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Disability awareness in action : Fund-raising


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Organisations of disabled people need to have the skills to know where to go for funds; manage money well; budget effectively; and have enough money to keep the organisation running smoothly throughout the financial year. This kit gives ideas about an organisation's funding strategy. The kit shows how to raise and use funds for the work of the organisation. It can also help in putting together a funding proposal

A survey of health reform in Central Asia

et al

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This paper surveys health reform in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia, in the aftermath of their independence and transition from the Soviet command economy. Socio-economic, epidomiological and institutional realities face the countries. Section 2 sets out demographic and epidemiological trends, which suggest the scope and priorities for health services. The next section analyzes recent economic performance, highlighting worsening financial constraints. The existing health systems are evaluated in Section 4, centering on their primary strengths and weaknesses. Section 5 addresses critical institutional elements of the reform process, including decentralization and staffing issues. The reform agenda facing health policymakers in Central Asia is then investigated in Section 6, focusing upon empirical and descriptive aspects, in order to provide a reliable basis for discussing future options. Section 7 concludes that the large declines in real health spending signal that each country will have to do more with less. Consequently, current public health programs like maternal and child health programs will need to be restructured; improvement incentives to induce consumers and providors to behave more efficiently will have to be issued; and modorn management and quality assurance systems will have to be introduced. Although the reform debate focuses on financial sustainability, particularly attempts to bring in additional non-budget revenues, equally important is the need to focus on basic public health activities and delivery system restructuring.

Review of the present situation in special needs education


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An overall comparison between the two situations - 1986 and 1993 - reported here and in the previous report allow for some guarded optimism. Most countries provided some information on policies but varied greatly in the amount of detail offered. Special educational provision is more firmly located within regular education, at school and the administrative levels, than before and has greater legislative underpinning. Within the policy statements, themselves, the most common strands related to : developing the individual's potential, integration and necessary steps for implementation. Regarding legislation, most countries did include special needs provision in the same regulatory framework as general education; the most common reason given for excluding particular children was severity of disability. Much remains to be done and there is no room for complacency. Many countries face fiscal and personnel constraints, and maintaining let alone increasing existing investment in special educational provision will not be easy. A word of caution : even where resources are not the central issue, the pressures created by the general school reforms taking place in many countries may reduce the priority given to speical educational provision. However, progress has been made, despite the many difficulties.

Practical issues in HIV testing


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This document examines the role of HIV antibody testing in the context of HIV and AIDS care and prevention strategies. It explores its implications in relation to human rights, competing health priorities in low-resources settings and new technologies. This briefing paper is intended for policy-makers and programme planners