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Physical Disability, Rights and Stigma in Ghana: A Review of Literature

GRISCHOW, Jeff
MFOAFO-M’CARTHY, Magnus
VERMEYDEN, Anne
CAMMAERT, Jessica
2019

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Purpose: This is a survey of peer-reviewed articles focussed on the causes and consequences of stigma towards persons with physical disability in Ghana.

 

Method: After a systematic search of the online databases EBSCOhost, ProQuest, PubMEd and Web of Science for peer-reviewed articles on disability in Ghana, 26 articles were chosen for critical review.  The three main selection criteria were: the articles had to be peer-reviewed, they had to be based on interviews with Ghanaians in the field, and they had to discuss stigma and human rights.  For analysis, the content of the articles was grouped under two sections: major themes (human rights, causes of stigma, consequences of stigma) and policy recommendations (economics, medical services/healthcare, affirmative action, attitudes and awareness-raising, inclusion of cultural beliefs).

 

Results:   This review found that most of the studies attribute stigma to negative attitudes towards Ghanaians with disability, and many highlight beliefs among Ghanaians that disability is caused by spiritual and supernatural forces. The consequences, according to most authors, are social, economic and political exclusion. Policy recommendations include improving government policy, increasing funding for disability programmes, changing public attitudes, and paying attention to Ghanaian culture and tradition in designing disability interventions. While these are valid points, the authors of this paper are of the opinion that the literature also suffers from lack of a deep understanding of the historical and socio-cultural roots of supernatural beliefs in Ghana.

 

Conclusion: The 26 studies discussed in this review show that since 2006 very good work has been produced on disability in Ghana, especially by Ghanaian disability scholars.

 

It is hypothesised, however, that a full understanding of disability and stigma in Ghana must be based on deeper research into the roots of the beliefs that drive stigma.  Future work therefore should focus on deepening the analysis of cultural beliefs towards disability in Ghana, in order to understand fully the roots of culturally-based disability stigma. More research into the economic causes and consequences of disability is also recommended, without which a full analysis of cultural stigma will not be possible.

Children with Cerebral Palsy in Bangladesh: Their Contribution to the Development of a Rehabilitation Training Programme

ZUURMOND, Maria
MAHMUD, Ilias
HARTLEY, Sally
2019

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Purpose: Although cerebral palsy is the most prevalent health condition linked to childhood disability in Bangladesh, support and rehabilitation for this group is limited and intervention development is slow. An initiative to address these unmet needs was the development of a parent training programme for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to explore what was important in the everyday lives of children with cerebral palsy in rural Bangladesh and take their views into account in order to inform the parent/caregiver training programme.

 

Methods: Qualitative data was collected from12 children with cerebral palsy, between 5 - 14 years of age. The children were purposively selected from among those who attended the parent training programme. A participatory method called the ‘Feeling Dice’ was used to elicit children’s feelings about their everyday lives. The approach was easy to use, acceptable in the local context, the children enjoyed the activity, and it generated rich information.

 

Results: ‘Inclusion in play’ and ‘being able to attend school’ made the children happy and were their two main priorities, yet were not key issues for parents. The children were frustrated by their dependence on others for day-to-day activities such as feeding, bathing, and transport to school. Children also played an important part in encouraging their parents to attend the training course.

 

Conclusion: This study showed that valuable information can be gathered from children with cerebral palsy by using a simple and adaptable participatory research tool. Children’s views and priorities sometimes differed from those of their parents and carers, and could be useful for developing more relevant and valid interventions. Children need to be recognised as important ‘agents of change’ within their own rehabilitation. This methodology is in harmony with the UNCRPD recommendations, and supports inclusive and rights-based intervention development.

Accessibility of Public Buildings in Khulna, Bangladesh, for Wheelchair Users

FARZANA, Fawzia
2019

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Purpose: Physical accessibility is one of the fundamental rights of wheelchair users in order to ensure their integration into society. After Bangladesh ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on November 30, 2007, there has been a paradigm shift in the government’s approach to ensure the welfare and rights of persons with disabilities through legislative and policy actions. This study assesses how accommodative the public buildings are for wheelchair users in Khulna, Bangladesh.

