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World oral health report 2003 : continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century. The approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme

PETERSEN, Poul Erik
2003

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Chronic diseases and socio-environmental conditions are today's leading health problems. Rapidly changing diseases patterns are linked to changing lifestyles, which include diets rich in sugar, widespread use of tobacco and increased consumption of alcohol. In addition to socio-environmental conditions, oral health is highly related to the mentioned lifestyle factors which are common risks to most chronic diseases. Oral diseases qualify as major public health problems due to their high prevalence and incidence. As for all diseases the highest burden of oral diseases is on the disadvantaged and socially marginalised populations. Traditional treatment is extrememly costly and not feasible or possible to most low-income and middle-income countries. The WHO Global Strategy for the prevention and control of non-commincable diseases and the common risk factor approach is a new strategy to managing prevention and control of oral diseases. This document outlines the current oral health situation at the global level and the strategies and approaches for better oral health in the 21st century

Stories of love, pain and courage : AIDS orphans and memory boxes

DENIS, Philippe
MAKIWANE, Nokhaya
2003

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This article reports on a project by the Sinomlando Centre for Oral History, in which memory boxes were used with young children in South Africa who had recently lost a parent due to AIDS. The act of making memory boxes and talking about the memories to be stored within it creates a space for families and communities to talk about life, death and plans for the future. This communication creates a psychosocial support network for young children with the aim of promoting resiliency so that they may be better able to cope with their loss. The article includes a short methodology of how the results of the project were gathered and three detailed case studies

Memory box programme : training manual

DENIS, Philippe
MAFU, Sibongile
MAKIWANE, Nokhaya
2003

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This manual aims to give community workers and volunteers a basic understanding of the psycho-social needs of children in need and the basic skills in memory-box methodology

Quality assurance resource pack for voluntary counselling and testing service providers

LIVERPOOL VCT (LVCT)
CARE KENYA
2003

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This resource pack is a helpful tool aimed at services, organisations and health professionals involved in the voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) centres in Kenya. VCT services offer HIV testing to asymptomatic individuals, and pre- and post-testing counselling. Compliance with quality requirements in the provision of the service is crucial to the achievement of the objectives. The National Guidelines for VCT set minimum standards for the registration and accreditation of sites and the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine has devised a comprehensive quality assurance system to accompany the upscaling of the VCT programme, with an emphasis on individual and community involvement. This resource outlines the lessons learned in the implementation of quality assurance in VCT, and includes useful training materials and tools such as self-assessment and service supervision survey forms for the monitoring and evaluation of service delivery quality

Guidelines for HIV/AIDS interventions in emergency settings

INTER-AGENCY STANDING COMMITTEE (IASC)
2003

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This document highlights the complex interaction between the HIV and AIDS epidemic and emergency situations, and calls for an integrated response during humanitarian crises. It focuses on the early phase of an emergency and topics covered include: prevention and preparedness; responding to sexual violence and exploitation; food aid and distribution; safe blood supply; condom supply and usage; women, children, orphans and refugees; post exposure prophylaxis; workplace issues; stigma and discrimination. These guidelines were designed for use by authorities, personnel and organisations operating in emergency settings

Cross-generational and transactional sexual relations in sub-Saharan Africa : prevalance of behaviour and implications for negotiating safer sexual practices

LUKE, Nancy
KURZ, Kathleen
September 2002

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This paper is a literature and evidence survey of cross-generational and transactional sex in Africa. It examines the age and economic asymmetries in sexual relationships in an African context, prevalence of cross-generational and transactional sexual relationships, adolescent girls' and men's motivations and adolescent girls' negotiating power in relationships. It comes to the conclusion that adolescent girls have power when negotiating the start and end of relationships and they are strongly motivated to enter into cross-generational relationships for the material benefits and status that they bring. However, once they have entered the relaltionship the balance of power shifts to the man, especially in the context of gift-giving.
The paper also examines the evidence around cultural acceptance of cross-generational and transactional sexual relationships, violence and rape within the relationships, multiple relationships, and outcome of the relationships. The authors' recommendations are to: gather policy support for changing the social norm; mount programmatic responses; conduct research to investigate the success of programmatic responses, document the policy process, and fill other important information gaps

Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS : a conceptual framework and implementing principles

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ)
et al
June 2002

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This document explores the current understanding of mainstreaming, and examples of relevant experience. It provides a set of basic principles designed to enable those working at the different levels and aspects of HIV/AIDS policy and practice to begin using mainstreaming processes to expand and accelerate responses to HIV/AIDS

