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Helping children after a disaster

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
2005

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A short fact-sheet for parents to alert them to the signs that their child might be suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder following a disaster

The memory work trainer's manual : supporting families affected by HIV and AIDS

HEALTHLINK WORLDWIDE
NATIONAL COMMUNITY OF WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN UGANDA (NACWOLA)
2005

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This manual guides trainers through a course to support parents, guardians and carers affected by HIV and AIDS, by helping them to share information, hopes and fears with their children; strengthen each child's sense of identity and belonging; plan for the future care of their children. The course is designed to be delivered to: parents and other family members living with HIV and AIDS; future guardians of children affected by HIV and AIDS; community workers and volunteers working with children and families affected by HIV and AIDS. The manual draws significantly on the experiences and ideas of NACWOLA trainers and trainees, as well as those of Healthlink Worldwide and others. The course consists of 12 modules, covering child development, parenting, communication between parents, carers, guardians and children, HIV status disclosure, coping with separation, loss and grief, planning for children's future, involving children in planning, preparation for new care arrangements, making a memory book, and related legal aspects

Guidelines for reducing stigma and discrimination and enhanacing care and support for people living with HIV and AIDS

KHAN, Naira
LOEWENSON, Rene
2005

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In many communities, stigma and fear of discrimination often exacerbate the impact of the AIDS epidemic and prevent people living with HIV (PLWH) from accessing support services. This document, commissioned by SANASO, and incorporating inputs from faith-based organisations, union representatives, people living with HIV and the media, examines how to address stigma and discrimination in key settings of social life, such as the family, the workplace, faith-based organisations, and the media. It suggests good practices, policies or behavioural changes which should foster a supportive environment for PLWH and improve the general response to HIV and AIDS

Psychosocial support for families of children with autism

GUPTA, Ashum
SINGHAL, Nidhi
2005

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[Author's abstract]: This paper draws attention to the stress levels and coping strategies used, in the families of children with autism. Differences in the stressors perceived and coping strategies adopted by the father, mother and siblings of a child with autism have been discussed. Given that pre-intervention parental stress levels predict the success of early intervention programmes and determine the prognosis, the paper highlights the importance as well as the lack of providing psychosocial support to the families of children with autism. The authors have illustrated various ways of delivering effective support services for parents. The article progresses from child-centred, professional dependence for service delivery to developing strategies that are family centred and encourage active participation of parents of children with autism themselves. The paper also draws attention to the prevailing scenario of autism in India.

Prepared for kindergarten : what does "readiness" mean?

ACKERMAN, Debra J
BARNETT, W Steven
2005

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Stakeholders at the local, state and federal levels agree that a child's future academic success is dependent on being ready to learn and participate in a successful kindergarten experience. But it can be difficult to define "readiness". Due to their different prekindergarten education experiences and irregular and episodic development, children enter kindergarten with widely varying skills, knowledge, and levels of preparedness. Parents and teachers also have differing expectations for what children should know and be able to do before starting kindergarten. Furthermore, discussions of readiness do not always include how schools and communities can enhance and support children's kindergarten readiness, no matter what their socioeconomic status, home language background, or skill level. This policy brief addresses what we know about readiness and how it may be improved

Community-based foster homes in Ethiopia : an account of a follow-up experience ten years after phase out

JAREG, Elizabeth
2005

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The study in this report arises from the context of famine and war, and is Save the Children Norway’s contribution. It presents an overview of the context and background of the community-based foster homes project in Ethiopia and describes in details its development and implementation. It then presents the findings and lessons learnt from the follow-up of children placed in community-based foster homes in 2001. These include, among others, include: the necessity for long-term protection and follow-up; the importance of recognising that children relate to persons, not organisations; the importance of foster mothers’ relationships with the community; the importance of strong networks among children and children’s active participation; systematic monitoring. Lessons learnt and insights can be useful to those working with orphans and children without parental care. Lessons learnt can also be applied to the context of HIV and AIDS

Educational completion rates and achievement : implications for Ethiopia’s second poverty reduction strategy (2006-10)

WOLDEHANNA, Tassew
JONES, Nicola
TEFERA, Bekele
2005

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This paper addresses some of the key factors affecting children's education completion rates and achievement scores. It looks at the relative importance of the school and family environment and individual child characteristics in determining child grade completion or drop out at primary school; the relative importance of investment in school quality in determining students educational achievement; and the extent to which the Education Sector Development Programme reflects the determinants of children's primary school completion rates and educational achievement scores

Education choices in Ethiopia : what determines whether poor households send their children to school?

WOLDEHANNA, Tassew
et al
2005

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This paper attempts to establish a link between micro-level outcomes and macro-level policy initiatives with respect to eight-year-old children’s primary school enrolment in Ethiopia. The paper uses data from a 2002 survey of 1000 rural and urban households with eight-year-old children sampled from food insecure communities in Tigray, Amhara, Oromia, SNNP and Addis Ababa Regional States

AIDS and the family : policy options for a crisis in family capital

BELSEY, Mark A
2005

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This document highlights the role of family members in the care and support of peole living with HIV and addresses the issues and challenges of HIV and AIDS from a family perspective. There is information about HIV and AIDS and how the disease impacts family situations, focusing upon case studies in Sub-Saharan African countries. This report would be useful for people interested in the impact of HIV and AIDS on family members

UNICEF and WHO call for stronger support for the implementation of the joint United Nations HIV and infant feeding framework