 

Method: All the public buildings in Khulna city - including government offices, public schools, colleges and universities, hospitals, libraries, post offices and court buildings -  were visited to assess the presence and suitability of facilities for wheelchair users, such as accessible parking, ramps, elevators, doors, and essential interior facilities like water closets and drinking-water fountains.  Bangladesh has no specific accessibility guidelines document, but accessibility requirements have been included in the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 2008. The study made its assessment using an abridged form of the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and BNBC 2008.

 

Results: Only 6.7% (5) of the 75 public buildings were found suitable for wheelchair users. There is scope for modifications to be made in 28% (21) of the buildings which are currently unsuitable for wheelchair users.

 

Conclusion: The study revealed that public buildings are, in general, not very accommodative of wheelchair users. There is a need for modifications in infrastructure to ensure inclusive development of these individuals.

Undergraduate physiotherapy students’ basic wheelchair provision knowledge: a pilot study in two universities in Colombia

TORO-HERNÁNDEZ, María Luisa
MONDRAGÓN-BARRERA, Mónica Alejandra
TORRES-NARVÁEZ, Martha Rocío
VELASCO-FORERO, Sandra Esperanza
GOLDBERG, Mary
2019

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Purpose: 

Access to an appropriate wheelchair is a human right. Only between 5–15% of people who need a wheelchair have access to one. One of the key barriers to access is the lack of appropriately trained rehabilitation professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate basic manual wheelchair provision knowledge in final-year physiotherapy undergraduate students in two programs in Colombia.

 

Materials and methods: 

Students took the International Society of Wheelchair Professionals Wheelchair Service Provision – Basic Test which was administered online and in Spanish. The minimum score to pass the test is 70%; it assesses seven domains: Assessment; Prescription; Products; Fitting; User training; Follow-up, maintenance, and repairs; and Process.

 

Results and conclusions

One-hundred sixteen students took the test and no one passed the test. The highest median domain scores were in Assessment and Process while the lowest were in Fitting and Products. The limitations of this study include that this sample does not represent all physiotherapy programmes or students in Colombia, there may be potential errors in the Spanish translation of the outcome measure, and students encountered Internet connectivity issues during the test that may have impacted their scores. Immediate interventions are required to improve teaching and students’ learning outcomes related to basic manual wheelchair provision in these two programs. This study may serve as a foundation for future regional or national studies that assess the situation of wheelchair provision training in rehabilitation programs that will inform improvement actions. This manuscript is also available in Spanish as Supplemental Material.

LEARN2MOVE 0–2 years, a randomized early intervention trial for infants at very high risk of cerebral palsy: family outcome and infant’s functional outcome

HIELKEMA, Tjitske
BOXUM, Anke G
HAMER, Elisa G
LA BASTIDE-VAN GEMERT, Sacha
DIRKS, Tineke
REINDERS-MESSELINK, Heleen A
MAATHUIS, Carel G B
VERHEIJDEN, Johannes
GEERTZEN, Jan H B
HADDERS-ALGRA, Mijna
May 2019

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Purpose: To compare family and functional outcome in infants at very high risk of cerebral palsy, after receiving the family centred programme “Coping with and Caring for infants with special needs (COPCA)” or typical infant physiotherapy.

 

Materials and methods: Forty-three infants at very high risk were included before 9 months corrected age and randomly assigned to one year COPCA (n = 23) or typical infant physiotherapy (n = 20). Family and infant outcome were assessed before and during the intervention. Physiotherapy intervention sessions were analysed quantitatively for process analysis. Outcome was evaluated with non-parametric tests and linear mixed-effect models.

 

Results: Between-group comparisons revealed no differences in family and infant outcomes. Within-group analysis showed that family’s quality of life improved over time in the COPCA-group. Family empowerment was positively associated with intervention elements, including “caregiver coaching.”

 

Conclusions: One year of COPCA or typical infant physiotherapy resulted in similar family and functional outcomes. Yet, specific intervention elements, e.g., coaching, may increase empowerment of families of very high risk infants and may influence quality of life, which emphasizes the importance of family centred services.