The role of education in promoting sexual and reproductive health

WARWICK, Ian
AGGLETON, Peter
June 2002

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This good practice guide explores the challenges facing practitioners and policy-makers in resource-constrained countries who are trying to develop educational initiatives aimed at promoting the sexual and reproductive health of young people. This resource sets out good practice guidelines for work in school settings, out-of-school contexts and in higher education. These guidelines are illustrated by examples of innovative practice from across the world

Children, HIV/AIDS and communication in South Africa : a literature review

FOX Susan
OYOSI Salome
PARKER Warren
May 2002

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This literature review covers key issues relating to children aged 3-12 and HIV/AIDS, including discrimination, grief, children's rights, and knowledge and understanding of HIV/AIDS. The impact on the child, family and community is discussed in detail, particularly in terms of the psycho-social impact of bereavement and how this impacts on the child at different stages in its development. Various community programmes within southern Africa are highlighted, which support children to develop life skills. The influence, role and practice of the media in working with and reaching children is addressed, and case studies of South African media projects such as Soul Buddyz and Takalani Sesame are provided

AIDSWEB : using ICT to fight HIV/AIDS

BLOOME, Anthony
May 2002

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This resource examines the AIDSWEB project, run by World Links and its project partners in secondary schools in Africa since early 2000, and its use of ICT to promote HIV/AIDS education and prevention activities. Early results from the project suggest that technology can play a complementary and useful role in helping combat the pandemic. The article also provides links to other recommended sites

HIV/AIDS : a resource for journalists

SOUL CITY INSTITUTE FOR HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION
et al
2002

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A consice handbook to help journalists cover HIV/AIDS in an effective and responsible manner. Provides South African-based contacts, websites and basic information on a wide range of HIV-related issues

Communication from a human rights perspective : responding to the HIV/AIDS pandemic in eastern and southern Africa : a working paper for use in HIV and AIDS programmes

FORD, Neil
ODALLO, Dan
CHORLTON, Rozanne
2002

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Describes the limitations of health education and behaviour change models, in the context of the HIV pandemic. Uses UNICEF's construct of communication as a right and a means to claiming other rights; and applies this to the triple-A (assessing, analyzing, acting) model of learning-by-doing, in which communication is integral at every stage. Argues that rights-holders must take charge of the change process, deciding what kind of change is wanted, in the context of their communities and social setting

Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS : looking beyond awareness

WILKINS, Marissa
VASANI, Dolar
2002

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The social and environmental circumstances that lead vulnerable people to have unprotected sex, exposing them to infections, have to be resolved through addressing the causes of poverty, gender discrimination, and the use of sex as a commodity. This book addresses the impact of HIV without prejudice, by taking a human rights stance. It is useful for trainers, programme planners, policy-makers and CBR programmes

Games for adolescent reproductive health : an international handbook

PROGRAM FOR APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY IN HEALTH (PATH)
2002

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This handbook outlines how games can be used to provide youth with information and skills about sex and sexuality to protect them from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, rape, and emotional and physical violence. It includes contributions from adolescent health experts around the world, including relevant theory, 45 games to play, card sets to photocopy and cut out, and tips on how to create your own games

Working with young men to promote sexual and reproductive health

RIVERS, Kim
AGGLETON, Peter
January 2002

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Gender is increasingly acknowledged to be central to understanding young people's experiences of sexual relationships and health. This good practice guide sets out: what we know about young men’s experience of sexual health (informed by research done in different regions across the world); different approaches to working with young men (illustrated by case studies of projects in Latin America, Africa and Asia). Policy-makers, practitioners and researchers working to promote young people's sexual health in resource-constrained settings will find this resource particularly useful

It is so real it is like it is happening to you : evaluation of Soul City Series 5 focusing on the distribution and use of booklets

SOUL CITY
2002

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"The main purpose of this evaluation was to assess the distribution and usage of the Soul City booklets, which provide further information about the messages incorporated in the TV and radio series, and are serialised in some of the major newspapers. A secondary purpose was to explore qualitatively the impact of the series on two issues: HIV/AIDS and rape."

Doing the wild thing : supporting an ordinary sexual life for people with intellectual disabilities

HAMILTON, Carol
2002

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For many people who are called disabled, having this label means to be excluded from the experience of 'an ordinary sexual life'. For those who are called intellectually disabled exclusion from experiences of any kind of positive sexual life is almost universal. This article explores how some people with intellectual disabilities have sought to open up pathways towards accessing experiences of sexual expression as a way to move forward towards being able to integrate a concept of sexuality into their lives. Two support workers are interviewed. Both are employed by a Human Services organization in Aotearoa, New Zealand, which provides long term support for people with intellectual disabilities. Their comments reveal that access to successful instances of sexual expression for people in this group are currently only available those who are articulate enough and persistent enough to keep trying until they succeed. Barriers to success are isolated and some wider issues surrounding what changes might positively affect this group are discussed.

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