessing the transformation processes and their impact on provision of equitable health care to all in South Africa

When staff is underpaid : dealing with the individual coping strategies of health personnel

LERBERGHE, Wim Van
et al
2002

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'Health sector workers respond to inadequate salaries and working conditions by developing various individual ‘‘coping strategies’’ - some, but not all, of which are of a predatory nature. The paper reviews what is known about these practices and their potential consequences (competition for time, brain drain and conflicts of interest)....[It] argues that...Governments will need to recognize the dimension of the phenomenon and systematically assess the consequences of policy initiatives on the situation and behaviour of the individuals that make up their workforce'

Official, unofficial and informal fees for health care

KILLINGSWORTH, James R.
2002

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This discussion note re-explores the distinction between official, unofficial and informal fees to health workers and argues that unofficial and informal fees should be separated from official and formal fees. In considering these points, examples from reports about China, Bangladesh, and Central Asia/East Europe and the former Soviet Union are summarised and analysed

Health worker motivation and health sector reform

BENNETT, Sara
MILLER FRANCO, Lynne
March 2001

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This primer aims to provide a conceptual framework to help policy makers anticipate and plan for the effects of health sector reform on health worker motivation; summarise selected country experiences of the impact of health sector reform upon health worker motivation; and set out a number of basic rules which policy makers should take into account when developing and implementing reform policies so as to promote worker motivation

Hepatitis B vaccine introduction : lessons learned in advocacy, communication, and training

WITTLETT, Scott
January 2001

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Hepatitis B is especially dangerous for infants, since they may carry the infection for the rest of their lives without knowing it. Chronic carriers can infect others and are at risk of serious liver disease in later life. However, the hepatitis B vaccine, if provided, helps protect infants against these problems. The vaccine's introduction to developing countries only began in the late 1980s, but many countries still cannot afford to administer the vaccine to all children. This paper summarises the lessons learned about effective advocacy with decision makers, communication with parents and caretakers, and training health staff regarding hepatitis B, gained from over ten years of experience introducing hepatitis B vaccine worldwide. It also includes the WHO 'aide-memoire' on hepatitis B

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