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Helping children who are deaf : family and community support for children who do not hear well

NIEMANN, Sandy
GREENSTEIN, Devorah
DAVID, Darlena
2004

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This book was written primarily for parents and other caregivers of young children. It provides a wealth of well-illustrated practical information. The book gives a thorough overview of the different ways to communicate with hearing impaired children. It is written in an easy-to-read style with lots of illustrations and examples from Southern countries.

Disability and HIV & AIDS : a participatory rapid assessment of the vulnerability, impact, and coping mechanisms of parents of disabled children on HIV & AIDS

NGANZI, Patrick
MATONHODZE, George
2004

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This study assesses the vulnerability, impact and coping mechanisms of parents of disabled children on HIV/AIDS and suggests strategies for developing an HIV and AIDS programme. Using participatory methodologies of inquiry, the study found that the parents of disabled children are at a higher risk of infection to sexually transmitted infections (STI) and/or HIV and that the risk increases as the parents try to cope with having a disabled child. Therefore, a disabled child in a family acts as one of the pre-disposing factors to the parents' infection and when an infection happens in a home, the quality of care for the very disabled child is compromised causing a vicious cycle of disability and HIV/AIDS at the household level.The study recommends that target-specific interventions should be designed and implemented for the parents of disabled children to address issues of HIV/AIDS and disability, empowerment and gender issues as well as sexual reproductive health

Taking better care? Review of a decade of work with orphans and vulnerable children in Rakai, Uganda

WITTER, Sophie
CALDER, George
AHIMBISIBWE, Timothy
2004

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Taking Better Care looks at the situation facing orphaned and vulnerable children in the Rakai District in Uganda and at the legacy of Save the Children's Child Social Care Project (CSCP) there. The report examines the impact of the CSCP, implemented between 1991 and 1996, and at trends in Rakai since the CSCP ended, as well as outlining the lessons learned and providing recommendations for future action. It concludes that in order to support orphans and vulnerable children in a long-term, sustainable way, child-care models now need to incorporate a maximum of state support and civil society mobilisation, combined with more traditional family support

Beyond the targets : ensuring children benefit from expanded access to HIV/AIDS treatment

INTERNATIONAL SAVE THE CHILDREN ALLIANCE
2004

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This report explores the connections between tackling AIDS and tackling poverty and draws attention to the fact that millions of children affected by HIV and AIDS are in need of care and protection. There is an equally important and parallel agenda of expanding support for the millions of people needing access to treatment for HIV/AIDS. ARV treatment represents a crucial gateway to supporting millions of children yet it is rarely attempted. The report aims to examine the implications of expanded access to HIV/AIDS treatment, as exemplified by the 3 x 5 initiative, for prevention of HIV in children and young people and expanding support and care for orphans and other children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS. Achieving the 3 by 5 goal set by WHO would mean that millions fewer children would lose their parents. Community based, NGO and governmental work could be pre-emptive in supporting children who do become orphaned rather than responding to mitigate impact. There are examples of programme good practice which illustrate the feasibility of developing effective treatment and care programmes and key findings and recommendations are made in the concluding section

State of the world's children 2005 : childhood under threat

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2004

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The latest UNICEF report concentrates on the theme of the quality of a child’s life. There have been significant advances in the fulfillment of children’s rights to survival, health and education through the provision of essential goods and services, and a growing recognition of the need to create a protective environment to shield children from exploitation, abuse and violence since the Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1989. Worryingly, however, in several regions and countries some of these gains appear in danger of reversal from three key threats: poverty, armed conflict and HIV/AIDS. The rights of over 1 billion children are violated because they are severely underserved of at least one or more of the basic goods and services required to survive, grow and develop. Swift and decisive action is required to reduce the poverty that children experience, protect them from armed conflict and support those orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS

CBR : a strategy for rehabilitation, equalization of opportunities, poverty reduction and social inclusion of people with disabilities - joint position paper 2004

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
International Labour Organization (ILO)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
et al
2004

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In 1994 the ILO, WHO and UNESCO published the first version of this joint position paper. Since then progress has been made in several fields. Nevertheless many disabled people are still not reached or included in the fields of rehabilitation, employment or education - particularly disabled women, people with mental health problems or HIV/AIDS and poor disabled people.
This paper underlines that community-based rehabilitation is a strategy promoting multi-sectoral collaboration to reach different community groups. CBR has to be based on the principles of equal opportunities, participation and human rights.

Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa

TINDYEBWA, Denis
et al
2004

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This handbook intends to provide users in resource-poor countries with a tool that can be adapted to their needs. It follows the four principles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and aims to provide a simple, accessible and practical handbook for health workers involved in preventing infection and caring for children infected and affected by HIV. It includes substantial chapters on caring for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, infants and orphans; diagnosis and the clinical stages of HIV infection; clinical conditions associated with HIV (diarrhoea, malnutrition, neurological manifestations, skin manifestations and more); pulmonary conditions; anti-retroviral therapy for children; youth issues, long-term and terminal care planning; psychosocial support. The primary targets are medical students and their lecturers, nurses, clinicians, community health workers and other service providers in resource poor settings where there is a significant HIV and AIDS burden

Gender perspectives in malaria management

DUNN, Alison
2004

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Gender roles and relations within the household are of crucial importance to the management of childhood malaria. Women's access to resources and their bargaining power within the household have a significant influence on their treatment seeking behaviour for children with malaria. The Malaria Knowledge Programme (MKP) supported district level government workers to conduct a situation analysis using qualitative and participatory research methods to explore gender perspectives. This contributes to a growing body of knowledge of the importance of using gender analysis in malaria management

The future will be better : a tracer study of CCF's Early Stimulation Programme in Honduras

DE FIGUEROA, C N
et al
2004

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When planning development programmes for children living in poor communities with few services, all aspects of their lives need to be addressed. This report illustrates the difference a comprehensive programme can make in the lives of the children, their families and even the community as a whole. By studying two villages, one with the programme and one without, this report shows far-reaching effects in many areas. The children who took part in the programme felt emotionally secure; they were well-behaved and mixed well with their peers of both sexes; their health was better than the children of the control group. But above all, the programme children had internalised values and a sense of self - and they had hopes and dreams for the future

Child and family hubs and social capital

TAYLER, Collette
FARRELL, Ann
TENNENT, Lee
2004

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Research shows that social capital (ie social relations, networks based on trust and reciprocity, community groups and social supports) has a positive impact on child welfare and child health. This paper looks at how the integration of services for families and children (Child and Family Hubs) in Australia has the potential to build social capital, particularly in rural areas with limited access to social networks, and the capacity to enhance the well-being of families and children. It outlines key findings of the ACCESS pilot study and the research objectives of the IMPACT study. Although some of the suggestions and analysis need further evidence, this study, with a focus on rural and remote areas, can be applied to developing countries contexts

Reaching out? donor reponses to faith-based organisations in the reponse to HIV/AIDS

WEAVER, Richard
2004

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This briefing paper summarises the complexity of the impact of HIV and AIDS, especially on children; highlights the responses by faith based organisations (FBOs) to those affected by HIV and AIDS; analyses current responses by donors to FBOs in the context of HIV and AIDS; and makes recommendations for the UK's Department for International Development and other donors to ensure that those working effectively at a local level are provided with appropriate support. The focus is on organisations with a Christian basis of faith, although it is acknowledged that FBOs with other faith bases also carry out valuable work

Family and community practices that promote child survival, growth and development : a review of the evidence