Patient and caregiver experiences on care transitions for adults with a hip fracture: a scoping review

ASIF, Maliha
CADEL, Lauren
KULUSKI, Kerry
EVERALL, Amanda C
GUILCHER, Sara J T
May 2019

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Purpose: The purpose of this scoping review was to explore the literature on experiences and perspectives of patients with hip fractures and their caregivers during transitions in care.

 

Methods: Seven databases were searched for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 3 July 2018. Grey literature was also searched.

 

Results: Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria. The scoping review found that patients and caregivers encounter several challenges during care transitions including the following: lack of information sharing, role confusion and disorganized discharge planning. Common suggestions reported in the literature for improving care transitions were: increasing written communication, offering a patient representative role, using technology for knowledge dissemination and increasing geriatrician involvement.

 

Conclusions: The results of this scoping review provide a useful foundation from which to build strategies to address challenges such as lack of information sharing, role confusion and disorganized discharge planning experienced by patients and caregivers during care transitions. Further research needs to explore the development of strategies to promote patient-centered care especially during discharge from an acute care facility.

“With CO-OP I’m the boss” – experiences of the cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance approach as reported by young adults with cerebral palsy or spina bifida

OHRVALL, Ann-Marie
BERGQVIST, Lena
HOFGREN, Caisa
PENY-DAHLSTRAND, Marie
May 2019

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Purpose: Restrictions to activity and participation in persons with cerebral palsy or spina bifida are often due to both motor and executive dysfunction. Hence methods focusing solely on motor issues are not enough to enhance participation. The Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance ApproachTM is a performance-based approach offering clients opportunities to create their own strategies to learn skills. The aim of the present study was to explore and describe experiences of the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance Approach as reported by young adults with cerebral palsy or spina bifida.

 

Methods: Qualitative content analysis was used. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the 10 participants aged 16–28, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up.

 

Results: The participants described how the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance Approach enhanced their self-efficacy. Four categories describing the participants’ experiences emerged: “CO-OP is a different way of learning”, “CO-OP sometimes puts a strain on me”, “CO-OP supports my way of thinking and doing” and “CO-OP boosts me”.

 

Conclusion: The young adults expressed that the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance intervention, although sometimes challenging, was worth the effort because it provided them with an opportunity to master everyday-life problems by using meta-cognitive thinking, which enhanced their self-efficacy.

Return to work predicts perceived participation and autonomy by individuals with stroke

Westerlind, Emma
Persson, Hanna C
Tornbom, Karin
SUNNERHAGEN, Katharina S
May 2019

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Purpose: Participation in activities of everyday life is seen as main goal of rehabilitation after a stroke and return to work is an important factor to consider for the substantial number of persons having a stroke at working age. The current study aims to investigate whether returning to work would predict self-perceived participation and autonomy in everyday life after a stroke, from a long-term perspective.

 

Materials and methods: Persons with first-ever stroke at age 18–63 years in 2009–2010, Gothenburg, were included. As 5-year follow-up, the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire was sent out, investigating self-perceived participation/autonomy in five levels, and work status was investigated from national sick-absence registers. Prediction of work on participation/autonomy was investigated with logistic regression.

 

Results: A total of 109 participants (49%) responded to the questionnaire. The majority (69–94%) perceived very good participation/autonomy in all domains and 59% were working 5 years after stroke. Working was a significant predictor of high participation/autonomy in all domains of the questionnaire.

 

Conclusions: Being able to return to work after a stroke seems to be important for self-perceived participation/autonomy. This emphasizes the importance of work-oriented information and rehabilitation after a stroke at working age.

Childhood factors predict participation of young adults with cerebral palsy in domestic life and interpersonal relationships: a prospective cohort study

VAN GORP, Marloes
ROEBROECK, Marij E
VAN ECK, Mirjam
VOORMAN, Jeanine M
TWISK, Jos W R
Dallmeijer, Annet J
Van Wely, Leontien
May 2019

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Purpose: To determine childhood predictors of participation in domestic life and interpersonal relationships of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP).

