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Intersection of disabilities and violence against women and girls in Tajikistan

MASTONSHOEVA, Subhiya
February 2020

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This report is a study into the intersection of gender, violence and disabilities, with a focus on the role of disabilities in increasing the risk of sexual and gender-based violence and domestic violence perpetrated against women with disabilities and women parenting children with disabilities in Dushanbe, Bokhtar and Khorog (Tajikistan). The study targeted women and men between the ages of 18-65 living with disabilities or parenting children with disabilities. Field data were collected through 12 focus group discussions (four in each location) divided by age and gender, with men and women living with disabilities or parenting children with disabilities. 30 repeat in-depth interviews were conducted with women and men with disabilities among different age groups, as well as women with children with disabilities.

Safe futures. Reducing violence against women and girls with disability in Cambodia.

ADD INTERNATIONAL
2020

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In Cambodia, women and girls with disability face multiple, compounding challenges. Work is being carried out to strengthen the capacity of groups of people with disability - self-help groups and Disabled People’s Organisations - to prevent violence and identify and refer survivors of violence to appropriate services - including legal services, counselling, health care, and physical and emotional rehabilitation services. The intervention has completed its first year, and this is a learning paper of key observations. It is too early to consider these reflections as indications of patterns to replicate

Amplifying the voices of women and girls with disabilities in Zimbabwe

UNESCO OFFICE HARARE
LEONARD CHESHIRE DISABILITY (ZIMBABWE)
AFRICA COMMUNITY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRE
2020

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This qualitative study on the aspirations, needs and concerns of women and girls with disabilities in Zimbabwe seeks to contribute to the growing knowledge on women and girls with disabilities globally, as well as to contribute to the ongoing dialogue on advancing the implementation of the CPRD in Zimbabwe

 

The specific aims were to:

  • Assess the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of women and girls with disabilities
  • Identify the aspirations of women and girls with disabilities from marginalized areas
  • Describe the needs and concerns of women and girls with disabilities for equitable participation in public life
  • Assess how current development interventions are responding to the needs of women and girls with disabilities, specifically SRH and GBV services delivery
  • Hear from women and girls with disabilities on practical recommendations for the advancement of disability rights and improving justice, SRH and GBV service delivery that meets their needs

 

The approach and methodology were designed with a view to gathering first-hand information and verbatim from an estimated 261 women and girls with disabilities, and from other stakeholders interviewed in marginalized areas, namely caregivers, OPDs, NGOs, traditional leaders, community cadres, and government officials. The study design was also guided by a range of participatory approaches that enabled women with diverse disability types to effectively participate in the qualitative study.

Harmful cultural beliefs and practices, stigma and discrimination towards women and girls with disabilities: a toolkit for change

UNESCO OFFICE HARARE
UNITED NATIONS PARTNERSHIP TO PROMOTE THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
2020

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This toolkit serves to highlight the intersection between gender, culture and disability. Following the completion of a study titled Advancing the rights of women and girls with disabilities in Zimbabwe, a review of the interface of culture, gender and disability in Zimbabwe, it was evident that there were cultural and social issues not being adequately addressed in communities. 

This toolkit was formulated based on the study findings, dialogue with key disability stakeholders and principles of the CRPD.

The following is a list of the key articles from the CRPD that form the base of this toolkit:

  • Article 3: General principles (8 in total)
  • Article 6: Women with disabilities
  • Article 8: Awareness raising
  • Article 13: Access to justice
  • Article 23: Respect for home and the family
  • Article 25: Health

This toolkit strives to empower the trainer and the trainee(s) on the virtues encapsulated in the CRPD by localizing the concepts at community level in Zimbabwe.

Standing alone: sexual minority status and victimisation in a rural lower secondary school

ODENBRING, Ylva
2019

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Studies worldwide indicate that sexual minority students often face different forms of bullying in everyday life at school, and young people growing up in communities with conservative values, such as in rural areas, are often in a particularly vulnerable position. Nonetheless, there is an absence of studies addressing the everyday lives of sexual minority students in rural schools. Drawing on interviews with students in the ninth grade of a rural lower secondary school in Sweden, the current study has investigated experiences of violence and harassment routinely directed at sexual minority students at school. The results indicate that the local gender regime is strongly framed by heteronormative values that position non-heterosexual students as the Other. Sexual minority students are exposed to homophobic name-calling on a daily basis, and threats and physical violence are also common. To fit in and to ‘survive’ in school, sexual minority students are forced to accept the homophobic name-calling and are sometimes also forced to physically fight back. This study concludes that it is important that schools address issues around violence directed towards non- heterosexual students, and that ways to create a more inclusive and safe school environment be identified.

