This article explains why, in the face of increased funding for malaria programmes, the disease incidence shows little signs of abating. In sub-Saharan Africa nearly a million people die as a result of malaria. The article draws attention to the cultural, social and economic contexts in which communities deal with the consequences of malaria. Health systems, services and infrastructures are generally inadequate and fail to deliver proper care. Malaria can also be perceived as a mild illness and used to hide more stigmatising health problems. The paper advocates focusing on the 'normality' of malaria, and exploring the social and economic contexts that shape household and community responses to malaria
The impact of HIV on tribal populations has received little attention. Often living in remote areas, further isolated by language, tradition and endogamous marriage patters, members of such communities have been assumed to be at lower risk for HIV. However, there is growing awareness that tribal peoples are sometimes at considerable risk for HIV, as well as other sexually transmitted infections. Young people in such communities may be particularly vulnerable. Traditional practices may forbid discussion of sex at the same time as increasing exposure to outside influences bring new attitudes and expectations about sex and sexuality. Concerned about the implications of the HIV epidemic on tribal populations, a review was conducted of available data on the HIV epidemic within tribal groups. Based on findings from this review, we propose a largely unexplored avenue for reaching tribal populations: namely, the incorporation of the HIV and AIDS related messages into traditional coming of age ceremonies. Such an intervention however can be one component of a comprehensive approach to reaching these often hard-to-reach populations but it may be an especially effective way to reach young people within these communities.
The expansion of access to ART is significantly improving the lives of people living with HIV and the wellbeing of communities affected by the epidemic. However, stigmatization and discrimination and poor adherence threaten to weaken the full potential of drug treatment and medical care. This paper looks at the contribution that treatment education can make to maximise the impact of greater ART accessibility and improved care provision. It takes a wide-ranging approach to education, which should include treatment literacy, advocacy and community mobilisation. It takes the view that treatment preparedness can only be achieved through the full involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS. An effective strategy will also rely on inter-sectoral collaboration between governments, the education sector, civil society and development organizations. It argues that the success of interventions will depend on their gender-responsiveness, and in their ability to adopt participatory and interactive methods, targeting different groups and settings in a culturally sensitive manner
This issue reflects on how cultural and religious attitudes affect the sexual behaviour of young people and on the role they play in HIV incidence in the Asia-Pacific region. It also looks at good practices in this area. Includes two research briefs on the role of sex and HIV educational programmes for the youth and on knowledge and sexual behaviour of adolescent in Pune. Contains an interview with Halida Hanum Akhter, the recipient of the 2006 United Nations Population Award, which presents her insights into popular culture and reproductive health.
This report summarises a programme for marginalised youth that was implemented in one urban area (Kampala) and one rural area (Arua) of Uganda, with the ultimate goal of determining marketable livelihood skills while facilitating placement of marginalised youth in employment. By providing marginalised youth with new learning opportunities that nurture empowerment and socio-economic inclusion, the project contributed to breaking the cycle of marginalisation and vulnerabilities that impedes the development of out-of-schools youth. In this context, education on HIV and AIDS was an integral part of the project, which also involved the active participation of local artisans and employers during specific training and orientation sessions. 288 marginalised youth were placed in viable working situations. The process was effective in building self-esteem, equipping them to make informed decisions and resist negative peer pressure. Training methods revolved around three basic approaches: - learning by doing; - learning by producing, and - learning by earning
This is a report on a technical consultation on treatment education held in Paris November 22-23, 2005, which aimed to assess the current state of HIV treatment literacy and community preparedness, identify needs and recommend strategies for the future. The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and medical care relies on timely HIV testing and treatment adherence. Treatment education interventions addressing issues of stigma and complacency, have been shown to contribute to a wider uptake of testing services and to improve adherence to ART. The report calls for an integrated and synergetic collaboration between all stakeholders, including people with HIV, and for the adoption of a participatory, person-centred approach. It also acknowledges that while there is a wealth of initiatives aimed at improving community preparedness, there is also a need to scale up programmes that have shown to work. The report concludes with a number of key recommendations for future activities. Those include: providing support to partnership and inter-sectoral collaborations; integrating treatment education across HIV education programmes and health systems; differentiating and customising approaches according to settings and audiences; involving affected communities and individuals; monitoring and evaluating treatment education initiatives
"This manual is about how to protect children from sexual violence and sexual exploitation, specifically in disaster and emergency situations. It is not intended to be an academic report but instead is a practical guide that we hope will be of use to people working directly in the field. The aim is to provide fundamental information to assist personnel working in emergency situations in responding to protect children, in terms of what can be done before disaster strikes (which might be called ‘mitigation’ efforts), in the immediate aftermath (the ‘response’) and in the longer term reconstruction phase (sometimes called the ‘recovery’). We have also included recommended actions and key considerations to be taken into account in the event of sexual violence or sexual exploitation"
This article reports on work preparatory to the development of a programme focusing on the needs of people with visual impairments in South Africa regarding HIV prevention. Fifteen participants were interviewed, most of whom were in senior positions of organisations in the field of visual impairment and the majority of whom had a visual impairment themselves. Their responses support the view that more work is needed regarding HIV prevention for persons with visual impairments in South Africa. Social exclusion was viewed as an overarching risk factor. This article may be of interest to those working with people with visual impairments in Africa