 

Materials and methods: This 13-year follow-up of an existing cohort (baseline age 9–13 years) included 67 young adults with CP (age 21–27 years). The Vineland adaptive behavior scales (VABS) and Life Habits questionnaire were used to assess attendance and difficulty in participation in domestic life and interpersonal relationships. Baseline factors were categorised according to the international classification of functioning, disability, and health. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses determined significant predictors (p < 0.05).

 

Results: Lower manual ability, intellectual disability (ID), epilepsy and lower motor capacity predicted decreased future participation in domestic life, and/or interpersonal relationships (explained variance R2 = 67–87%), whereas no association was found with environmental and personal factors. Extending models with baseline fine motor skills, communication, and interpersonal relationships increased R2 to 79–90%.

 

Conclusions: Childhood factors account for 79–90% of the variation in young adult participation in domestic life and interpersonal relationships of individuals with CP. Children with limited motor capacity, low manual ability, ID, or epilepsy are at risk for restrictions in participation in young adulthood. Addressing fine motor, communication, and social skills in paediatric rehabilitation might promote young adult participation.

‘We only got Coca-Cola’: Disability and the paradox of (dis)empowerment in Southeast Nigeria

NWOKORIE, Okechukwu V.
DEVLIEGER, Patrick J.
2019

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Background: Empowerment is the generic name for support services for persons with disability in Nigeria. In it, the elites of the society play leading roles. Special events such as anniversaries, Christmas seasons, wealthy people’s birthdays, investiture of new titles and campaigns before general elections often provide occasions for empowerment programmes.

 

Objectives: This article explores discourses of empowerment of persons with disability in Southeast Nigeria. We concentrate on the relation between local elites and the disability community and how it impacts our understanding of empowerment. Conceptualising empowerment as worldmaking, and disability as something that is ambiguous, we challenge the assumption that the aim of empowerment of disabled people is to improve their (disabled people’s) quality of life.

 

Method: This article relies on research data (collected between January 2014 and January 2017) comprising 72 interviews and participant observations from 27 persons with disability, and 13 social workers and senior government officials.

 

Results: We conclude that discourses of empowerment of disabled people frame disability as loss and tend to conceal the personal stories and survival operations of disabled people.

 

Conclusion: Empowerment discourses ironically provide the platform for local power elites to ‘ride’ to fame on the backs of disabled to extend their influence in society. In the current neoliberal environment of unequal access to opportunities, disabled people must ‘play along’ as a survival strategy. Our qualitative data provide opportunities to reflect on the tensions between the ‘local and the global’, thus indicating how disability issues intersect with other wider questions.

 

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

Stumbling, struggling, and shame due to spasticity: a qualitative study of adult persons with hereditary spastic paraplegia

KERSTENS, Hans C J W
SATINK, Ton
NIJKRAKE, Maarten J
DE SWART, Bert J M
VAN LITH, Bas J H
GUERTS, Alexander C H
NIJHUIN-VAN DER SANDEN, Maria W G
April 2019

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Purpose: Little is known concerning the impact of chronic spasticity on physical activities, social participation, and well-being, and whether patients’ needs are addressed by current treatments. This study aims to investigate these lacunas in persons with a pure form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), in whom spasticity is a prominent symptom.

 

Methods: Fourteen patients with a pure form of HSP were interviewed. These interviews were recorded, verbally transcribed, and thematically analyzed.

 

Results: Four themes were identified which can be reflected by the phrases: (1) ‘I stumble’, (2) ‘I struggle’, (3) ‘I feel ashamed’, and (4) ‘I need support’. Balance and gait problems led to limitations in domestic activities, employment, and recreation. ‘Stumbling’ also occurred due to pain, stiffness, and fatigue. Struggling was related to the continuous need for adaptation strategies, including the abandonment of some activities. Participants further reported feelings of shame, fear, and frustration. Lastly, they needed more support in daily activities than currently provided.

 

Conclusion: Besides treating spasticity-related motor impairments, patients with HSP need practical support for optimizing their physical activities and social participation. They also seek attention for the non-motor consequences of their chronic spasticity to improve their well-being. Patient-reported outcomes might help to address these needs.

India inclusion summit 2018

March 2019

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India Inclusion Summit is a community driven initiative that aspires to build an Inclusive India by 2030. It is an annual event that began in 2012 to create awareness about disabilities and the need for Inclusion. The event brings together thought leaders and unsung heroes from the field of disability and inclusion to deliberate, discuss and drive change in our society.

