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The outcomes of teenage motherhood in Europe

BERTHOUD, Richard
ROBSON, Karen
July 2001

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This paper analyses the current positions of women whose first child was born when they were teenagers, across 13 countries in the European Union. Outcomes considered include educational attainment, family structure, family employment and household income. Teenage mothers were disadvantaged in all countries, but the severity of their position varied substantially between countries

Expanding and strengthening community action : a study of ways to scale up community mobilization interventions to mitigate the effect of HIV/AIDS on children and families

PHIRI, Stanley Ngalazu
FOSTER, Geoff
NZIMA, Masauso
March 2001

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The purpose of this study is to make a series of recommendations on how to scale up effective, sustainable community mobilization and capacity-building interventions to mitigate the effects of AIDS on children and families in the countries most seriously affected by the pandemic. Recommendations for change are made in two main areas: programmatic methods and approaches; and global, regional, and national efforts to develop and implement effective strategies. The overall conclusion is that to maximize expansion of programming and to keep it effective, it is important that scaling-up programmes support existing scaling-out activities of implementers and promote and build on community-owned initiatives

Measuring social capital : towards a theoretically informed measurement framework for researching social capacity in family and community life

STONE, Wendy
February 2001

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This paper is based on a study carried out in Australia to develop a measurement framework for social capital. It considers relations such as families, neighbours and friends, group and non-group relations, and work associations; and trust and relationship are examined. The study ends with principles for measuring social capital

Starting school : effective transitions

DOCKETT, Sue
PERRY, Bob
2001

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This paper focuses on effective transition-to-school programmes. Using a framework of 10 guidelines developed through the Starting School Research Project, it provides examples of effective strategies and transition programmes.The guidelines argue that effective transition-to-school programmes: establish positive relationships between the children, parents, and educators; facilitate each child's development as a capable learner; differentiate between "orientation-to-school" and "transition-to-school" programmes; draw upon dedicated funding and resources; involve a range of stakeholders; are well planned and effectively evaluated; are flexible and responsive; are based on mutual trust and respect; rely on reciprocal communication among participants; take into account contextual aspects of community and of individual families and children within that community. In this context, the nature of some current transition programmes is questioned, and the curriculum of transition is problematised. In particular, issues are raised around who has input into such programmes and who decides on appropriate curriculum

Investing in our future : psychosocial support for children affected by HIV / AIDS : a case study in Zimbabwe and the United Republic of Tanzania

FOX, Susan
2001

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The HIV/AIDS epidemic has had an enormous impact on children. Coping with the cumulative impact of over 17 million AIDS deaths on orphans and other survivors, on communities, and on national development is an enormous challenge, especially in African countries with social and health services already reeling from lack of human and financial resources. Hence, this report is intended for people concerned about and working with families affected with HIV/AIDS. Through providing examples of successful interventions being undertaken by organizations in Zimbabwe and the United Republic of Tanzania, the report shares experiences of essential psychosocial support to children who are infected and affected by HIV/AIDS to stimulate new awareness of needs and to open new doors for action. Furthermore, it focuses on what can be done for the child of an infected parent before and after the parent dies, to enable the child to cope better with the situation. Thus, this report illustrates how networking between organizations enables them to collaborate in addressing a variety of children's issues that they could not tackle alone

Hepatitis B vaccine introduction : lessons learned in advocacy, communication, and training

WITTLETT, Scott
January 2001

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Hepatitis B is especially dangerous for infants, since they may carry the infection for the rest of their lives without knowing it. Chronic carriers can infect others and are at risk of serious liver disease in later life. However, the hepatitis B vaccine, if provided, helps protect infants against these problems. The vaccine's introduction to developing countries only began in the late 1980s, but many countries still cannot afford to administer the vaccine to all children. This paper summarises the lessons learned about effective advocacy with decision makers, communication with parents and caretakers, and training health staff regarding hepatitis B, gained from over ten years of experience introducing hepatitis B vaccine worldwide. It also includes the WHO 'aide-memoire' on hepatitis B

Deafness : a guide for parents, teachers and community workers

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
2000

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This guide provides basic information on the identification of deafness, importance of sign language and the need of education for deaf children. The guide accompanies the video 'Deafness'. This material is most appropriate for the African context

Helping children who are blind : family and community support for children with vision problems|Ayudar a los niños ciegos : apoyo familiar y comunitario para niños con problemas de la vista

NIEMANN, Sandy
JACOB, Namita
2000

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Children develop faster in the first five years of life than any other time, and children who are blind need extra help so they can learn how to use their other senses to explore, learn and interact with the world. The simple activities in this book can help families, health workers, and individuals to support children with vision impairment to develop their capabilities. Topics include: assessing how much a child can see; preventing blindness; helping a child move around safely; activities of daily living; preparing for childcare or school; and supporting the parents of blind children. The book is written in an easy-to-read style with illustrations and examples from southern countries

4th report on the world nutrition situation : nutrition throughout the life cycle

UNITED NATIONS ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE ON COORDINATION SUB-COMMITTEE ON NUTRITION (ACC/SCN)
January 2000

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"The Fourth Report on the World Nutrition Situation is part of a series of ACC/SCN reports initiated in the mid-1980s on the nutritional status of populations in developing countries. This report is built around the theme ‘nutrition throughout the life cycle’ This report highlights the size of the malnutrition problem and its consequences for human and economic development. It stresses the need to move ahead in creative partnerships. The Fourth Report provides evidence of contrasts - contrasts in the prevalence and trends of malnutrition, contrasts in actions taken, contrasts in progress made, and contrasts in the availability of data on the extent and causes of malnutrition"

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