This document contains guidelines on the use of language and content in HIV- and AIDS-related documents and contexts. As stigma and discrimination are often attached to the disease, the use of culturally-sensitive and appropriate terminology and ethical considerations in the production of materials are vital. Contains seven tables addressing commonly used terminology; stigmatising terms and expressions; culturally sensitive language; precision and differentiation of certain terms; cultural issues and practices; audio and visual content. Table 5 presents some specific examples. Each problematic term or approach is briefly discussed and provided with an alternative/preferred substitute. These guidelines are an essential tool for anyone working in the field of HIV and AIDS
This booklet is the first in a series of publications that addresses the role of education in tackling the spread of HIV, and looks in particular at UNESCO's work in this area. It provides an overview of how HIV and AIDS affect the demand for, supply and quality of education, and what policy and programming responses have been developed and need to be developed. The booklet is intended for policy makers, donors and NGOs but will also be useful to educational institutions and teachers working on HIV and AIDS
"The 'World Health Report 2006 - Working together for health' contains both an expert assessment of the current crisis in the global health workforce and an ambitious set of proposals to tackle it over the next ten years, starting immediately"
"This publication - produced by WHO and its partners - is designed to provide comprehensive practical advice to health care providers at all levels of the health care system on how to prevent, detect early, treat and palliate cervical cancer. In particular, the Guide seeks to ensure that health care providers at the primary and secondary levels will be empowered to use the best available knowledge in dealing with cervical cancer for the benefit of the whole community."
This manual was designed for individuals and organisations who want to learn more about disability and HIV and AIDS, and share this information with others. Each chapter follows the story, and dialogue between two disabled people actively learning about HIV and AIDS and their disabilities. Within the context of the characters, this guide provides extensive information on sexuality, HIV biology, prevention, testing and stigma. This resource would be useful for any one with an interest in approaches to disability, HIV and AIDS education and disability and development
TGPSH/TACAIDS produced this brochure for parents to explain the importance of education in reproductive health. Children have many questions about sexuality and the sources of their information may not be accurate, therefore reproductive health education should start early before young people become sexually active. The main aims of such education is to provide accurate information about sexuality, to help young people develop their own values and to help them develop responsible relationships and interpersonal skills. Information is provided on physical, emotional and social changes which happen to growing children. Schools can provide information and help to develop values at a time when children are open for guidance. Although reproductive health and sexuality are difficult topics for many parents, schools need support from parents too
This CD-ROM contains a resource collection of games, training manuals, workshop guides etc. for teachers, trainers and development workers who are working for and with girls. It includes interactive and participatory training guides and resources on rights, empowerment, violence against women and girls, HIV/AIDS, sexuality and reproductive health and leadership development
This factsheet considers the impact of HIV and AIDS on families and communities because of most the care for people living with AIDS is provided by women and girls. It looks at the social and economic burden and the training and support needed, and it suggests actions for national governments and for international partners
The strategies for interventions proposed here can provide a framework upon which disability advocates and HIV and AIDS advocates, educators and policy makers can begin to build interventions and support mechanisms for ‘at-risk’ disabled populations. To date, there have been few HIV and AIDS interventions that have directly targeted (or indirectly included) individuals with disability and almost none of these interventions have been systematically monitored or evaluated. The framework proposed here therefore, is intended only as a ‘first step’ in a series of publications on various aspects of disability-inclusive HIV and AIDS interventions and tool kits
This paper reports on a quantitative study to identify whether there are differences in the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS between hearing and deaf community members in Swaziland. Significant differences in levels of understanding of HIV issues were found, especially with regards to mistaken ideas about HIV transmission and prevention. The outcomes indicate the need for targeted education campaigns and improved accessibility in health care for deaf individuals in Swaziland. The article is useful for health and development professionals working in the field of HIV and AIDS, as well as those working with deaf individuals in Swaziland
The mass media have the potential to provide a platform for discussion, communication and education on HIV and AIDS, giving a voice to people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), challenging stigma and discrimination, lobbying policy makers and building partnerships and capacity through sharing and transferring skills and expertise. However, mass media can also disseminate misleading messages, while HIV/AIDS communication competes with other topics for broadcasting time and audiences. This report presents three case studies of effective and creative use of the media in South Africa: Soul City and Soul Buddyz adopt an 'edutainment' approach, aiming both to educate and entertain; the Community Health Media Trust produces a series of programmes addressing issues concerning people with HIV/AIDS; Takalani makes television and radio programmes, to encourage small children to develop self-esteem, offer positive models and destigmatise PLWHA. Detailing the lessons learned from these experiences, the report looks at how target audiences are chosen, how partnerships are formed, how topics and ideas are developed and what ethical issues arise
This framework and resource guide is intended to help people involved in programs assisting orphans and vulnerable children conduct a situation analysis. It serves as a tool for collecting and synthesising in-country and sub-national information. Examples of situation analyses and related research are provided throughout the document to draw upon the variety of approaches, and their components, that communities and institutions have undertaken to assess their particular situation
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