 

Videos of some of the presentations are available including:

My Journey and ‘Deaf gain’ing an accessible India:  Vaibhav Kothari (18 mins), signed

You’re not just special. You’re Special Edition:  SwarnaLatha (11 mins)

Don’t let disability come in the way of things you love: Zoyeb Zia (10 mins), signed

The Adventure of Autism and quest to serve each other: Rupert Isaacson (20 mins), signed

Making a billion people read despite their disabilities: Brij Kothari (21 mins), signed

The ability needed to be whoever you want to be: Devika Malik (13 mins), signed

Everyone has something to give: Suchitra Shenoy (11 mins), signed

From being inclusive to doing acts of inclusion: Yetnebersh Niguissie (12 mins), signed

Finding your missing piece: Jerry White (18 mins), signed

Listening to the voice within that opens infinite possibilities: Rajni Bakshi (15 mins), signed

Being a mother is the most satisfying role: Suhasini Maniratnam (21 mins) signed

 

 

Developing country-specific wheelchair service provision strategic plans for Romania and the Philippines

GOWRAN, Rosemary
et al
March 2019

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The process used to support the development of wheelchair service strategic plans in Romania and the Philippines is described. The paper considers the influences, meaning, challenges and developments when producing strategic priorities within two different contexts.

 

Journal of Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, Volume 14, 2019 - Issue 6

Development of the Wheelchair Interface Questionnaire and initial face and content validity

RISPIN, Karen
DAVIS, Abigail B.
SCHEAFER, Vicki L
WEE, Joy
2019

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Background: Because resources are limited in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the development of outcome measures is of interest. Wheelchair outcome measures are useful to support evidence-based practice in wheelchair provision.

 

Objectives: The Wheelchair Interface Questionnaire (WIQ) is being developed to provide a professional perspective on the quality of the interface between a wheelchair and its user. This article discusses the development of the WIQ and its face and content validity.

 

Method: During field studies in Kenya, we sought to include professional report data on the wheelchair–user interface that could be analysed to inform design changes. None of the existing measures was focused on the interface between users and their wheelchairs. The WIQ was developed to meet this need. To investigate face and content validity, 24 experienced wheelchair professionals participated in a study that included two rounds of an online survey and a focus group in Kenya.

 

Results: Responses were categorised by topic and the WIQ was modified following each iteration. Participants affirmed the usefulness of a brief professional report measure to provide a snapshot of the user–wheelchair interface. Participants emphasised the importance of brevity, wide applicability and provision of specific feedback for wheelchair modification or design changes. The focus group agreed that the final version provided useful data and was applicable to virtually all wheelchair users in LMIC.

 

Conclusion: These preliminary studies indicate initial face and content validity of the WIQ as a method for providing a professional perspective on the interface between a user and his or her wheelchair.

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

Views of children with cerebral palsy and their parents on the effectiveness and acceptability of intensive speech therapy

PENNINGTON, Lindsay
RAUCH, Rosie
SMITH, Johanna
BRITTAIN, Katie
March 2019

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Purpose: To understand children and parents’ views of the effectiveness and acceptability of intensive dysarthria therapy.

 

Materials and Methods: Twenty-two children with cerebral palsy and dysarthria joined a pilot RCT comparing intensive therapy and usual care. Children (n = 11) allocated to dysarthria therapy comprising three 40-minute sessions per week for six weeks and their parents (n = 11) were interviewed two weeks before and six weeks after therapy. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically.

 

Results: Analysis revealed five themes: Motivations, My new voice; The new me; I can do more; Success rooted in therapy design. Children had received little therapy for speech and were keen to improve intelligibility. Overall, therapy was viewed as effective. Participants described changes in children’s speech production, which they associated with increased speech intelligibility. Children were described as more confident following the therapy, to have more successful conversations, with a wider range of partners in more environments, thereby increasing their social participation. The programme was viewed as acceptable, despite its intensity, due to the short term commitment and wider benefits for the child. Parents valued the organised structure and individualisation of the programme and inclusion in the therapy process.