Sexual violence against girls and young women with disabilities in Ethiopia. Including a capability perspective

DESSIE, Samrawit
BEKELE, Yirgashewa
BILGERI, Margarita
November 2019

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This study examined the attributes of sexual violence against girls and young women with disabilities in the northern part of Ethiopia. In order to reach the proposed objective, six in-depth interviews were conducted with young women with disabilities who were survivors of sexual violence experienced during their adolescence and their caregivers. The study focused on vulnerability factors, situations of perpetrators, effects of sexual abuse and coping strategies.

 

Journal of Global Ethics, 15:3, 325-343

DOI: 10.1080/17449626.2019.1690554

Sexual exploitation and abuse and sexual harassment (SEAH) of people with disabilities: prevalence, incidence and severity, Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Research Report No. 4

FRASER, Erika
LEE, Harri
WAPLING, Lorraine
February 2019

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This rapid review addresses the queries:

  • What is known about the prevalence, incidence and severity of the sexual exploitation and abuse and sexual harassment of people with disabilities. This should take into account age and gender where possible, and humanitarian and conflict contexts. It would be good to know: - Globally and in specific regions, what evidence exists about the extent of sexual exploitation, abuse and harassment of people with disabilities (disaggregated by age and gender)?
  • What evidence exists about the extent of sexual exploitation, abuse and harassment of people with disabilities in the aid sector, including both recipients of aid and working in the aid sector (disaggregated by age and gender)?
  • What are the barriers to reporting for people with disabilities?
  • What is your assessment of the quality of the evidence? Where are the gaps?

Gendered experiences of physical restraint on locked wards for women

FISH, Rebecca
HATTON, Chris
2017

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Physical restraint is used in inpatient services for people with intellectual disabilities as a way of holding a person to avoid injury. This article uses data from an ethnographic study in a locked unit in the north of England to explore women’s experiences of physical restraint using a feminist disability studies analysis. Data consists of field notes as well as interviews with 16 of the women who had experienced restraint, and 10 staff who worked with them. The women gave insights into the gendered phenomenon of restraint in light of their past experiences of violence. The authors argue that restraint is used with women to encourage passivity at times when more relational and therapeutic methods could be used. The article offers recommendations for alternative strategies that services can encourage.

Sexual violence against women with disabilities in Ghana: Accounts of women with disabilities from Ashanti Region

OPOKU, Maxwell Peprah
HUYSER, Nicole
MPRAH, Wisdom Kwadwo
ALUPO, Beatrice Atim
BADU, Eric
2016

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Purpose: Women with disabilities are particularly vulnerable to violence and often at risk of being violated sexually. The study aimed to document the causes and consequences of sexual violence against women with disabilities in Mampong Municipality of Ashanti region in Ghana.

 

Methods: This exploratory study recruited 41 participants, made up of women living with intellectual, visual and hearing disabilities, were interviewed using convenience and snowball sampling techniques. 

 

Results: It was found that many participants had suffered sexual violence and factors such as poverty, rejection by families, isolation and unemployment were given as the cause. It was also found that these women suffered consequences such as unwanted pregnancies, divorce, outright rejection and psychological trauma.

 

Conclusion: The current situation of women with disabilities make it impossible for them to escape sexual violence. Therefore, it is essential that national awareness campaigns be fashioned to encourage people to provide support to their family members with disabilities. 

Disability and gender-based violence. Peer research in Kibaha and Mkuranga, Tanzania

ADD
2016

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Development agencies, power holders and service providers need to build into their programmes the right protection for disabled women. It will require sustained global focus, momentum and action. But if we are serious about fulfilling the aspiration to ‘leave no one behind’ then it has to be done. This contextual study aims at building an understanding of the factors and impact of gender-based violence towards women and girls with disabilities in Mkuranga Rural and Kibaha Urban in Pwani Region. The focus is on sexual, physical, and psychological/emotional violence. We hope that this research will act as a catalyst for further exploration, analysis and urgent response actions from a multitude of actors.

