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Impact of socio-economic rehabilitation on leprosy stigma in Northern Nigeria: findings of a retrospective study

EBENSO, Bassey
FASHONA, Aminat
AYUBA, Mainas
IDAH, Mike
ADEYEMI, Gbemiga
S-FADA, Shehu
2007

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This study explored the perceptions of people affected by leprosy regarding impact of socio-economic rehabilitation (SER) on stigma-reduction. The study combined a quantitative questionnaire (the P-scale) with semi-structured interviews of 20 individual SER participants, five focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews. The P-scale results showed four men suffered significant participation restrictions (scores of >12 points) in finding work and in social integration. The narratives of SER participants, focus groups and key informants showed that SER improved self-esteem, financial independence, acquisition of new skills, and access to public institutions. The authors speculate that through the pathway of improvements in economic and living conditions, SER is beginning to influence the process of social interaction, resulting in positive attitudinal change towards SER participants. The subjective opinions of interviewees suggest that improved self-esteem, positive family and community support for SER participants and increasing participation in community activities are indications of stigma-reduction.

 

Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 18, No 2

Caring for children affected by HIV and AIDS

United Nations Childrens' Fund (UNICEF) Innocenti Research Centre (IRC)
November 2006

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This paper highlights the urgent need to support families and communities to care for children orphaned by HIV & AIDS. It looks at how the epidemic undermines children's health and schooling

Weak promise on HIV/AIDS [whole issue]

August 2006

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This issue focuses on HIV and AIDS and ageing and considers the effects of the epidemic on the elderly. Articles look at how parents provide care during illness to their children with little formal support in Cambodia, explore the experience of older people affected by HIV in dealing with grief in Tanzania, and report on the work of 'Empathy clubs' for older women caring for children with HIV in Vietnam

Africa's orphaned and vulnerable generations : children affected by AIDS

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
August 2006

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This is an update of an earlier report 'Africa's orphaned generations' (2003) which incorporates new and refined estimates of the number of children orphaned in sub-Saharan Africa and the impact of AIDS and orphaning. While the situation is complex, this report provides information on the circumstances of children affected by the AIDS epidemic with an aim to encouraging action

Reflecting on social roles : identifying opportunities to support personal freedom and social integration

O’BRIEN, John
June 2006

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The purpose of this resource is to "to encourage thoughtful discussion of the meaning of ‘least restrictive and most integrated’ as criteria for service adequacy. With this tool, multiple dimensions of a person's life can be examined, including: home and neighbourhood, family and friends, work, learning, spiritual and religious, community association, sports and fitness, and creative expression"
Version 1

Alternative forms of care for children without parental care : prospects, challenges and opportunities in developing community based care strategies in India

VOORST, Annemiek van
May 2006

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This paper presents an overview of the debate on children without parental care and possible models of care, including: out-of-home care, child-headed households, informal care by family members or others, formal foster care by family members or others, residential facilities, transit centres, and placement abroad. It outlines the UNICEF and UNAIDS framework for collective action, which considers families and communities as the foundation of an effective, scaled-up response to the increase in the number of orphans and vulnerable children all over the world. It calls for strengthening the coping capacities of families, supporting community-based responses, ensuring access for children without parental care to essential services, promoting adequate government policies and raising awareness through advocacy and social mobilisation

Social capital and transnational South Asian families : rituals, care and provision

MAND, Kanwal
March 2006

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This paper looks at social capital in the context of migration. It challenges the view that critical processes of social changes such as migration undermine and weaken social capital assets. It shows how transnational networks are strengthened and maintained, and social norms enhanced and replicated as a coping strategy in times of social changes. The paper focuses in particular on family ties, ethnicity, gender, household, care and provision. Some of the conclusions may be applied to other contexts, such as emergency situations, conflict situations and contexts of particular hardship

The care economy : gender and the silent AIDS crisis in Southern Africa

URDANG, Stephanie
March 2006

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This article considers the impact of AIDS on women’s roles and responsibilities within the household ‘care economy’. In particular, it emphasises that all interventions aimed at reversing the AIDS epidemic need to take into account the excessive work-load that members of the household, usually women, shoulder in responding to the needs of sick family members. Most notably, gender equality and care economy issues need to be identified by development programmes. There is also a need to implement policies that focus on issues such as treatment, prevention, education, economic empowerment and violence against women. The article argues that unless the care economy and the relations of gender inequality within the household are included in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of such interventions, results will be compromised

Grandmothers promote maternal and child health : the role of indigenous knowledge systems' managers

AUBEL, Judi
February 2006

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IK Notes report on indigenous knowledge initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa and occasionally on such initiatives outside the region. It is published by the World Bank Africa region's Knowledge and Learning Centre as part of an evolving partnership between the World Bank, communities, NGOs, development institutions and multilateral organisations. This edition outlines the role of grandmothers as 'managers' of indigenous knowledge systems that deal with the development, care and well being of women and their children. The paper outlines a rationale for involving grandmothers in community programmes based around child and maternal health, and nutrition