 

Conclusion: Families found the intervention acceptable and effective. A definitive trial of its clinical effectiveness is warranted.

Self-perceived mobility in immigrants in Sweden living with the late effects of polio

SALANDER, Helena
KJELLGREN, Felicia
SUNNERHAGEN, Katharina S
March 2019

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Purpose: To investigate outdoor mobility of immigrants in Sweden who are living with the late effects of polio.

 

Materials and methods: A total of 145 patients with late effects of polio born outside the Nordic region were identified at an outpatient polio clinic. Of these, 74 completed a questionnaire about their mobility and independence in daily life, self-perceived pain and depression, vocational status, mobility assistive devices/aids, transportation modes and driving. Patient characteristics were based on medical records supplied by physicians.

 

Results: Twice as many patients had lower extremities that were affected by polio than upper extremities. This affected their use of different transport modes and caused mobility and transfer problems. Indeed, 39% needed mobility aids and help from another person to move outdoors. Those who reported dependence for outdoor mobility were more often unemployed and more often depressed.

 

Conclusions: Many respondents reported having difficulties with transport mobility, but a large proportion, 57%, were independent and active drivers. It is important to consider outdoor mobility when planning rehabilitation for patients with late effects of polio and foreign backgrounds. In addition to psychosocial factors, dependence on mobility-related activities can lead to dependency and isolation.

Improvements in health-related quality of life and function in middle-aged women with chronic diseases of lifestyle after participating in a non-pharmacological intervention programme: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial

BARNES, Roline Y
JELSMA, Jennifer
PARKER, Romy
2019

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Background: Musculoskeletal diseases consume a large amount of health and social resources and are a major cause of disability in both low- and high-income countries. In addition, patients frequently present with co-morbid chronic diseases of lifestyle. The area of musculoskeletal disease is restricted by a lack of epidemiological knowledge, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

 

Objectives: This pragmatic randomised controlled trial assessed the benefits of a 6-week physiotherapy intervention for middle-aged women with musculoskeletal conditions compared to usual care.

 

Method: A weekly 2-h educational programme utilising a workbook, discussion group and exercise class was presented for the intervention group, while the control group received usual care. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life. Parametric and non-parametric data were used to determine the equivalence between the groups.

 

Results: Twenty-two participants were randomised to the intervention and 20 to the control group. The control group demonstrated no within-group improvement in health-related quality of life items, compared to significant improvements in two items in the intervention group. The change in median utility score within the intervention group was twice as large as the change in the control group. With regard to self-efficacy, the intervention group demonstrated significant within-group changes in perceived management of fatigue and discomfort.

 

Conclusion: The positive impact of the intervention on the participants suggests that the programme should continue at the clinic in question, but should be presented at a more convenient time for participants who work, as recruitment to the study was less than anticipated. Primary health care systems in South Africa urgently need to put structures in place for effective management of the functional impact of chronic diseases of lifestyle and musculoskeletal conditions. It is time for physiotherapists and possibly other health care professionals to participate in the development of appropriate community level interventions to address the functioning and quality of life of individuals living with the diseases.

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

Efficacy of a Low-cost Multidisciplinary Team-led Experiential Workshop for Public Health Midwives on Dysphagia Management for Children with Cerebral Palsy

HETTIARACHCHI , Shyamani
KITNASAMY, Gopi
MAHENDRAN, Raj
NIZAR, Fathima Shamra
BANDARA, Chamara
GOWRITHARAN, Paramaguru
2019

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Purpose: Over the past decade there has been a growing focus on offering appropriate training to healthcare professionals and caregivers to support safe feeding practices for children with cerebral palsy. Early and consistent multidisciplinary intervention is required to minimise the risks of aspiration pneumonia. The high incidence of complications from aspiration pneumonia among children with cerebral palsy in Sri Lanka has made it necessary to conduct low-cost multidisciplinary team-led dysphagia awareness workshops for healthcare professionals and caregivers.

 

Method: A group of 38 Public Health Midwives (PHMs) was offered an experiential workshop by a small multidisciplinary team (MDT). To determine changes in knowledge, a self-administered questionnaire that included a video-based client scenario was administered pre- and post-workshop. The data were analysed statistically using non-parametric within-participant t-tests.