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2015, Vol. 2, No. 2 Special issue: Disabled children and disabling childhoods in the global South

2015

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Articles include:

  • EDITORIAL Frames and debates for disability, childhood and the global South: Introducing the Special Issue
  • Using Postcolonial Perspectives to Consider Rehabilitation with Children with Disabilities: The Bamenda-Toronto Dialogue
  • Vietnam’s children’s experiences of being visually or hearing impaired
  • Disabling streets or disabling education? Challenging a deficit model of street-connectedness
  • Revolutionary entanglements: Transversal mappings of disability in the favela
  • For Michael Charlie: Including girls and boys with disabilities in the global South/North
  • Childhood Sexual Abuse and Disability: A critical study of an invisibilized constituency in India
  • Interrogating the impact of scientific and technological development on disabled children in India and beyond

Violence Against Persons with Disabilities in Bidar District, India

DEEPAK, S
KUMAR, J
SANTOSH, B
GORNALLI, S
MANIKAPPA, P
VYJANTHA, U
GIRIYAPPA, R
2014

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Violence and sexual violence against persons with disabilities at community level are serious issues. Though CBR programmes and DPOs are expected to prevent violence and offer support to the victims, there is very little informationabout their role in this regard.

 

Purpose: This research aimed to assess the level of violence and sexual violence experienced by DPO members, and the role played by CBR programmes in preventing it.

 

Method: The study involved a non-random consecutive sample of 146 persons with disabilities from 3 sub-districts of Bidar district in Karnataka, India. Using a structured questionnaire, interviews were conducted by a group of trained DPO members and CBR workers, many of whom had personal experience of violence. The data was entered using Epi-Info and then converted into spreadsheet Tables for analysis.

 

Results: 58% of the sample reported having experienced violence and 14% reported experiences of sexual violence during the previous 12 months. Girls and women reported higher levels of violence at different age groups. Male children and young adults reported having experienced more violence, including sexual violence, than older men. The research did not provide conclusive evidence that participation in the CBR and DPO activities played a protective role.

 

Conclusions: Violence and sexual violence against persons with disabilities are serious problems. More research on the subject, in terms of roles of CBR programmes and DPOs, is needed.

Oscar Pistorius and the melancholy of intersectionality

SWARTZ, Leslie
2013

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The alleged shooting by Paralympian and Olympian athlete Oscar Pistorius of his girlfriend Reeva Steenkamp has led to strong reactions worldwide. Scholars in the field of disability studies have expressed shock and disappointment in response both to the death itself and to its implications for the representation of disability. In South Africa in the wake of the death of Ms Steenkamp, much has been made both by critics of Pistorius and by his defenders about his status as a white South African man, but little has been said about disability issues. This silence in South Africa about disability as a possible identity factor in this case draws attention to the extent to which disability questions remain profoundly raced and gendered, and influenced by the colonial and apartheid past. The tragic alleged shooting by Oscar Pistorius draws attention back to how important intersectionality is to understanding disability in South Africa and other unequal societies.

Sexual Health of Women with Spinal Cord Injury in Bangladesh

LUBBERS, N P M
NURI, R P
VAN BRAKEL, W H
CORNIELJE, H
2012

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Purpose: To identify factors influencing the sexual health of women with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Bangladesh.

 

Methods: This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The quantitative part used a case-control design. Cases were women with SCI and controls were age-matched women without SCI. Questionnaires were used to collect data concerning the sexual health status of women. Multivariate logistic regression was done to determine which factors had an independent effect on sexual health. In-depth interviews were held with a sub-group of women from both groups, and interview guides were used. The in-depth interview data was subjected to content analysis.

 

Results: In total, 92 questionnaires were given out and 30 in-depth interviews were conducted. A relationship was found between physical factors and sexual health, as pain, vaginal dryness and physical discomfort were mentioned more frequently among women with SCI. Environmental and emotional factors such as stigma, satisfaction of the husband and support from the husband and friends had an influence on the sexual health of the women with SCI, as well as the other group of women.

 

Conclusions: From interviews it became clear that most of the women with SCI were dissatisfied with their sexual health as compared to the women without SCI. However, environmental and emotional factors such as attitudes, support and stigma, rather than physical factors, were the most important influences on sexual health in both groups of women.

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