Child first, migrant second : ensuring that every child matters

CRAWLEY, Heaven
February 2006

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This paper attempts to address the growing tension between family law, policy and practice and immigration law, policy and practice. The paper claims that this tension 'is closely associated with the politicisation of asylum and immigration policy and the growing use of the welfare state as a tool for controlling immigration'. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of recent changes in asylum and immigration law and practice on children subject to immigration control, which increasingly look at immigrant children, first as immigrants and second as children. It focuses on four areas of experiences: policy and practice around separated asylum seeking children; the use of poverty and detention as instruments for controlling families, and the implications for the children; the implications of current policy on trafficked children; the invisibility of privately fostered children. This paper is aimed at policy makers, judges, practitioners and social workers who routinely come into contact with children subject to immigration control

Index for inclusion : developing play, learning and participation in early years and childcare

BOOTH, Tony
AINSCOW, Mel
KINGSTON, Denise
2006

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"The Index is a detailed set of materials to help settings increase the participation of young children in play and learning. The Index involves a self-review of all aspects of a setting, drawing on additional help as needed. It encourages the involvement in inclusive development of all practitioners, volunteers, management committee/governors, children, young people and their parents/carers. Actions to assist inclusion are prioritised and a development plan is drawn up, implemented and reviewed using the Index materials. These changes are sustained in the setting as the process progresses annually"
A CD Rom and an Index for Inclusion insert for early years and childcare are available when the resource is purchased from the publisher

Fuel for life : household energy and health

REHFUESS, Eva
Ed
2006

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This document draws attention to the impact on public health of household energy practices, and of the use of traditional fuels such as wood, dung and coal. Section 1 looks in some detail at household energy, indoor pollution and health. Section 2 considers the implications of the Millennium Development Goals for household energy, focusing on women and children. Section 3 suggests alternative ways forward, supporting the use of clean fuel, greater investments in household energy and the designing of effective energy programmes

Maternal social capital and child wellbeing in comparative perspective

HARPHAM, Trudy
et al
2006

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This working paper looks at how social capital may help mothers to know, think, do and feel more or differently, and how this, as a result, could impact positively on children's welfare. Young Lives have been involved in a cross-country review and measurement of social capital manifestations and this paper draws on some of the findings, reviewing current debates, describing YL's methodology and providing a comparative analysis of social capital in relation to various aspects of child wellbeing, including nutritional status, health performance and educational attainments

Disability and social change : a South African agenda

WATERMEYER, Brian
et al
2006

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This book has been produced to promote the social rights of people with disabilities. It presents extensive research on the South African context of disability and society and draws upon contributions from a diverse range of specialists in the field. A key aim of the text is to unite the disability movement in South Africa through research discourse, as a means to drive processes of social change. Key sections of the book cover: theoretical approaches to disability; governmental and societal responses to disability; disability and education; disability poverty and social security; disability and service provision; disability and human spaces. This book would be of interest to anybody working in the fields of disability, development and social inclusion

HIV/AIDS, stigma, denial, fear and discrimination: experiences and responses from African and Caribbean communities in Toronto

The African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario (ACCHO)
HIV Social, Behavioural and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Toronto
2006

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This is the report of a study which explores the experiences of HIV positive people from Africa and the Caribbean who are living in Toronto; and the experiences and perspectives of people from these communities at large, through interviews and focus groups. The study seeks to understand HIV-related stigma, discrimination, denial and fear, and how these impact on responses to HIV, including testing, treatment and support. Recommendations from participants include, the need for greater sensitivity and knowledge among health care providers, more ethnoculturally-appropriate services, education campaigns and community development measures. The report would be of interest to people living with HIV and AIDS, physicians, policy makers, service providers, family members, friends and the general public

Scaling up access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support: the next steps

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
2006

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This is a review of country and regional consultations undertaken by UNAIDS, following the United Nations' Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS in June 2006. It explores barriers to UNAIDS' commitment to ensure universal access to comprehensive HIV prevention programmes, treatment, care and support by 2010; and it identifies the next steps that need to be taken for this to become a reality. The key messages are the need for: supportive and protective legislation and programmes to ensure the rights of people living with HIV, women and most-at-risk populations; predictable and sustainable funding for all credible AIDS plans; more trained health care professionals and improved health care systems; and affordable medication, testing and prevention programmes. The review also examines the role of civil society and of faith-based organisations in supporting people with HIV through treatment compliance, prevention, support, care and reducing stigma. It recommends that the high level of response should continue, that targets need to be set and accountability mechanisms improved

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