 

Results: The post-workshop responses to the questionnaire indicated a significant increase in the level of knowledge. This included positive changes in the understanding and knowledge of cerebral palsy (t (37) =-7.44, p=.000), effects of cerebral palsy on eating and drinking skills (t (37) =-3.91, p=.000), positioning (t (37) = -9.85, p=.000), aspiration (t (37) =-3.46, p=.001), food categorisation (t (37), -3.85, p=.000) and client video observation (t (37)-3.91, p=.000) at a p=.05 level of significance. While there was also an increase in the knowledge on general guidelines during mealtimes, this did not reach statistical significance.

 

Conclusion: The low-cost MDT-led experiential workshop was effective in increasing knowledge of feeding and dysphagia-related issues in cerebral palsy among a group of PHMs. This workshop could serve as a model for training PHMs and Community-Health Workers across the country in order to reach the Sustainable Development Goal of ‘good health and well-being’ for children with cerebral palsy and all children experiencing feeding difficulties. Follow-up workshops and continued professional development courses for midwives on dysphagia care are strongly recommended, in addition to collaborative clinical practice.

Mobility Analysis of AmpuTees (MAAT 4): classification tree analysis for probability of lower limb prosthesis user functional potential

WURDEMAN, Shane R
STEVENS, Phillip M
CAMPBELL, James H
2019

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Purpose: 

To develop a predictive model to inform the probability of lower limb prosthesis users’ functional potential for ambulation.

 

Materials and Methods: 

A retrospective analysis of a database of outcomes for 2770 lower limb prosthesis users was used to inform a classification and regression tree analysis. Gender, age, height, weight, body mass index adjusted for amputation, amputation level, cause of amputation, comorbid health status and functional mobility score [Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M™)] were entered as potential predictive variables. Patient K-Level was used to assign dependent variable status as unlimited community ambulator (i.e., K3 or K4) or limited community/household ambulator (i.e., K1 or K2). The classification tree was initially trained from 20% of the sample and subsequently tested with the remaining sample.

 

Results: 

A classification tree was successfully developed, able to accurately classify 87.4% of individuals within the model’s training group (standard error 1.4%), and 81.6% within the model’s testing group (standard error 0.82%). Age, PLUS-M™ T-score, cause of amputation and body weight were retained within the tree logic.

 

Conclusions: 

The resultant classification tree has the ability to provide members of the clinical care team with predictive probabilities of a patient’s functional potential to help assist care decisions.

Development, reliability, and piloting of a wheelchair caster failure inspection tool (C-FIT)

MHATRE, Anand A
LACHELL, Stephanie
PEARLMAN, Jonathan L
2019

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Introduction: 

Wheelchair casters fail frequently in the field causing multiple user consequences and wheelchair breakdowns. To inform caster design improvement, there exists no validated tools that can collect caster failures. This need motivated the development of a user-reported, caster failure inspection tool (C-FIT).

 

Methods: 

To develop C-FIT, a multistep design and testing approach was used which included face validity testing, test-retest reliability testing and expert review. Reliability testing was conducted with two independent cohorts of wheelchair professionals who inspected caster failures physically and online through pictures. The tool was revised based on testing outcomes and expert feedback. For preliminary data collection and evaluating usability, C-FIT was piloted at wheelchair service centers in Scotland, Indonesia and Mexico.

 

Results: 

Caster failure items reported in the literature were screened to develop the initial list of C-FIT items. Face validity testing conducted through surveys with wheelchair experts (n = 6) provided 14 items for C-FIT inclusion. The test-retest reliability was found to be high for 10 items with physical failure inspections (n = 12). For each of these items, 75% or more participants had substantial to almost perfect agreement scores (κ = 0.6–1.0). Lower reliability scores were found with online failure inspections (n = 11). C-FIT received positive usability feedback from study participants and data collectors in the field. Pilot field data (n = 31) included comprehensive details about failures useful for manufacturers, designers and researchers to improve caster designs.

Conclusions: 

The C-FIT tool developed in this study has substantial reliability and can be used for documenting caster failures at wheelchair service centers.

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