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
December 2004

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This call for support aims to strengthen plans to help women who may be HIV positive to choose the right feeding option for their child. A framework has been created by the UN which recognises that special attention and practical support is needed in exceptionally difficult circumstances, including the presence of HIV. The framework outlines five priority areas

Families as primary partners in their child's development and school readiness

HEPBURN, Kathy Seitzinger
December 2004

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The purpose of this toolkit is to provide guidance, resource materials and references that will assist communities in working with families as partners in their child's development and school readiness. By recognizing and building the capacity of parents as their child's first educators and engaging parents as decision makers for their child and leaders in the agencies and organizations that serve them, communities can strengthen families and support young children being ready for school. Part 1 explores aspects of: parent education and parents as a child's first teachers; parent education models, including home-visiting and site-based programmes; professional and paraprofessional preparation to deliver parent education services; and programme outcomes and evaluation. Part 2 investigates: parent involvement as decision makers and in leadership roles; policies and standards that support parents as leaders; parent and provider/professional preparation for and engagement in collaborative leadership; and sustaining collaborative leadership. The intent is to support a holistic approach and encourage parents as primary partners across all systems that serve young children and their families and help young children grow up healthy, develop well, and enter school ready to learn. The toolkit includes tip lists, check lists and comprehensive thematic lists of annotated resources

Succession planning in Uganda : early outreach for AIDS-affected children and their families

HORIZONS
MAKERERE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY
PLAN, UGANDA
December 2004

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This is the report on an intervention study that evaluated the effectiveness of a succession planning programme in Uganda. The programme works with children and their families while their HIV-positive parents are still living and in a position to plan for their children’s long-term well-being. The focus of this report is on the impact of the succession planning intervention on HIV-positive parents’ and standby guardians’ efforts to prepare for the future of children who will experience parental loss. The report also presents findings on the impact of the programme on children and discusses the programme and policy implications of the research

I'm a teenager : what happened to my rights?

HALFORD, Stuart
et al
November 2004

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This book covers 15 issues affecting the world's young people, such as sexual exploitation, child labour, crime and punishment, HIV and AIDS, and early marriage and motherhood. Chapter 13 deals with issues facing disabled youth including prejudice, abuse and lack of education. The book describes Plan International's work around the world addressing youth issues

Antiretroviral roll-out in South Africa : where do children feature?

SHUNG-KING, Maylene
ZAMPOLI, Marco
August 2004

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This is a discussion paper on South Africa's 2003 roll out plan for the 'Comprehensive Care and Treatment for HIV and AIDS' and its implementation. It considers how the plan addresses children's needs and assesses its weaknesses, particularly in relation to the topic of ART for HIV-infected children. The paper laments that children's specific needs are not adequately dealt with, stressing that a comprehensive, child-oriented approach must give consideration to the mother-infant relationship and acknowledge that the health of the mother is a necessary component of the well-being of children. The plan also fails to consider the issues of children in residential care facilities, counselling needs of children, the specific difficulties associated with testing and diagnosing babies and children, and aspects of drug availability and treatment adherence in children. The paper concludes with recommendations designed to help policy making, service delivery and advocacy strategies. In particular the document calls for child-specific attention in areas of monitoring, adherence and drug provision, recommends that greater emphasis is placed on children's needs in the upscaling of ART provision, particularly through primary health care services, and that watchdog bodies and children's rights organisations take a more active role

Children on the brink 2004 : a joint report of new orphan estimates and a framework for action

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
USAID
July 2004

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Millions of children are growing up without parents. Millions more are in households with family members sick or dying from AIDS; children in sub-Saharan Africa have been hardest hit. This report presents the latest statistics on historical, current and projected numbers of children under 18 who have been orphaned by AIDS and other causes. This edition of the biennial report underscores the changing needs of this vulnerable group as they progress through adolescence and calls for the urgent development and expansion of family and community support

Childcare and early childhood development programmes and policies : their relationship to eradicating child poverty

PENN, Helen
June 2004

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The paper explores paradigms, arguments and evidence on which international agencies draw in discussing early childhood development (ECD). These include assumptions about poverty and the role of ECD in reducing poverty, assumptions about ‘the robustness’ of ECD and the contexts in which ECD takes place. Two case studies, one from Swaziland and one from Kazakhstan are used to explore strengths and limitations. The paper concludes that almost all the evidence for the effectiveness of ECD in determining cognitive, social and economic outcomes is drawn either directly from the North, particularly from the USA, or relies on assumptions drawn from work carried out in the North as a basis for recommendations in the South. The paper points out that ECD may be a useful form of practical relief to mitigate childhood poverty in particular circumstances and this could include children affected by HIV/AIDS. There is a section on page 35 on early childhood development and HIV/AIDs. Other vulnerable children are noted as those with time poor mothers and those in situations of war and conflict

The transition to kindergarten : a review of current research and promising practices to involve families

BOHAN-BAKER, Marielle
LITTLE, Priscilla M D
April 2004

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The brief begins with an overview of the concept of transition and its importance to school success. It then examines transition practices that focus on families, considering both practices and key players in implementation; it includes examples of promising transition practices that involve families. It concludes with the presentation of a framework for the development of school and programme transition teams that value family involvement

Expanding contraceptive options and access for youth

SCHOLL, Ed
FINGER, William
March 2004

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In a time when young people are increasingly at risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, the role of contraception in preventing these is crucial. This issue of YouthLens looks at how education, services and products can help protect youth against unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. It stresses that young people should be targeted with appropriate messages

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