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Teacher absence as a factor in gender inequalities in access to primary schooling in rural Pakistan

GHUMAN, Sharon
LLOYD, Cynthia B.
June 2007

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Public-sector education in many countries in western and southern Asia, including Pakistan, is characterised by separate schools for boys and girls at the primary and secondary levels. In Pakistan, primary school enrolment among girls in rural areas is substantially lower than among children in urban areas and boys in rural areas, owing to lack of access to government girls’ schools. The focus of this report is on teacher absence as a further barrier to schooling for girls. Absence rates among the all-female teachers in government girls’ schools are substantially higher than among the all-male teachers in government boys’ schools. Whether they teach in government or private schools, women who live in the same community as the school are substantially less likely to be absent. In government girls’ schools, better basic amenities are also related to lower teacher absence. Both findings suggest the importance of recent government investments in schools and the higher inter-village travel costs faced by women relative to men

Adolescence in Pakistan : sex, marriage and reproductive health. The findings of research carried out into awareness of sexual and reproductive health and rights in Pakistan

February 2006

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Report of research into awareness of sexual and reproductive health and rights in Pakistan. The results of the research show that respondents had little SRH information to help them through the changes of adolescence, and cultural barriers exacerbate the problem. Girls were more likely to experience social restrictions and their options were limited, reflecting traditional cultural values. As a result of their participation in the research, however, many agreed that more information about menstruation could be beneficial to them

The implications of changing educational and family circumstances for children’s grade progression in rural Pakistan : 1997 - 2004

LLOYD, Cynthia B
GRANT, Monica J

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This paper assesses the effects of primary school characteristics, household characteristics, and recent household economic and demographic shocks on school dropout rates during the first eight grades (primary and middle school) in rural Punjab and North West Frontier Province. The analysis is based on two waves of panel data, collected in 1997 and 2004. These data are unique in a developing-country setting in that they track longitudinally changes in the school environment (i.e., school and teacher characteristics) and in the household environment (including the arrival of unwanted births) for a panel of women and their children. While grade retention has improved over the past six years, dropout rates for girls remain fairly high, particularly at the end of primary school (grade five), at which point one-third of girls who started school have left. The results provide evidence of the importance of both household and school factors as statistically significant determinants of dropout rates. For girls, the arrival in the family of an unwanted birth in the last six years and enrollment in a government primary school (as opposed to a private school) significantly increase the likelihood of dropout, whereas the availability of postprimary schooling in the community, having a mother who had attended school, and living in a household with higher consumption levels reduce the probability of dropout. For boys, school quality, as measured by the percent of teachers in the primary school attended who reside in the community, and living in a more developed community significantly reduce the probability of dropping out; a loss of remittances in the household during the past six years significantly increases the likelihood of dropping out.

Gender differences in time use among adolescents in developing countries : implications of rising school enrollment rates

LLOYD, Cynthia B
GRANT, Monica

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Three research questions are addressed in this paper : 1) How does time use change during the transition to adulthood? 2) Does gender role differentiation intensify during the transition? 3) Does school attendance attenuate gender differences? The research addresses significant gaps in the literature, in particular the lack of attention to how time use is affected by school attendance. The study documents differences in time use patterns between students and non-students. Although female adolescent students still work longer hours than male adolescent students, the gender division of labour that typically develops during adolescence is greatly attenuated among students when time spent at work is measured by combining labour market work with noneconomic household work


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