HILL, Zelee
KIRKWOOD, Betty
EDMOND, Karen
2004

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This technical review paper presents the evidence for twelve key practices, identified by UNICEF and WHO to be of key importance in providing good home-care for the child to prevent or treat the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness conditions, in order to ensure survival, reduce morbidity, and promote healthy growth and development. The twelve key practices are: immunisation, breastfeeding, complementary feeding, micronutrients, hygiene, treated bed nets, food and fluids, home treatment, care-seeking, adherence, stimulation, and antenatal care. The paper has 3 objectives: 1. To summarise the available evidence 2. to identify gaps in knowledge 3. To make recommendations concerning next steps and priority-setting for both programme action and research

Inter-agency guiding principles on unaccompanied and separated children

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC)
et al
January 2004

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This publication outlines the guiding principles which form the basis for action when children are unaccompanied, become separated from their families or other adults who they know, or are orphaned in disaster situations, armed conflicts or other crises. The guiding principles are intended primarily for national, international and non-governmental organizations and other associations concerned with separated children. They are also designed to assist governments and donors in meeting their obligations and taking funding decisions

Mali : traditional knowledge and the reduction of maternal and infant mortality

SANOGO, Rokia
GIANI, Sergio
November 2003

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IK Notes report on indigenous knowledge initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa and occasionally on such initiatives outside the region. It is published by the World Bank Africa region’s Knowledge and Learning Centre as part of an evolving partnership between the World Bank, communities, NGOs, development institutions and multilateral organisations. This edition outlines the high rate of maternal and infant mortality in Mali, despite interventions by the government and donors in the past ten years. It then outlines the methodology used in developing a close collaboration between the traditional system of assistance to pregnancy and childbirth (of which traditional birth assistants (TBAs) are the protagonists) and the modern system of management of obstetrical emergencies. This involved a new role for the TBAs in breaking down cultural barriers in access to modern health care. The first results appear promising, and the authors stress the importance of taking into account traditional knowledge in birthing practices when developing a national strategy for the control of maternal and infant mortality

Africa : memory boxes help to say goodbye

INTEGRATED REGIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS (IRIN)
October 2003

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The article emphasises the principal use of memory boxes as a means for parents living with HIV to leave personal mementos, advice and small tokens for their children as a means of helping them overcome their loss and foster a sense of resilience, so they may approach the future more confidently. Memory boxes are shown to be a generic, replicable, low cost tool for community participation which help to create family/community psychosocial networks, effectively providing counselling on a large scale. This community approach gives participants a sense of ownership of the project and allows it to be adapted to local needs, which is important to its overall success

From car park to children's park : a childcare centre in development

WUNSCHEL, Gerda
July 2003

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This working paper illustrates the "Situationsansatz" pedagogical framework, as implemented at Kita, a childcare centre in Berlin. The emphasis is on children's environments, children's participation and optimal learning. The key principles of the "Contextual Child Development Approach" include: recognising the learning potential of diverse cultural heritages and intercultural interaction, developing close relations with the social environment and adopting an open planning process, with the contribution of children, parents and other adults. Includes an appendix, which briefly outlines the guidelines for working with the Contextual Child Development Approach in childcare centres

Orphans and vulnerable children in India : understanding the context and the response

GOLDMAN, Judith
ANASTASI, Marie-Christine
June 2003

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A report from a meeting for exchange and learning between organisations working with orphans and vulnerable children in India, looking community responses to working with this group. The experience of Plan International, Palmyrah Workers Development Society and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance was presented to the meeting. Specific responses to working with orphans and vulnerable children discussed in the report include lessons from a child participatory approach, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and the development of community action

Microfinance and households coping with HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe : an exploratory study

BARNES, Carolyn
et al
June 2003

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This study, conducted in Zimbabwe, sought to better understand the relationship between a microfinance programme, Zambuko Trust, and how microentrepreneurs’ households cope with the impact of HIV & AIDS. The study also examined how HIV & AIDS is affecting Zambuko’s operations and what microfinance institutions can do to lessen the impact of HIV & AIDS on their clients and operations

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